%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 38 0 R 52 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 19 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818122258+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818122258+01'00') /Title (Customs and Excise: Trade, Production, and Consumption in England, 1640-1845) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4642 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise: Trade, Production, and Consumption in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England, 1640-1845)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 130.676 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the second major study to appear in as many years that investigates the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade policy on the development of British industry. It is fascinating to read Ashworth's book alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Inikori's )] TJ ET BT 112.172 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africans and the Industrial Revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.840 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.840 207.951 m 313.832 207.951 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.832 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Inikori's study argues that tariffs and protected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(colonial markets stimulated import and re-export substitution and that these aspects of the economy were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(distinctive and critical feature of Britain's early industrial revolution. Ashworth, in contrast, argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(institutional apparatus developed by the English state to regulate )] TJ ET BT 351.020 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(internal)] TJ ET BT 389.024 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( commerce, particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(extension and refinement of the excise tax, 'created an effective framework for the rise of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, while supplying . revenues necessary to protect and guide this development' \(p.315\). In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(words, tariffs and the excise permitted lightly taxed new industries \(for example, cotton, iron, and pottery\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grow to the point where Britain enjoyed a dominant international position in the manufacture and trade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(these items. The cost was borne by consumables, such as beer and tea, which were subjected to heavy rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of duty. )] TJ ET BT 73.016 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Ashworth's view, overseas trade and the customs made an important contribution to the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(process, but for different reasons to those advanced by Inikori. Compared with the excise, Ashworth judges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 26.099 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the customs service to have been characterised by waste, duplication, and unnecessary complexity. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(366)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Ashworth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199259216X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(408pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199259212.do#.Ui71YsakpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. D. Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.8397 208.0915 313.8317 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9092 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(describes how tariffs and the intricate fee structure of the customs spawned a large illicit and parasitic black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(market in which smuggling was rampant. Subjected to the fiscal pressure of the Napoleonic Wars, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the political consensus on trade and industrial policy finally collapsed. New manufacturers, he argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(articulated increasingly vocal demands for freer trade during the 1780s, confident that cotton and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modernising industries would carry all before them. Administrative reform of the customs followed, tariffs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were slashed, and the smugglers' illicit economy routed.)] TJ ET BT 304.232 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 400.892 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( presents historians with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashworth sees as a reciprocal relationship: increasing regulation and centralisation of fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(administration, leading to the eventual deregulation and decentralisation of commercial controls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Without a doubt, there is a great deal to admire in this book and the main ideas that Ashworth articulates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(provoke serious thought. The argument that the excise provided a model for general administrative reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comparable to the consolidation of fiscal management in the hands of a single treasury department, is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(made and convincing. The analysis of the excise department presented in the text, in many respects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(complements Henry Roseveare's famous study of the Treasury. The book certainly eclipses the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(authorities, Dowell and Leftwich, whose work has long needed updating.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.692 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.692 597.921 m 398.684 597.921 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.684 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Sir Robert Walpole looms large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Ashworth's study and rightly so: the book's emphasis on the long-term significance of Walpole's economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(policies between 1721 and 1742 is admirable and will hopefully inspire a revision of Briscoe's monograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devoted to this subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.008 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.008 555.153 m 158.000 555.153 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.000 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 254.660 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( is also a worthy successor to Elizabeth Evelynola Hoon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(famous study of the English customs administration. It is scarcely an exaggeration to state that every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(researcher of inland and external trade will profit from reading the volume and learn something new about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the organisation of commerce and the levying of taxation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashworth has much of value and importance to say on the evolution of the revenue-raising arm of the state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(His work adds significantly to earlier studies, authored by Brewer and Braddick, that explore the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(war and associated fiscal strains on the expansion of the state in early modern and eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.024 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.024 443.361 m 85.016 443.361 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( There are also sections of the volume that contribute to the cultural history of London, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a brief but illuminating account of the ill-fated new London Customs House, erected after the old one was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gutted by fire in 1814. No reviewer of this book, however, can duck the central question of whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashworth succeeds in demonstrating that administrative developments, centred on the excise, contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(significantly to economic re-structuring. Despite the impressive array of evidence presented, some doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and reservation must be attached to this core hypothesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the beginning of)] TJ ET BT 125.684 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 222.344 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, the reader is presented with Joseph Schumpeter's notorious thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(that the path of early modern state formation was influenced, to the point of determinism, by a general tax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(crisis rooted in the escalating costs of warfare, a phenomenon later to be christened the 'Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.580 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.580 303.057 m 105.572 303.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.572 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Theories as broad as this ultimately explain everything and nothing. A few years ago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Douglass North took up Schumpeter's hypothesis and presented a story of divergent northern and southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European pathways of institutional development. The form of the pathway advocated by North varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(initially he placed the emphasis on patents, later the focus switched to constitutional monarchy\), but always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(with a view to demonstrating the superiority of northern Europe, particularly Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.700 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.700 246.033 m 459.692 246.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.692 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Various attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have been made to construct a valid chronology and a consistent method of assessing institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(performance, without producing consensus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.340 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.340 217.521 m 258.332 217.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.332 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Ashworth faces a similar problem. In this book he presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some grounds for linking administrative evolution with economic development, but he produces little in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(way of verifiable propositions. Specific links between the fiscal system and economic processes, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the areas of technological innovation and entrepreneurial motivation, would have been particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(It cannot be disguised that, despite Ashworth's extraordinary industry and scholarship, the economic impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the taxation system between the later seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries remains unclear. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the incidence of even a single tax is unknown during this period. The sugar duties can serve as a sample )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illustration. During the Wars of Jenkins' Ear and the Austrian Succession, an increase in the rate of sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(import duty was proposed)] TJ ET BT 162.020 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to help pay for the conflict. The intended measure unleashed a storm of lobbying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for and against the bill. One side argued that it was a regressive measure that would penalise consumers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the form of higher retail prices, the other that the producers \(wealthy plantation owners\) would foot the bill. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who was right? An early exploration of this problem was undertaken by David Ricardo, who appreciated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 21.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(that the transferors of a tax to the government are not necessarily the same persons within the economy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 20 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.6917 598.0615 398.6837 609.9415 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.0077 555.2935 157.9997 567.1735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.0237 443.5015 85.0157 455.3815 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.5797 303.1975 105.5717 315.0775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6997 246.1735 459.6917 258.0535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.3397 217.6615 258.3317 229.5415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8352 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whose real incomes are reduced by the tax. The resolution of the sugar tax conundrum requires knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the relevant demand or supply curves; in this case \(since the tax was collected in the form of an import )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(duty paid by commission merchants acting for the producers\), the critical measure is the elasticity of supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from the sugar plantations. If monthly price and quantity data of sufficient quality were available, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(be possible to estimate the supply function by examining the response of sugar producers to temporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shocks, but it is unlikely that adequate information exists to permit such a calculation for this or any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taxable commodity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Advances in the understanding of consumers' budgets, however, means that an alternative approach to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(problem is possible in the case of commodities subject to excise.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.320 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.320 669.201 m 356.312 669.201 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.312 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( In a perfectly competitive market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(indirect taxes levied on final sales will be shifted to consumers. A comparison of household budgets before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and after changes to the tax regime can, in theory, yield useful insights into tax incidence. Studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consumer expenditure have been devised to assess the impact of indirect taxation on developing economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and it is feasible that these could be adapted to the pre-industrial economy of Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.676 612.177 m 459.668 612.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.668 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(formidable empirical obstacles, work of this nature is essential if the responses of producers and consumers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to tax changes are ever to be accurately understood. In the absence of such evidence, the historian is left, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(essentially, with a mass of special pleading, generated by authors whose views on taxation often shifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(considerably from issue to issue. Sources such as these can provide a contemporary perspective on events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(but they do not reveal how a given tax cascaded down through the economy, or how the behavioural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(responses of firms re-shaped industrial structure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tariffs are another important aspect of the fiscal system that have yet to be investigated fully, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding the classic article by Davis on this subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.688 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.688 486.129 m 339.680 486.129 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.680 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( What was the)] TJ ET BT 407.348 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(effective)] TJ ET BT 447.332 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( rate of protection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed by any branch of industry before 1800? To calculate effective protection, data is required for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rate of duty levied on imports of raw materials and finished product, plus the share of value-added in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(production. In comparison with the problem of tax incidence, the calculation of effective protection is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(straightforward and solutions are probably readily obtainable from surviving sources. To date, however, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(would seem that no comprehensive study of this subject has appeared. In the case of cotton, the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tariffs may appear clear cut, but in many other branches of manufacturing the significance of effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(protection in building up domestic industry remains a matter of speculation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 130.676 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( does not, for the most part, concern itself with problems of this kind. Some quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(information is presented, but it is not a major feature of the book. Excellent use is made of data collected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(many years ago by S. E. Fine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.656 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.656 331.569 m 197.648 331.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.648 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( It is a great pity that Fine's 1937 thesis was never published and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashworth deserves praise for giving this study the emphasis it deserves. Ashworth's book instead concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(itself with the administrative records of the excise and the extensive extant collection of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(printed works dealing with taxation issues. While such sources reveal a great deal about the effectiveness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(revenue-collecting agencies, the administration of fiscal policy, and ideological or political responses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taxation, there are limits to the extent to which evidence of this kind can answer broader economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the technological sphere, Ashworth provides a good account of the calico legislation of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century and the inadvertent stimulus it gave the domestic cotton industry. He also presents some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(extremely interesting descriptions of the detail with which some excise officials monitored industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(production. The conclusion that political economy contributed to the restructuring of the beer industry \(beer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(providing the excise with a major portion of its receipts\) is probably valid, although this hypothesis could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(plausibly be tested further by analysing brewing in other parts of the world, subject to different tax regimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and comparing the resultant industrial organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Less space is given to entrepreneurial motivation, though it is a characteristic attributed to Britain's 'owlers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and other coastal smuggling gangs. The study of taxation, however, reveals the extraordinary ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British businessmen to innovate around regulation. Examples at home and the colonies that spring to mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(include the use made of the Bridgetown customs collectorship by Henry Lascelles and Gedney Clarke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(between 1714 and 1777, in constructing a vast commercial enterprise that was transatlantic in scope. On a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lesser, but undoubtedly more widespread scale, domestic merchants like Whitehaven's Peter How used their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 23.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(role as receiver general of the land tax and excise to gain a dominant position in the town's bill of exchange )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.3197 669.3415 356.3117 681.2215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6757 612.3175 459.6677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6877 486.2695 339.6797 498.1495 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.6557 331.7095 197.6477 343.5895 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 8654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(market. Likewise, Joseph Symson of Kendal exploited the fact that he received specie in exchange for bills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(drawn on London to draw liquidity from the leather industry, which paid excise, into the textile trades which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did not.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.688 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.688 766.737 m 90.680 766.737 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.680 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( It is clear that these examples could be multiplied greatly. How are they to be evaluated? Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(activities can be dismissed as examples of inefficiency and corruption prior to a reformist drive that placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in post officials subject to closer central control. Viewed from another perspective, however, the examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illustrate how an emerging mercantile elite grasped the fiscal instruments of state and used them to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(new markets. Ashworth provides a tantalising glimpse into excise personnel circa 1820 \(p. 123\), but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(crossover between public officials and the private business community could be explored further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 130.676 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( devotes much space to the practical operation of a fiscal regime based on indirect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taxation. The detailed analysis generates a great deal of useful information that historians will be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mine, including discussion of weights, measures and technical devices, such as the hydrometer devised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assess the proof standard of spirits. In addition to these insights, however, there were also, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to embrace a wider comparative perspective. One virtue of Inikori's book is his willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(draw relevant comparisons between eighteenth-century Britain and the post-war developing world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashworth could likewise have supplemented his enquiry with some modern comparisons of states financed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(by similar fiscal regimes. Indeed, such a formal exercise may be necessary in order to guard against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(subconscious value judgements. To be sure, taxation was regressive and income unequally distributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(during the early modern period. By the standard of post-war re-distributive and welfare-driven tax regimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(based on the taxation of income, the fiscal systems in operation between 1640 and 1840 appear unjust. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inevitably has a natural sympathy for participants in the 'informal/illicit' economy described by Ashworth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the authorities he cites, such as Linebaugh and Rediker. Yet many aspects of life two centuries ago seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illiberal when judged by the perspective of the present and the knowledge of what would soon replace them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A more telling comparison would be to contrast conditions in England during this period with fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(administration in developing countries dependent upon indirect taxes and debt issues for revenue, or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(examine the role of such tax regimes in more advanced economies. The potential of fiscal systems that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(based on indirect taxation, property taxes, and the issue of bonds is revealed by the financial histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(many of the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The chronological range of)] TJ ET BT 165.680 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Customs and Excise)] TJ ET BT 265.340 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( is so impressive, however, that it is hardly reasonable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(demand more. Undoubtedly, the book's contents justify the title's claim to cover the two centuries from 1640 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to 1845. Particular credit must be given to Ashworth for his decision to begin surveying political economy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Civil War period, rather than opting to start in 1688. Extending the book into the 1840s was another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brave decision. Among other issues, the author discusses the relationship between taxation and adulteration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(For reasons that have been stated elsewhere in print, this reviewer remains sceptical of Frederick Accum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Arthur Hill Hassall's reliability as commentators, but other material unearthed by Ashworth is original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and of interest.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 106.352 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 106.352 286.545 m 126.344 286.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.344 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Finally, the acknowledgements and credits of the book deserve special mention. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can be few monographs that have been jointly sponsored by a university department, a national museum, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(technology institute, and HM Customs and Excise. The resulting publication reflects great credit on all of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stakeholders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph E. Inikori, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Development)] TJ ET BT 148.328 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.308 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.308 163.827 m 441.296 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. E. Hoon, )] TJ ET BT 123.344 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Organisation of the English Customs System, 1696-1786)] TJ ET BT 416.684 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: D. Appleton-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century Co., 1938\); H. Roseveare, )] TJ ET BT 233.660 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Treasury, 1660-1870: The Foundations of Control)] TJ ET BT 497.336 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen and Unwin, 1973\); S. Dowell, )] TJ ET BT 241.004 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Taxation and Taxes in England )] TJ ET BT 456.344 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4 vols, rev. ed.; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Longman and Co., 1888\); B. R. Leftwich, )] TJ ET BT 311.672 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Excise)] TJ ET BT 422.324 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Simpkin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall and Co., 1908\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.004 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.004 92.547 m 237.992 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. A. Brisco, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economic Policy of Robert Walpole)] TJ ET BT 324.320 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Columbia University Press, 1907\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 64.035 m 118.004 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Brewer, )] TJ ET BT 131.000 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783)] TJ ET BT 461.648 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Unwin )] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.6877 766.8775 90.6797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 106.3517 286.6855 126.3437 298.5655 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.3077 164.1415 441.2957 176.0215 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.0037 92.8615 237.9917 104.7415 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 64.3495 118.0037 76.2295 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 7430 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hyman, 1989\); M. J. Braddick, )] TJ ET BT 217.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Formation in Early Modern England, c.1550-1700)] TJ ET BT 488.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.336 780.819 m 290.324 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. A. Schumpeter, 'The crisis of the tax state', )] TJ ET BT 283.304 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Economic Papers)] TJ ET BT 434.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 \(1954\), 5-38.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.612 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.612 766.563 m 552.608 766.563 l S BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 78.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglass C. North)] TJ ET BT 153.680 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Structure and Change in Economic History)] TJ ET BT 368.000 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Norton, 1981\), pp. 158-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70; Douglass C. North)] TJ ET BT 175.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Barry R. Weingast, 'Constitutions and commitment: the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions governing public choice in seventeenth-century England', )] TJ ET BT 399.476 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 539.132 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49:4 \(1989\), 803-32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.340 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.340 695.283 m 217.328 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Gregory Clark, 'The political foundations of modern economic growth: England 1540-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800', )] TJ ET BT 96.176 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 268.508 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 \(1996\), 563-88 and John Wells and Douglas Wills, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Revolution, restoration, and debt repudiation: The Jacobite threat to England's institutions and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic growth', )] TJ ET BT 155.828 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 295.484 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60:2 \(2000\), 418-41.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.808 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.808 638.259 m 454.796 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Horrell and Jane Humphries, 'Old questions, new data and alternative perspectives: families' )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living standards in the Industrial Revolution')] TJ ET BT 277.844 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 423.500 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 52:4 \(1992\), 849-80; Sara )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horrell, 'Home demand and British industrialisation', )] TJ ET BT 321.656 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 461.312 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 56:3 \(1996\), 561-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(604.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 581.235 m 139.004 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen D. Younger, David E. Sahn, Stephen Haggblade, and Paul A. Dorosh, 'Tax incidence in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madagascar: an exercise using household data', )] TJ ET BT 294.452 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Bank Economic Review)] TJ ET BT 440.756 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13 \(1999\), 303-31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 538.467 m 118.004 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Davis, 'The rise of protection in England, 1689-1786', )] TJ ET BT 356.972 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 481.616 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19:2 \(1966\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(306-17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 509.955 m 161.000 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. E. 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