%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522022047+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522022047+01'00') /Title (England under the Stuarts) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4317 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nearly a century after G.M. Trevelyan's )] TJ ET BT 228.776 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 355.112 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was first published in 1904, Routledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has issued this very welcome reprint, with a new introduction by John Morrill. I found re-reading the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an immensely pleasurable experience. It is very much a product of the Edwardian era, and reveals many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attitudes that were characteristic of that period; but it is also the creation of a remarkable and distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar who became by far the most widely read British historian of his generation. Throughout, the power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richness and eloquence of the writing struck me much more forcefully than those areas in which a century of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further research has inevitably overtaken some of its interpretations. The book repays reading both as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and as history, and it thus presents a double challenge and a double reward: the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view seventeenth-century England through early twentieth-century eyes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan was aged just 28 when )] TJ ET BT 200.312 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 326.648 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published. He had already produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in the Age of Wycliffe)] TJ ET BT 181.004 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1899, which was an extended version of the dissertation that had won him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1898. He resigned that Fellowship in 1903 and moved to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, where he became active in Liberal politics, helped to found and edit a progressive journal entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Independent Review)] TJ ET BT 148.652 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and continued to lecture once or twice a week at the Working Men's College in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 November, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Macaulay Trevelyan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41527785)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(546.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415277853/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David L. Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Ormond Street, as he had done since 1899. )] TJ ET BT 275.300 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 401.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( grew out of that teaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and it originally appeared in November 1904 as the first volume in a new Methuen 'History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England' series edited by Sir Charles Oman. It has had an exceptionally long life. It reached its twenty-first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition in 1949; it was first published in paperback in 1965, and that edition was subsequently reprinted five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times. Apart from one extensive revision in 1925, the text has remained essentially unaltered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a general sense, the book is an expression of the age in which it was written. It is as assured and certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of itself as King Edward VII; as rooted in a rural idyll as the National Trust \(founded in 1895\) of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan was a devoted supporter; and as evocative of a particular vision of Englishness as the music of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan's close friend and contemporary at Trinity College, Cambridge, Ralph Vaughan Williams. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically, )] TJ ET BT 95.336 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 221.672 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reflects the Whiggish values that Trevelyan had imbibed from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early age. Blair Worden has called him 'the twentieth century's most influential inheritor of the moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig tradition'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.508 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.508 626.259 m 123.500 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.500 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His father, Sir George Otto Trevelyan, had been an MP and minister in all five Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, while his great-uncle, whose surname he bore as his own middle name, was the historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Babington Macaulay. Their Whiggish outlook, which Trevelyan inherited, pervades the book: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes through in his sympathy for Parliaments rather than monarchs, and for Puritans and nonconformists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than Anglicans; it accounts for his hostility towards Catholicism and the established Church and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to get inside Civil War Royalism; and it underpins his sense of the ways in which England's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development during the seventeenth century diverged from that of most continental states. As John Morrill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues in his perceptive introduction, the book is also profoundly Whiggish in its willingness to project the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values of the present back onto the past, and to celebrate the past for what it has contributed to the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, events are interpreted in the light of this Whiggish view of English constitutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious history. Here, for example, is Trevelyan's assessment of the New Model Army's victory in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War in 1646:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It had secured forever that monarchy in England should not be a despotism. Our island had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been cut free from the political history of the continent. No King should ever triumph here by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sword. When royalty was restored, it was restored by the restoration of Parliament. And )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because under a Parliamentary rule, however intolerant it may be for a while, every religious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political party has hope of asserting sooner or later its place in the national life, there never )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been that exodus of freemen from England, that abandonment of the hope of liberty, which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have followed the armed victory of Charles I. \(pp. 258-9\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan returns to these themes in the magisterial peroration with which the book closes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So the principle of religious Toleration triumphed in England, though many generations passed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before it developed into that of religious equality . At a time when the Continent was falling a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prey to despots, the English under the Stuarts had achieved their emancipation from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchical tyranny by the act of the national will; in an age of bigotry, their own divisions had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced them into religious Toleration against their real wish; while personal liberty and some )] TJ ET BT 64.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of free speech and writing had been brought about by the balance of two great parties. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Never perhaps in any century have such rapid advances been made towards freedom. \(pp. 497-8\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such judgements rest on a conviction that the seventeenth century made a decisive contribution in guiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England towards a better future, by which Trevelyan would have meant one marked by the greater liberty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom and toleration, guaranteed by parliamentary government, that he perceived in his own time. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premises on which his argument was based were thus not only anachronistic and teleological; they also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rested on a profound sense of progress and the distinctiveness of English historical development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, key historical personalities or groups are consistently evaluated in relation to whether, and how far )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.5077 626.5735 123.4997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they promoted or resisted these forces of progress. Thus James I could not 'distinguish the great currents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion and the main tide of political force, from the bright, shallow eddies that catch and please a monarch's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye', and at the beginning of his reign 'all the main causes that twice combined to drive the Stuarts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne, were in three fatal years set in motion by an overwise King'. \(pp. 72-3\) Charles I sought to promote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('an encroaching and un-English tyranny' \(p. 173\), while if James II had remained king 'we could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtained that union of parties, and that strong monarchical administration on behalf of national and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary ideals, on which depended the future progress of England and the immediate salvation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England'.\(p. 428\) By contrast, Cromwell 'well understood that the true method of progress is to realize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best which can obtain general consent, rather than to establish the very best by force'.\(p. 270\) These verdicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on individual figures correspond exactly with Trevelyan's sympathies towards particular groups of people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He argues that 'the character and public spirit of the Commons under James and Charles I were higher than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in . subsequent periods of our history . As an opposition, no assembly of men at once so shrewd and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalwart ever met to resist the abuse of power.'\(p. 96\) There is a remarkable passage in the chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration, in which Trevelyan suggests a direct connection between the resilience of Puritanism after 1660 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the emergence of English national identity and achievement:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To the devout Englishman, much as he might love the Prayer Book service and hate the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissenters, the core of religion was the life of family prayer and Bible study, which the Puritans )] TJ ET BT 64.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had for a hundred years struggled not in vain to make the custom of the land. The self-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrained and melancholy strength of individual purpose which armed the English to surpass all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations in economic and industrial enterprise, the struggle towards purity, the deep and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous affections which freed and ennobled family life, these habits of body and mind were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not wholly cast aside by the people, whatever might be the case with the governors at Whitehall. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 330\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, Trevelyan has much less time for those whom he sees as obstructing the tide of progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, by extension, impeding England's national development. In particular, he never really gets inside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists of the 1640s because his own attitudes leave him unable to explain why so many people should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have sided with forces that he believed were running counter to those of progress. It is notable that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Royalism associates it with looking backwards rather than forwards: it reflected 'the old-world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals and associations of kingship', and to many Royalists 'the world seemed still the same as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noontide of Elizabeth'.\(p. 222\) If Puritanism was about the future, Royalism was about the past; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical thrust of Trevelyan's argument leaves the reader in no doubt as to where his own sympathies lay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan's political and religious values were closely associated with a deep sense of Englishness that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in his somewhat idealised, almost elegiac, depiction of English society and the English landscape. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He celebrated - and lamented the passing of - a world that was already long lost even in 1904. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages are especially frequent in the first two chapters, which offer a panorama of England in the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the seventeenth century. Take this, for example:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the single exception of London, the largest cities were still country towns, where the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central market cross was never a mile from the orchards and fruit gardens that clustered outside )] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grey stone battlements, filled the empty moat, encompassed the new white suburb beyond, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and led down by pleasant paths to the open cornfield country. \(p. 48\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or this:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A love of beauty, since disappeared, was native to the English of every class. In each village, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oak furniture for farm and cottage was carved into pleasing forms, which now win the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admiration of connoisseurs. The commonest objects - the family-coach, the beer-jug, the lintel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the door, or the sign that hung over it - had the touch of natural taste, and often of true artistic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort. But the sense of beauty was perhaps best shown in the pleasure taken by all classes in a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native music. \(p. 49\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is powerfully evocative writing, and it is touched by a combination of warmth and wistfulness that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises it above the level of mere sentimentality. It is highly characteristic of a man who loved the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape and whose principal recreation lay in lengthy country walks, often of thirty or forty miles or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more. This was also a man who was an influential member of the Council of the National Trust from 1926 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1961, Vice-Chairman of the Trust's Executive Committee \(1929-46\) and Chairman of the Estates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee \(1928-49\), and who wrote )] TJ ET BT 218.660 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Must England's Beauty Perish?)] TJ ET BT 370.220 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on behalf of the Trust in 1929. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan's deep identification with England is further apparent in his constant usage of 'we' and 'our' with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to England and the English, in a way that assumes a social and political cohesion that would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unthinkable today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As will be evident from the passages already quoted, much of Trevelyan's power as an historian stems from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his extraordinary effectiveness as a stylist. David Cannadine has written that Trevelyan produced 'passages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of greater lyrical beauty and poetic feeling than any other historian in the English language' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.760 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.760 545.235 m 489.752 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.752 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality is apparent even in a relatively early work such as )] TJ ET BT 312.956 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 439.292 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The prose is crisp, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegant and fluent, with a natural sense of narrative pace and suspense that grips the reader's attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan's writing has a theatrical quality that enables him to evoke dramatic set-piece occasions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly vividly. One example will suffice, and is worth quoting at length. This is his wonderful account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Charles I's attempted arrest of the Five Members of the Commons on 4 January 1642:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Commons, who had known for two hours, by a message from the Queen's ill-chosen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidante, Lady Carlisle, what such a procession would mean, sent off the five members by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water to the City. Then came a cry and scuffle of frightened tradesmen closing their booths in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Hall; the noise of an armed multitude entering confusedly with shouts heralding )] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approach of its chief; a rush of steps and clank of swords across the great hall and up the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stairs into the lobby; last of all, as the door of the House of Commons itself was flung open, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's voice, bidding his followers stand outside on pain of death. Then Charles, with the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young Elector Palatine behind him, entered the room. He passed to the Speaker's chair between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rows of silent, standing members. From that point of vantage he soon satisfied himself that his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('birds were flown', and after no discourteous language walked back as he had come, while the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cry 'Privilege, privilege', rose behind him as he went. All this time the door had been, with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insolent suggestion, held open from without, displaying a crowd in the lobby armed to the teeth, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cocking pistols and uttering wanton threats of slaughter. \(p. 213\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the hallmarks of Trevelyan's mature style are already in evidence here, even though he was writing while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still only in his late twenties: a powerful grasp of human drama unfolding within a strongly delineated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical setting; a feeling for the immediacy, excitement and uncertainty of events; a sharp eye for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling detail; and a superlative capacity to bring the past alive by recounting a riveting story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those stylistic qualities help to explain Trevelyan's aptitude for, and lifelong interest in, military history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the most compelling sections in )] TJ ET BT 232.352 144.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 358.688 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are the accounts of battles of the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars \(Chapters 8-9\) and the War of the Spanish Succession \(Chapter 15\). His treatments of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagements are unfailingly compact and vigorous, with a particularly strong sense of action unfolding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a specific landscape and location. The chapter on Anne's reign and the War of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Succession in part prefigures the great masterpiece of Trevelyan's maturity, his trilogy on )] TJ ET BT 466.100 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen Anne)] TJ ET BT 92.996 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London; Longman & Co., 1930-4\). His style is ideally suited to describing the interplay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between domestic politics, international diplomacy and military developments, and his control of a complex )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.7597 545.5495 489.7517 557.4295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fast-moving narrative is masterly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fluency of his writing was no doubt assisted by the fact that Trevelyan had not had to absorb the vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature that has appeared on this period of English history since 1904. John Morrill convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies the works that served as the bedrock for Trevelyan's account: S. R. Gardiner's great history for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1603-56, and then Burnet and Macaulay for the period after 1660. To these, Trevelyan added a good range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of printed primary sources, especially contemporary letters, diaries and memoirs. These foundations help to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain a certain unevenness in his coverage. For example, he is notably weak on the later 1650s. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period after Gardiner's history ends in 1656, and Trevelyan was writing a few years before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of C. H. Firth's )] TJ ET BT 165.848 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Years of the Protectorate)] TJ ET BT 331.520 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1909: the result is probably the thinnest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least satisfactory section of the whole book, with just a single sentence on the offer of the kingship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell, for example \(p. 296\). Whereas 35 pages \(pp. 368-403\) are devoted to the years 1678-81, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1654-60 is covered in just 23 \(pp. 293-316\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given how much research has been done on seventeenth-century England since Trevelyan wrote, it is hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that there are many subjects on which his interpretations have been outmoded or disproved. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when allowance is made for his value judgements and the distortions that arise from his own political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious sympathies, there are still themes and problems on which research has inevitably moved on. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take just three instances: Trevelyan's account of James I \(Chapters 3 and 4\) is far more hostile than even that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's sternest scholarly critics would advance today; the account of popular religion during the Interregnum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter 10 drastically underestimates the resilience of 'folk Anglicanism' and attachment to the Prayer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book; and Trevelyan's treatment of Scottish and Irish history is perfunctory at best. He makes no pretence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is other than English history, and the index entries for Scotland and Ireland deal almost exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the activities of the English in those two nations, or the implementation of English policy there, or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on England. The nature and extent of the interactions between the three kingdoms were so varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intermittent during the course of the seventeenth century that it may well be impossible to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely synthetic 'British' history covering the entire period. But what Trevelyan offers falls short even of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'enriched English history' that has become fashionable in recent years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.932 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.932 414.675 m 401.924 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.924 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather, he tells - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrates - a story of English exceptionalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is perhaps more remarkable is the number of subjects on which Trevelyan's assessments anticipate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later research. For example, his emphasis on the importance of Calvinism within the early Stuart Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 58-9\) prefigures the work of Nicholas Tyacke and others. Trevelyan's view of Oliver Cromwell as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctant regicide \(p. 276\) is intuitively quite close to that recently advanced by John Morrill and Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baker. The structure of Trevelyan's account of the Restoration, with its distinction between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements of 1660 and 1661-2 \(pp. 317-26\), is broadly compatible with Ronald Hutton's influential study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the politics of Queen Anne's reign, Trevelyan's concentration on the Whig/Tory dichotomy has, after a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of eclipse, again emerged as the prevailing orthodoxy in the writings of Geoffrey Holmes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent scholars. Such areas, where more recent historians have to some extent vindicated Trevelyan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a real tribute to the power of his historical insight and his instinctive feel for the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All these qualities mean that )] TJ ET BT 173.672 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England under the Stuarts)] TJ ET BT 300.008 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains a deeply rewarding book. It is, superbly, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book with the courage of its convictions, and it displays throughout an underlying security and assurance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is neither arrogant nor apologetic. Trevelyan is able to make generalisations with superlative self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence, such as: 'While Germany boasts her Reformation and France her Revolution, England can point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to her dealings with the House of Stuart' \(p. xvii\); or: 'The French Revolution was a war of two societies; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Civil War was a war of two regions; but the Great Rebellion was a war of two parties.'\(p. 219\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a book could not be written today. It continues to be eminently worth reading, and this Routledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprint deserves a very warm welcome for ensuring that the book's life is still far from over.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.9317 414.9895 401.9237 426.8695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 2491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair Worden, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil Wars and the Passions of Posterity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Allen Lane, 2001\), p. 18.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.008 780.993 m 284.324 780.993 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, G. M. Trevelyan: A Life in History)] TJ ET BT 320.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: HarperCollins, 1992\), p. 227.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.648 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.648 766.563 m 552.644 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 78.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this phrase, see John Morrill, )] TJ ET BT 226.004 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 405.008 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow: Longman, 1993\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246, 260.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.016 723.795 m 163.004 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The NY Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 237.692 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.692 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/364)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 322.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2034)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50D17FC345F13718DDDA10994DA405B858CF1D3)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.0077 781.1335 284.3237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.6477 766.8775 552.6437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 752.6215 78.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.0157 724.1095 163.0037 735.9895 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 669.3415 237.6917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50D17FC345F13718DDDA10994DA405B858CF1D3) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 322.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/364) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000542 00000 n 0000000624 00000 n 0000004993 00000 n 0000005102 00000 n 0000005212 00000 n 0000005321 00000 n 0000008882 00000 n 0000009010 00000 n 0000009094 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000016032 00000 n 0000016062 00000 n 0000016190 00000 n 0000016226 00000 n 0000016291 00000 n 0000022456 00000 n 0000022540 00000 n 0000029745 00000 n 0000029775 00000 n 0000029903 00000 n 0000029939 00000 n 0000030023 00000 n 0000037193 00000 n 0000037223 00000 n 0000037351 00000 n 0000037387 00000 n 0000037506 00000 n 0000040050 00000 n 0000040178 00000 n 0000040233 00000 n 0000040361 00000 n 0000040416 00000 n 0000040542 00000 n 0000040597 00000 n 0000040725 00000 n 0000040780 00000 n 0000040907 00000 n 0000041046 00000 n 0000041174 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41269 %%EOF