%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930041043+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930041043+01'00') /Title (Modern Love: an Intimate History of Men and Women in Twentieth Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1853 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern Love: an Intimate History of Men and Women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 September, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcus Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1903809215)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Bingham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5789 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historical study of love, sexuality and the ?private sphere? in modern Britain is now well established. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial amount of research has been undertaken on sexual identities, erotic behaviour and representations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of romance, and has been ably synthesised by historians such as Lesley Hall, Angus McLaren and the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Mason. In recent years, moreover, a string of television documentaries, displaying various degrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intellectual rigour, have examined these themes for a broader audience. Yet there remain those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue to believe that this work is not ?proper? history. Marcus Collins quotes one doubter, John Vincent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(who has declared that ?history is hopeless on love?\), in the prologue of his ambitious new survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal relationships in twentieth-century Britain. While acknowledging that intimate actions and private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions rarely leave direct documentary traces of the type favoured by historians, Collins observes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of the existing literature on these subjects suggests that the difficulties can be overcome. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly researched and consistently thought-provoking volume, )] TJ ET BT 359.648 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Love)] TJ ET BT 423.968 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be added to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing list of books that prove Vincent wrong. Written in a clear and engaging style, and explicitly aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at both an academic and a lay audience, it is not surprising that this work has attracted the attention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper reviewers. Although some sections might prove rather dry for the general reader drawn by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalising title, it is a significant and original contribution to the historiography and another illustration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rewards of studying private life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The purpose of the book is to chart the rise and fall of what Collins terms ?mutuality? ? namely the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?an intimate equality should be established between men and women through mixing, companionate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and shared sexual pleasure? \(p. 4\), in contrast to the system of ?separate spheres? and patriarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that typified Victorian society. He begins with the formulation of this ideal in Edward Carpenter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential treatise, )] TJ ET BT 127.004 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love?s Coming Of Age)] TJ ET BT 238.664 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Labour Press, 1896\), and examines its progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the following century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters discuss the battle of ideas in the period up to the Second World War, as mutualists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various stripes, from Carpenter?s associates in the ?Fellowship of the New Life? Havelock and Edith Ellis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Christian marriage reformers Edward Griffiths and Herbert Gray, battled for intellectual supremacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against a motley array of feminists, anti-feminists and eccentrics. If the vision of harmonious cooperation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the sexes was drowned out by the fury of the debates over women?s enfranchisement before 1914, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins convincingly argues that after the First World War the mutualist cause achieved ascendancy amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion-formers. Although there were conspicuous differences between sexual libertarians on the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Christian mutualists with roots in the purity movement on the other, there was nevertheless a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement by the 1930s that the artificial segregation of men and women was unhealthy, and that patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages and sexual ignorance had no place in a ?modern? society. Much of this is familiar territory, but its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisiting is justified both by the impressively broad range of examples and by the sensitive reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorial intention and context. Collins persuasively challenges the contentious suggestion, made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Jackson, Sheila Jeffreys and Susan Kingsley Kent, that mutualist works were actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reactionary? and ?anti-feminist?, and he clearly demonstrates the difficulties in portraying this period as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of gender ?backlash?. In contrast to most other European nations, he notes, ?inter-war Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable for escaping the worst of anti-feminism?.\(p. 238\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chronology established by Collins, mutuality reached it zenith in the quarter century following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, with the rise of co-education, mixed leisure and marriage guidance counselling. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second and perhaps most original section of the book demonstrates, however, reforming entrenched attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and customs was easier in theory than in practice. An examination of the post-1945 youth club movement ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which hitherto has not received the same kind of historical attention as either uniformed organisations like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scouts, or commercial youth culture, despite the fact that by the end of the 1960s, some 70% of young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons were members or former members of a youth club ? shows how mixed clubs triumphed at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of single sex ones. Yet the mutualist aspirations of the leaders of the mixed clubs had a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on their adolescent charges. Collins makes clear that in reality boys dominated, forming a majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the membership and monopolizing the best facilities. Traditional gender stereotypes were rarely challenged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed were often encouraged by the continued provision of ?appropriate? single-sex activities, leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boys ?too macho to be true mutualists? and girls ?generally too unassertive to challenge them?.\(p. 89\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A thorough survey of the case-notes of the Family Welfare Association, Family Discussion Bureau and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Marriage Guidance Council also underlines that the happy and balanced ?companionate marriage? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the advice literature was far from universal in mid-century Britain. This evidence provides graphic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations that patriarchal attitudes were still entrenched among the ?unreconstructed working class?, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic violence commonplace and sex something endured rather than enjoyed by many wives. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the recent historiography of the family has usefully questioned the stereotype of the ?downtrodden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housewife?, Collins is surely right to suggest that the ?figure of the working-class patriarch cannot altogether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be laid to rest?. Many middle-class couples, by contrast, understood the concept of mutuality very well, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still found it difficult to achieve the required equality and intimacy in their relationships. Despite the rise in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married women?s part-time work, the burden of domestic work remained primarily on wives, and men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to enjoy considerable financial superiority. In the bedroom, moreover, deep-seated inhibitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance anxieties frustrated the achievement of shared sexual satisfaction. With marital problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing no sign of diminishing by the end of the 1960s, some counsellors were beginning to wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether mutuality itself was flawed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With these two case studies, Collins is able to provide revealing insights into the realities of people?s lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to illustrate the practical obstacles faced by well-meaning reformers. The third chapter in the ?mutuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tested? section, examining the new glossy pornographic magazines such as )] TJ ET BT 396.956 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King)] TJ ET BT 420.296 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 426.296 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penthouse)] TJ ET BT 476.288 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 499.616 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mayfair)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that appeared from 1964, is rather less successful on this front. These magazines are relevant, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists, because they provided ?modern? pornography which, initially at least, was in some senses mutualist. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas pre-permissive pornography had been unable to imagine a normal and healthy female desire, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new pornography? celebrated women?s sexuality. No longer furtive and hidden behind hypocritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?alibis?, these magazines were audacious and unapologetic, interacting with the vibrant cultural scene of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s London. Unsurprisingly, however, we are shown that women?s emancipation was supported by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornographers largely because of their hope that women would become more sexually available. Behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive rhetoric there remained a determination to protect male authority. These tensions were exposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the emergence of the women?s liberation movement, which drew a fierce response from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornographers, and the flirtation with mutuality was dropped in favour of a traditional chauvinism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although providing a wealth of interesting examples from the magazines themselves, Collins is unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer much evidence of the thinking of the pornographers beyond their own self-serving public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements; as a result, their early progressivism is perhaps accepted rather too readily, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasts with older forms of pornography are overdrawn. Did the inclusion of lengthy profiles of the models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really ensure that they were not treated as ?depersonalised sex objects?? And was not the rhetoric of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire merely another ?alibi? to justify the explicit photographs? Equally, while it might be unrealistic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect details about how this ?mutualist pornography? was received by readers, the absence of such material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakens the chapter in comparison with the previous two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book considers the feminist challenge more fully. Collins argues that it ?took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s liberation movement to expose the full flaws of the mutualist ideal?.\(p. 207\) In particular, a series )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of campaigners confronted the biological essentialism that buttressed much of the thinking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companionship. Rather than possessing different natures but identical interests, as the mutualists had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted, feminists argued that men and women had very similar capacities, but divergent interests. Radicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated women?s autonomy as the only solution in a patriarchal society. If the extremes of lesbian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separatism provoked a reaction from influential figures within the movement, such as Sheila Rowbotham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lynne Segal, Collins argues that the effectiveness of the feminist attack was such that mutualism would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never be the same again, and would have to become more nuanced and pluralistic to survive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an epilogue examining the situation in the final decade of the century, media talk of a renewal of the ?war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sexes? is sensibly dismissed in favour of evidence that men and women are continuing to converge in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their attitudes and activities. Yet this convergence, Collins argues, was more the result of a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism than the final triumph of mutualism as envisaged in earlier decades. If companionship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained a deeply felt aspiration, it now had to be reconciled with the demands of self-interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Love)] TJ ET BT 98.336 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an accessible, wide-ranging and generally convincing survey of a difficult subject. Collins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both draws fresh lessons from familiar texts and shows originality in making unusual connections and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring less well-charted territory. The extensive footnotes at the end of the book testify to the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truly impressive command of the available sources \(and frequently offer interesting opinions on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed historiographical points considered unsuitable for main body of the text\). Collins handles very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different types of material sensitively, and indeed is at his best when he juxtaposes high-flown mutualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory with everyday practice in marriages and clubs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably in a study of such ambition, however, there are weaknesses and omissions. Perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious is the relative lack of attention paid to the way in which mutualist ideas, and critiques of mutualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, were actually transmitted to the wider public. Collins describes very well the articulation of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts in what were usually relatively small circulation pamphlets, polemics and manuals, and then, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies, compares the theory of mutuality with the reality of individual relationships. To understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress of mutualist thinking fully, however, it is surely necessary to assess the extent to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced mainstream organs of opinion, and to examine how particular aspects were mediated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested. It would have been very illuminating, for example, to see how similar the advice given by agony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aunts and feature writers in popular newspapers and women?s magazines was to that contained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage guidance manuals; equally, it would have been useful to have more information about the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals of personal relationships in films and best-selling fiction. Such an overview would entail laborious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra research, of course, and perhaps deserves a separate book, but there is enough published work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s magazines and films for broad generalizations of real value to have been made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it is, Collins refers to such a wide range of literature that it is sometimes difficult to judge which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions he regards as being especially important and influential. While this strategy has the merit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoiding over-familiar territory ? writers such as Havelock Ellis and Marie Stopes have already been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in considerable detail ? it does risk overrating the significance of relatively obscure authors. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the women?s liberation movement, in particular, the internal arguments of a relatively small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of activists are rehearsed with little analysis of how ?second-wave feminism? was received more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly. How widespread was the sentiment that the movement had exposed the flaws of mutuality?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins observes early on that the ?utopian project? of the mutualists inevitably promised ?perpetual hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disappointment?. The character of utopianism perhaps deserves further consideration on the frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions when the disparity between rhetoric and reality is exposed. It is hardly surprising that it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always possible to establish harmonious co-operation and happy, loving relationships, but that did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily entail the tarnishing of mutualist ideals. In his epilogue, Collins argues that ?mutuality scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived the twentieth century?, its ?basic assumptions overturned? by the actuality of family breakdown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the critiques of second-wave feminism. Yet if some of the traditional ideas underpinning mutualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking were indeed overturned, such as the belief in the complementary natures of men and women, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic aspirations of heterosocial mixing, companionate marriage and sexual union remained potent. Collins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points to rise of individualism, and suggests that it ?supplanted? mutuality: ?The assertion of self-interest?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2227 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he writes rather pessimistically, ?invited a self-absorption verging on selfishness?.\(p. 218\) Individualism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly a significant tendency \(which perhaps deserves slightly more attention given the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins ascribes to it\) but whether it has actually triumphed over the ideals set out by Carpenter in 1896 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debatable. If a sense of ?obligation? was no longer such an obvious aspect of commitment at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, perhaps that was as much due to rising expectations of companionship as to individualism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are minor quibbles, however. This is an important work that should be read not just by historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and sexuality but by all those interested in the social and cultural history of twentieth century Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The periodization and elements of the interpretation will doubtless prove controversial, but the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always a joy to read and covers such a vast amount of ground that few will fail to something of value. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopefully it will hasten the day when historians no longer have to defend their decision to study love.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/368)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2040)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/368) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000002575 00000 n 0000002684 00000 n 0000002794 00000 n 0000002903 00000 n 0000006464 00000 n 0000006592 00000 n 0000006676 00000 n 0000006741 00000 n 0000012583 00000 n 0000012648 00000 n 0000020226 00000 n 0000020291 00000 n 0000027714 00000 n 0000027798 00000 n 0000030078 00000 n 0000030206 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30301 %%EOF