%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826002039+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826002039+01'00') /Title (Wesley and the Wesleyans: Religion in Eighteenth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3338 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wesley and the Wesleyans: Religion in Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor John Kent brings a distinguished reputation as a historian of religion in eighteenth- and nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Britain to the near-impossible task of saying something new about John Wesley. Few lives have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been so thoroughly documented as that of the subject of this book and Wesley's ability to project his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of events to subsequent generations through his published )] TJ ET BT 352.988 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journals)] TJ ET BT 394.988 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, letters and sermons matched his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to inspire an audience through field-preaching. However, it is not Professor Kent's purpose to offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Wesley \(though his approach to Wesleyan Methodism is broadly chronological\) on the lines of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the excellent life published by Henry Rack in 1989.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.648 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.648 200.649 m 295.640 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.640 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, this is a blast of the iconoclastic trumpet, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first image which is listed for destruction is no less than that of the 'evangelical revival' itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 October, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Kent)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521455324X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(235pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grayson Ditchfield)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.6477 200.9635 295.6397 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tone of the book is confident, assertive and provocative; its style is a highly accessible and lively one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in its relatively inexpensive paperback form it will probably \(and deservedly\) attract a wide readership. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with many provocative books, )] TJ ET BT 198.668 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wesley and the Wesleyans)] TJ ET BT 324.968 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will arouse many disagreements. With a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this kind, however, a reviewer needs to be on guard against the temptation to dismiss the book's central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis on the one hand, while undermining its claim to novelty by maintaining that sensible historians \(often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the reviewer\) have been advocating it for years. The snares of that temptation are evident in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews of the first edition of Jonathan Clark's )] TJ ET BT 258.812 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society 1688-1832)] TJ ET BT 388.136 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1985\), a work of which Professor Kent takes due account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Kent sets himself the task of destroying what he calls 'the myth of the so-called evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival'. This myth, he argues, holds that 'from about 1730 . a dramatic, divinely inspired return to true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity balanced the moral budget of the British people . The instruments of this divine intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were John Wesley and his followers, the Wesleyans or Methodists'.\(p. 1\) If acceptance of this myth were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed widespread in academic studies of evangelicalism, this book would be providing an essential service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by arranging for its demolition. However, since it would be extremely difficult to find the work of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious historian of the subject \(none is cited\) which advances claims of this nature, the reader may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgiven for a sharp sense of windmill-tilting. Nonetheless, the author proceeds to offer a synoptic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly critical analysis of the origins and development of the Wesleyan movement, from the 1730s to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the nineteenth century, which amounts in effect to a debunking exercise. John Wesley himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges as a self-confident, indeed authoritarian, leader who 'found in religion a means of imposing his will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on some of his contemporaries, though rarely on his social equals'.\(p. 189\) One of his principal skills lay in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ability to manipulate men and women whose social and educational levels were lower than his own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central to the book's argument is the concept of 'primary religion', an expression unfamiliar in use in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century England. Its meaning, as understood by Professor Kent, is entirely different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('primitive religion', in the sense of the 'true' religion practised by the Apostles and their contemporaries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Primary religion' is defined as the search for 'some kind of extra-human power, either for personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection, including the cure of diseases, or for the sake of ecstatic experience, and possibly prophetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidance'.\(pp. 1-2\) It is further defined as a belief in the direct, personal intervention of providence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday life, 'as distinct from a more general providential protection of the nation, and in visibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionist supernatural forces'.\(pp. 10, 22\) 'Primary' religious impulses, involving hope and prayer for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine succour in the struggle with life's vicissitudes, were always present in early modern \(and indeed later\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies and hence, since 'primary religion' had not declined, there was no question of its being 'revived'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, John Wesley and his colleagues tapped into an existing pool of 'primary religious' aspirations which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unsatisfied by an increasingly moderate and rational Church of England. The Church feared that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations would lead to the sort of religious fanaticism that had disfigured the seventeenth century. Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wesleyanism made little headway among the better educated and became trapped among those whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious behaviour - involving emotionalism, convulsions, claims of 'perfection' and even of healing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers - left its authors exposed to the dreaded charge of 'enthusiasm'. But the Wesleys succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring the freedom of 'primary religion' in Britain to express itself in a Protestant context, in the absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of opportunities for the invocation of saints available in Catholic societies. There are some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical examples of 'primary religious' assumptions and conduct, some of them drawn from the journal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Cennick in 1741.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 2 and 3 examine early \(1740-70\) and later \(1770-1800\) Wesleyanism. Professor Kent outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional explanations for the success of the Wesleyan movement in the 1740s, one of which is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounted to a reaction against the radical types of religious philosophy associated with Deism. He dismisses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this explanation, quite reasonably, by pointing out that 'radical' philosophers \(John Locke, Samuel Clarke\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not threaten either 'primary religion' or social stability, as distinct from orthodox Christian theology - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, they did not 'touch the majority of ordinary people'.\(p. 49\) Other traditional explanations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, cannot be completely set aside. The legacy of highly intellectualised preaching bequeathed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop Tillotson, for instance, surely contributed to the way in which, as Professor Kent observes, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7850 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican teaching moved away from the immediacy and alleged superstition of 'primary religion', and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a void filled by the Wesleys. Similarly, the Wesleyan emphasis upon Trinitarian orthodoxy \(skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated by Henry Rack )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.984 766.563 m 175.976 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.976 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be seen as a response to a perceived advance of Arian speculation among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English Presbyterians, as well as among a minority of the Anglican clergy. Moreover, the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asceticism and self-denial, moral reformation and regular self-examination preached by the Wesleyans owed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to High Church Tory resentment against the materialism of the Robinocracy and Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination of the Church. An important theme of these two chapters is the flexibility of the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Church of England; although it could not embrace Wesleyanism, it never formally expelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wesleys. Indeed, it was only the persistence of one litigious clergyman that led to the exit from the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Kent discusses the ways in which later \(post-1770\) Wesleyanism moved away from 'primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion'. After its initial phase, the societies established by Wesley 'gradually lost their appetite for ecstatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, because the members were beginning to feel themselves in control of their social and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances'.\(p. 42\) The movement was 'torn between primary religious activities and the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferably urban stability in large respectable chapels'. In effect, a new denomination was emerging, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly formal structures, a second generation of leaders and a declining reliance on spontaneity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process that Professor Kent describes here is a classic example of the transition from 'sect' to 'denomination' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated by Bryan Wilson's)] TJ ET BT 175.160 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Patterns of Sectarianism)] TJ ET BT 296.828 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Heinemann, 1967\) and developed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume I of Michael Watts's )] TJ ET BT 175.820 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dissenters)] TJ ET BT 247.484 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978\). This is entirely consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Wesley's political conservatism, which Professor Kent is anxious to stress. Chapter 3 concludes with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissal of the possibility that Methodism prevented revolution in Britain at the end of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(one wonders which serious historians now maintain that it did\). Revolution was never possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the Hanoverian state was quite prepared to use military force to suppress social disorder.\(p. 100\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There might, of course, have been other reasons for the avoidance of revolution, including the widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and popular support for loyalism, the public reputation of George III as a conscientious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalist and the relatively effective operation of the Poor Law and private philanthropy in times of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severest dearth. More account could, perhaps, also have been taken of the Methodist contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforming, as distinct from revolutionary, politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4 takes the form of a discussion of the role of women in the early years of Wesleyanism. That role, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues the author, offers further instances of the operation of 'primary religion' and female autobiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings show that many early Methodist women found satisfaction 'in the belief that they had access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supernatural power, which protected them as individuals and excited in them ecstatic experience'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation that such accounts would need to conform to pre-set formulae is something which Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent neatly recognises by commenting that these women usually 'described their experience in language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had already been laid down for them by male authorities' \(p. 106\). There is an extended treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grace Murray's story, a narrative which is used to illustrate the Wesleys' ability to manipulate and to 'shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the underlying religious anxieties and expectations of those who came to hear them by making use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary theological concepts of justification and sanctification'. Professor Kent clearly demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortuous nature of the interplay between what he calls the 'primary' religious unfamiliarity with the 'concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a God who could be offended and repulsed' \(p. 115\) and the more disciplined mental approach of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('official' religion. The most positive feature of Wesley's relations with women presented in this chapter is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which he helped his female acolytes to change their perception of themselves, often in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which led them to seek a greater measure of control over their own lives. However, Professor Kent insists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Wesley did not intend to bring about such outcomes, and that he was really unaware of them.\(p. 138\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5, the longest and most substantial section of the book, examines the varied Anglican responses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wesleyanism. Here the author is at his most convincing. He rightly observes that perceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicanism as a social religion, imbued with civic piety and a culture of benevolence, were powerful in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper reaches of the Church. Anglican resentment at Wesleyan claims to be purging the Church and to save )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation, and at intrusion into the parish system was thus understandable. To those with such a view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodism was tolerable only when it brought religion to communities that the Church had failed to reach, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.9837 766.8775 175.9757 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7184 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not when it intruded into parishes where the Church exercised a firm influence. Many among \(and beyond\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite sought 'a politer, more prosperous, more tolerant and more rationally moral society' \(p. 156\), rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than anything which seemed redolent of 'enthusiasm' and seventeenth-century fanaticism. Fears of the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were indeed increased by the publication of Wesley's )] TJ ET BT 292.112 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 329.444 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Archbishop Secker believed in a reasonable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed spirituality, in which faith and works combined. He spoke for many who remained deeply suspicious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those who 'believed that they could bring supernatural power directly into the community, either through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the invocation of Mary and the Saints' as with Catholics, or 'through the invocation of the Holy Spirit' \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Wesleyans\). Professor Kent rightly contends that moderate Calvinism won far more support among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican clergy than did Wesley's movement.\(p. 145\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A characteristically trenchant conclusion subjects John Wesley's personality to a rigorous analysis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms the authoritarian tendencies set out in the earlier chapters. His movement is held to have achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively little by the end of the eighteenth century: its societies 'seem to have lacked intellectual curiosity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and aesthetic pleasure' \(p. 201\), apart from the appreciation of music. Wesleyanism abandoned the attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain a 'holiness' movement or to 'function as a pietist reforming movement inside the Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England'.\(p. 204\) Its political impact was minimal; the real political successes were scored by single-issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigning societies, principally those concerned with missionary work and anti-slavery, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by Evangelicals within the Church of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this, however, is sufficient to confirm Professor Kent's central claim that there was no evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival. A successful vindication of such a claim would require a consideration of the nature of, and criteria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for establishing, the nature of revivalism itself, as undertaken, for instance, in the work of Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carwardine. It would also involve an examination of the impact of evangelicalism upon the older Dissenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominations, notably the Congregationalists; it is a fundamental mistake to conceive of evangelicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solely in terms of Wesleyanism, or to deny the existence of a revival on the basis of Wesleyan membership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics. Professor Kent, of course, makes no such mistake, and his brief references to the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes of Methodism in the nineteenth century \(p. 204\) indicate that there is much more to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism than the career and character of John Wesley. Similarly, the concept of a 'confessional state' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in eighteenth-century England is brushed aside too lightly, especially as Dissenting grievances under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian regime and the fear of the Church hierarchy that Wesley was leading his followers towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissent are correctly highlighted. In many closed parishes, dominated by one or two gentry families and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resident clergyman - parishes which Wesleyans often found extremely difficult to penetrate - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('confessional state' was an everyday reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To handle such broad and ambitious themes in six chapters of a relatively short book represents an extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanding challenge. Professor Kent raises more questions than he answers and )] TJ ET BT 423.272 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wesley and the Wesleyans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a certain gadfly quality, with a power to provoke, to invigorate and to force the re-examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received wisdom on nearly every page. It is highly readable and stimulating throughout. The many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements that it will, undoubtedly, invite do not diminish its value. Dr Johnson said of Joseph Priestley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his works 'tended to unsettle every thing, and yet settled nothing'. Professor Kent is no academic 'settler' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for that we should be grateful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry D. Rack, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reasonable Enthusiast. John Wesley and the Rise of Methodism)] TJ ET BT 449.300 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Epworth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 151.827 m 180.332 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry D. Rack, 'Early Methodist visions of the Trinity', )] TJ ET BT 334.316 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proceedings of the Wesley Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 550.616 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46 \(1988\), 65-9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.004 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.004 123.315 m 195.992 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 68.547 m 240.992 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 65.215 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 152.1415 180.3317 164.0215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.0037 123.6295 195.9917 135.5095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 68.8615 240.9917 80.7415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8020) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/367)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 322.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2038)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8020)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 322.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/367) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004053 00000 n 0000004162 00000 n 0000004272 00000 n 0000004381 00000 n 0000007942 00000 n 0000008070 00000 n 0000008154 00000 n 0000008183 00000 n 0000008311 00000 n 0000008347 00000 n 0000008412 00000 n 0000016014 00000 n 0000016098 00000 n 0000024001 00000 n 0000024031 00000 n 0000024159 00000 n 0000024195 00000 n 0000024293 00000 n 0000031530 00000 n 0000031658 00000 n 0000031713 00000 n 0000031841 00000 n 0000031896 00000 n 0000032021 00000 n 0000032121 00000 n 0000032205 00000 n 0000032824 00000 n 0000032952 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33047 %%EOF