%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140708093714+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140708093714+01'00') /Title (A History of the Family) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4041 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of the Family)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is now a decade since these volumes appeared in French and their translation into English, impeccably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done, and subsidised by the French Ministry of Culture \(would that such an institution existed in Britain\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes available to students and scholars a collection of thirty essays compiled by what looks like a roll call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most distinguished French anthropologists and historians of the family, together with four or five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected foreigners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any composite work of this kind which claims to be a general history \(this is also the case with the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large- scale French collections like the History of Private Life, or History of Women\)lays itself open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charges of omission, or of giving priority to France or the West over other areas. The end result is rather like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiencing an exhibition of pictures. The reader/viewer of the exhibits falls into one of two categories. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Either he/she reads/views the range of experiences and, the epic read accomplished, struggles to make some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalizations knowing that a great deal of other experiences are missing and that one is rarely comparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like with like; or he/she reads/views selectively, dipping into those chapters which relate to societies about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they know or wish to know something in order to fulfill the requirements of the next essay. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length of the books, the latter may be more numerous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, although it is indeed the western family which receives most attention in these volumes, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andr Burguire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christiane Klapisch-Zuber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martine Segalen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franoise Zonabend)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745615431)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745615431)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N/A)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olwen Hufton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7067 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a greater coherence than other collections for several reasons: first there are some excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductions to three broad sections by Claude Levi Strauss, Georges Duby and Jack Goody. Second,in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first volume in particular, a very careful attempt is made to assess the evidence on which generalisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to be made, so that in the case of the ancient and medieval worlds as well as those societies which lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a written culture, the limits of available knowledge are made clear. Third, although each chapter stands on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own and can be read as such, there is an attempt to integrate through the sorts of questions asked about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships of generations,and the power dynamics among family members: father, mother, son, daughter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The care of the old, and family survival strategies such as child abandonment, and in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differential abandonment of male and female children also recur as themes. Fourth, while there is a concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to identify particular family types, nuclear or extended, vertical or horizontal, there is also a very conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refusal to presuppose any kind of linear evolution towards one type or any sudden revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(switches.Given that a great deal of family history emanating from the western world has been predicated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweeping generalisations and claims for the special position of the west in the evolution of romantic love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the valorisation of the child, claims now in process of constant modification, this can only be helpful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening introduction by Levi Strauss sets the tone by asking why is a history of the family which does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full justice to all cultures not possible?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a social institution with a biological foundation, the family must be a universal presence, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever the type of society.But is it no also inevitable that each society,depending on its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic structure, economic organization and religious beliefs, will stamp its own )] TJ ET BT 64.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics on the family?Is there then a model of the family that can be said to constitute the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common basis of all human societies, or is the term `family'only a convenient label used to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denote more or less heterogeneous groupings? \(vol. 1,5\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answers to these questions emerge as "yes", "no", "yes" and so the essays in the volume , stretching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from pre-history to a kind of epilogue looking into the future of the family in a world of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproductive technologies, are intended to provide not a continuous narrative but comparisons and contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between different cultural choices and historical itineraries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why are we so interested in the history of the family? Duby asks \(vol 1,315\)and answers the question by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the obsession in post industrial society with the notion that the family is in crisis, divorce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics are soaring, birth rates are falling in the west beyond levels of replacement, the old \(who constitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ever greater proportion of society\) are more on their own and "family values" are crumbling, so that as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support structure the family is increasingly feeble. This means we are curious to know about the institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past. But are there dangers in making interpretations through the prism of the present? The answer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly "yes" because of the tendency to consider change rather than continuity and to be misled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what may be reversible situations. For example there may have been more nuclear families in western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in the Dark Ages than the Middle Ages due to the extension of seigneurial control; or economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downswings may lead to an increase in family intergenerational dependency less apparent in good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times.Jack Goody \(vol2,1-5 \) makes a forceful case against arguing the case for change from partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge."How can we talk about the disappearance of the extended family in modern society without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the nature of the wider kinships ties in pre-industrial societies?"In other words,we need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand back somewhat from obsessions with change or value judgments interpreting the past from the present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consider the context. Has divorce merely replaced death as a severer of unions? Does the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of old people living alone reflect anything more than the fact that they have pensions that permit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to do so, as in modern Japan, rather than a conscious severance from their kin. If delayed marriage \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no marriage at all\), is now the norm in the West, if adolescence is prolonged and child bearing postponed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the proportions of time spent single or cohabiting changed? Have we underestimated the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change and an oscillating consequence of dependence on/independence from the family. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, recent unemployment in the West has led to a retention of the young adult within the family; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family connections in securing work remain important as does support in cash or kind. Low birthrates in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6898 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West could change as they have done in Sweden because of better state provision of child care.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No one emphasizes continuity in many aspects of family formation more forcefully than does Francoise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zonabend in a magnificent panoptic contribution "An Anthropological Perspective on Kinship and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family".This chapter should be obligatory reading for anyone aspiring to comment on the family for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, whether they be historian or anthropologist or involved in women's, men's or gender history.It teems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with common sense and a keen sense of perspective. Matriarchies have never existed, anywhere:homogamy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(marriage within one's social sphere\) is still largely the order of the day though it has been reduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat by increased mobility, but:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marriage bureaux, which are now enjoying unprecedented success in modern societies, merely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply systematically \(sometimes with the aid of a computer\)these principles of professional and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural homogamy that demographers and historians have highlighted...the social and/or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical space within which any individual is..."at risk of marriage"...is not very large, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging in size from 3000 to 2000 people. Thus, for any given individual, the range of choice is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not very extensive, scarcely any wider than in societies with an elementary system, even if the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices in these societies are precisely determined, while we have the impression, or illusion, of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete freedom in our choice of spouse. \(vol. 1,37\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polyandry and monogamy, and the choice whether husband and wife or wives should occupy one space or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not cohabit are variants specific to certain societies. But all societies have rules, written or other and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between formally sanctioned unions, concubinage or casual sexual relations; and in all traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(non industrial\) societies organised into age groups the married are regarded as the normal and the unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack social status. Rituals occupy the transition from the unmarried to the married state and after marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there exists a sexual division of labour in which the woman gets the most menial tasks. These may differ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the culture but "this distribution is always biased in such a way that male supremacy over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women can never be challenged"\(vol 1 66\) Other contributions make clear that most societies place a taboo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on incest, father/daughter, mother/son, brother/sister, uncle/niece, aunt/nephew but degrees within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousins can marry have varied considerably, since many societies have been obsessed with keeping property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the kin group.Christianity, prohibiting marriage within four/six degrees \(allowing, of course, the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to buy dispensations\) in theory exercised the tightest control apparent in the societies reviewed here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one reads the work through sequentially the question of evidence as well as interpretation becomes crucial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the ancient , classical and medieval worlds the evidence is decidedly patchy and indeed Duby suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the history of the family should be compared to a building site rather than a finished or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognisable edifice.Claude Masset's chapter on the prehistory of the family demonstrates more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything else that archeological evidence is not in itself sufficient to throw much light on the institution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that interpreting what there is is more of a game than a science. Indeed, the first big breakthrough in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, and that itself only part of the story, are the law codes which gradually emerged in the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. Hence it becomes possible to piece together a framework on which to hang other fragments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archeological evidence, clay tablets recording transactions among vendors, a collection of maxims for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sumerian and Babylonian civilisations and so on. To these in "The Survival of the Family Name and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pharaonic Order" Annie Forgeau adds more complex legal texts, wills, bas reliefs and fictional narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in Egyptian didactic literature extol the joys of conjugal bliss. From this evidence she argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages between brothers and sisters were very limited in number and that polygamy, which was officially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctioned at the royal court, was not common outside it. Family harmony was regarded as important. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Pharoahs involved their wives in their deeds and some acted as regents but very generally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of wives did not extend outside of the house and the rearing of children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither classical treatises such as those emanating from ancient Greece nor scriptural text can take us very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far into real life practise.The chapter by Alvarez-Pereyre and Florence Heymann on the Hebrew family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model covers a long period - about 1000 BC to the 16th century.Its archival base is the Talmud , both a code )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a commentary on religious and civil laws , the Torah and the Written Law, as well as the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity based on genealogical tables stretching back to Adam and Eve. Woman is helpmeet:for her man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves his kin \(a family paradox\) and forms a new union: spiritual affinity is stressed: a man's partner may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be either his mother \(incest\) another man \(homosexuality\) or his neighbour's wife \(adultery\) to whom are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added in the book of Deuteronomy, a bastard, a eunuch and a previously divorced wife if she has married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another man. Bigamy in the ancient period was permitted in the case of sterility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real breakthrough in the history of the family is without doubt historical demography based on catastro, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax registers, parish registers of birth marriages and death and censuses, the type of material which exists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some countries from the fifteenth century but for most only from the late sixteenth or seventeenth, which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanded a huge amount of research energy over the past three decades. The main advantage of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material for the history of the family is that it permits answers to the questions how is the family typologised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a given time and what difference does it make to belong to one kind rather than another? Terms such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear, stem, extended, horizontal, vertical, and particular attempts to classify European family forms by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laslett and Hajnal are discussed by Andre Burguiere and Francois Le Brun in "The Hundred and One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families of Europe \(vol2 11-94\).They prefer the three basic models used in the nineteenth century by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederic Le Play "the nuclear model based on delayed neolocal marriage and centred on the conjugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group;the `stem- family'model linked to the permanence of a `house' or property transmitted to a sole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heir;and the `communitarian ' model characterized by complex households of various forms and great size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(lineage groups in which the parents co-reside with several married sons and daughters and their families" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nuclear model has been most open to society and dominated north western Europe during the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age \(and, other contributors argue, long before. The stem family was the preferred form of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation over large mountainous stretches of Europe and can be encountered from northern Portugal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Baltic passing via France and the Alpine zone. The `communitarian' family retained all family members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as unpaid workers to exploit either serf tenure, as in Russia or Poland, or undivided demesne, as in Poitou, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auvergne and Central Italy. Such divisions however, do not provide hard and fast instant behavioural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns and all forms reacted differently to changing economic circumstances. Nuclear families gave rise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life-cycle servants of both sexes, who had to save up for marriage and did this most quickly when wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were high so that they could marry young. But they produced more children and hence a generational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloating of the labour market occurred causing a fall in wages and delayed marriage. Stem families could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience the same characteristics for all but the eldest son: jealousy and antagonisms could exist among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the non inheriting children and ageing parents could be forced to make in support clauses to guarantee their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future as they aged from the son who took over control of the holding. In many ways the "communitarian" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model could be the most flexible in times of economic hardship and strategies could exist to tide certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the family over. However, the mantle of power in such families fell upon the patriarch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissent among family members could be rife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For wealthy families protecting land and wealth from over division demanded careful strategy: investing one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heir but finding livings for the rest: often endowing one or more daughters with the liquid capital brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into marriage by the son's spouse. Dowries escalated in Italy from the late sixteenth century, and in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Britain from the late seventeenth, multiplying the number of daughters who could not be married. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French aristocracy recourse to family limitation was also made to limit outgoings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Embodied in the demographic narrative, then, is a sub- text of further issues: the relationships between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family members, questions of authority, and above all perhaps of the transmission of property, which can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amplified from more qualitative evidence. One returns again and again to the issue of the family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic resources in land, wealth or work capacity and at the end of the volumes I regretted that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent theme had not been given a section to itself. The family is a vehicle for transmission of land, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods, human and cultural capital; but family strategy to preserve landed wealth \(for the rich\) or viability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(for the poor\) very often resulted in different apportioning of the inheritance.This raises the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and property. A recurrent theme in those chapters looking at European pre-industrial societies and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary societies in Asia and parts of Africa is that of the dowry, which is the single most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor in determining the position of most women as wives and widows.In most parts of western Europe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the late nineteenth century this was a sum \(usually of money or goods rather than land\) given to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman on marriage by her father and intended for her support. Managed by her husband \(who by the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period could alienate the asset generating disputes if she sought to reappropriate on widowhood\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she had in vivo rights as wife to a portion of the usufruct. If widowed she had a right to reappropriation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sum but, if still nubile, her family had a right to take it back and to renegotiate her in marriage. Under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statute law of some areas of Roman law, unless sons had been born to the marriage, the dowry should revert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on her death to the woman's family of origin and pass to brothers and nephews but, at least from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth century, testaments made by women could override statute law by a will and daughters and nieces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the church could be made recipients. Except in widowhood, a woman did not control money, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she carried it as it were in her person. At the highest social levels her family of origin sought in a daughter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage an indication of their status, and in violent times, kin group support. It clearly helped to purchase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the couple a high standard of living. Lower down the social scale where a woman's dowry was put into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business for the family it could be difficult to disentangle in the event of the husband's death \(and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endless litigation\) but even so it was at least theoretically something of a hedge against destitution. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European terms the dowry was always most strongly adhered to in Mediterranean countries. It broke down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slowly from about the eighteenth century in the north, and at popular levels was totally eroded by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a female labour market other than domestic service which terminated on marriage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question that ought to be asked is whether the dowry was a source of strength or weakness for women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre- industrial societies. This is an important question not directly addressed in these volumes. In the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dowry money was attached to a woman.She enriched her husband and to a degree his family but her money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also gave her standing. Her position can be compared with the African and Arab and Chinese brides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in these volumes where either bride price existed \(the husband purchased the wife\) as in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African and Arab societies, or where no money was exchanged at all, as in China. In these cases,the wife, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking "her own" belonged directly to the husband and lacked the status given by an endowment from her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. The Arab and Chinese women in this volume were brides bought by the husband and something of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the low valorisation given to Arab and Chinese women even today could well stem from a historic legacy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the bride did not historically bring property into union. In the Chinese case the ongoing value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women seems minimal. They have no association with wealth and in changed contemporary circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this may contribute to the outcome of the current social engineering in China in which the single son is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging and his unfortunate sisters are shovelled off to the orphanage. On the other hand, the persistence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and escalation of dowry in modern India \(well covered in Roland Lardinois, India,:the Family, the State and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women"\(vol. 2\) shows a transmutation in which at one level a suitably endowed husband can purchase a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class life style through his wife, or, at a lower social level, wife murder by his family gives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband and his family access to more wealth through a new wife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What difference did industrialisation make to the family? Martine Segalen shows that change was uneven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the British experience precocious and taken overall throughout Europe the effects were not the same. Co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residence of parents and adult children permitted child care while the mother earned though she hoped as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in turn became earners and the effects of heavy physical work took their toll to pull out.In many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senses the early industrial family was a close unit of mutual support. However, changes were built in. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fathers who were no longer the transmitters of land or artisanal skills to their sons were possibly "kept" in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old age by their working children. In some senses the father figure is diminished, but increasingly from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late nineteenth century the joint effects of state intervention \(interested in a healthier race\) and the struggles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of organised labour found common ground in promoting father as breadwinner and mother in the home. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is argued to be the imposition on the working classes of a bourgeois norm but it can also be argued from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that in traditional societies married women did not enter the labour market unless the family was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severe straits, except on a very impermanent basis to realise certain targets, and so this return to the home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a reversion to a more ancient norm. In addition,the very conditions of nineteenth century life demanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a considerable domestic input from one partner, given limited technology and the struggle against dirt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lice.The failure of organised labour to fight for decent wages for women's work in a highly segregated labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market whilst pushing for a breadwinner wage helped in its own time to perpetuate wage differentials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the sexes and to make possible a retreat into the home. This section might have been developed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7511 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more to look at the construction of early welfare states and their assumptions about the model family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how legacies from these assumptions are still with us at the end of the 20th century. Or, the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state policies under fascism to deal in strong patriarchal models are worth considering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two volumes include a number of attempts by differing agencies, largely church and state, to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some kind of social engineering through the family.Christianity was a very powerful factor in moulding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western family. It imposed upon it monogamy, the indissolubility of marriage-except for impotence and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adultery and the obligation for marriage to be consensual.Widows were discouraged from remarrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Goody suggests for financial reasons as the church hoped to inherit\) though there is biblical precedent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of any form of sexuality outside marriage and of its soiling effects upon both parties concerned resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the construction of particular value systems. An interesting chapter by Carmen Bernard and Serge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gruzinski on the family in Meso America and the Indies\(vol. 1,161\) shows graphically the confrontation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between a tradition of polygamy and the endeavours of the conquista to impose the Christian standard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion whether in the form of Christianity or Islam or Hinduism etc has been far from the only agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to mould the family. Communism has been another with its attempts to create a state in which men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and women have equality in the market place and abortion is widely available \(indeed used in the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraception\) as well as divorce, and the old and unemployed have sufficient state assistance to emancipate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them from dependence on their families. Basile Kerblay's "Socialist Families" \(vol2,442\) seeks to cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of these experiments but it is perhaps here that the volume has most conspicuously dated since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in eastern Europe have revealed tensions and generational disillusionment with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transference from a relatively protected environment to that of the free market economy. The closure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crches, the threats to access to abortion , along with widespread unemployment schemes, have carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous significance for the family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Gaunt and Louise Nystrom " The Scandinavian Model" \(vol. 2,476\) well conveys the interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collusion between the most highly developed welfare states in the world and family behaviour and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension serves to highlight current malaise with cutbacks in societies where transfer payments have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally redistributed wealth and have been the hall mark of advanced egalitarian societies. They urge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that though divorce rates are high, the kin group is stable and that residence tends to be close to older family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members. Almost a half of all retired people have at least one child living within 15km of their home:leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out those with no children, two thirds of all the elderly have children living within this distance.The essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasts very markedly with that of Herv? Varenne on contemporary American society as does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution by Martine Segalen and Francoise Zonabend on contemporary families in France.These three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution make apparent that there is no such thing as the modern western family. All these societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share low birthrates \(though Scandinavia contrasts markedly with Italy and the Mediterranean countries with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub zero replacement\), high levels of abortion and families planned to fit the mother's working life, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have achieved a more prominent place in the workforce, there is less frequent formalised marriage and when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it takes place it does so later. However the chapter on North America, in my view something of a caricature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though presented with great fluency, marks out that culture from what is even its nearest approximation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British experience. It argues that the founding principle of the American contemporary family is posited as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the freedom of the individual primed by the belief/delusion that hard work can carry anyone to the top and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that laggards deserve to go to the wall. The result is a very unstable family form. The child must be free in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sense that his/her mind must be emancipated from intolerance- American schooling with its bland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational fare designed to give offence to no one is a monument to that principle. Parental authority is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very weak and soon cedes ground to the peer group and while the American bourgeois family continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invest astronomical sums in a smart college education-sums which make a European reel- for their children, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it emancipates itself from expectations of close contact. A romantic relationship between cohabiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partners, an ideology of love, is the right of every free individual and leads to frequent divorce in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the adult partners are prioritised. Serial monogamy contributes to weak family forms.Finally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old take off to Florida and housing developments that exclude the young. Generations are thus severed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals remain one of the few binding forces. Herve Varennes seeks to challenge the view of the stability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the white bourgeois family and the instability of the poor black family largely on the grounds of what is not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One may say that, even if they do not marry as often as other groups, blacks in poverty do have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerfully structured families. What that structure is remains a murkier matter. In fact no one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knows for sure the exact ratios of long-lasting relationships in which adults take extensive care )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their children.There is an institutional fact which must make us doubt the accuracy of current )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics about household organisation: there is no system in the United States directly to help )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families with children \(on the model of allocations familiales in France\) and welfare is given )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily only to households where there are `dependent children' and no resident husband. There is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus no incentive to formalize a relationship that may still be real...there is no doubt that, among )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks as among whites, as soon as material conditions allow, families take a decidedly middle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class shape.\(vol2,437\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are of course many different ethnic groups in North America and differing family traditions, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are very strong and hence any overview must end up reductive. In "Families in France" Segalen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zonabend show that small families, working mothers,many of whom do a double day of paid and unpaid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and tailor their families accordingly, large numbers of people, particularly the old, living alone with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris as the capital of loneliness \(the proportion of persons living alone is one person in two\) , almost all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in school by the age of three \(the state considers it necessary to provide schooling for very young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in order to correct social and economic inequalities\), are features which do not preclude strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family networks.These function not only through the transmission of goods and services but frequent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular meetings with parents in retirement and their family connections-75% see their children at least once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a week\). If links are strongest among the working classes, for the bourgeoisie the existence of family houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the country makes possible shared weekends and holidays. There is in this section a very evocative piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on how family memory is perpetuated through photographs, rituals and linkage vocabulary. The authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ponder whether France is unique in the preservation of such close linkages but anyone living in Italy would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say of course not. Stand outside an Italian school and find out how many children are picked up by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandparents after school or observe the rituals of cemetery visits on All Souls' Day or consider the custom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of providing a child in whole or in part with a dwelling on matrimony: these might well make Italy head of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this particular league.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The summing up at the end of volume two emphasizes that there is no sign of the standardization of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures:Japan retains semi filial loyalties in industrial enterprizes: lineage solidarities persist in Africa, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever increasing independence of women in the west is not replicated in Muslim societies where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentalism is strengthening. Some countries in the developed world seek to push up their dwindling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth rates; in the underdeveloped the move is to curtail them and the history of that curtailment looks very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different in China with its single child policy than elsewhere.Finally there are questions with no answers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the impact of the new reproductive technologies. It would have been pertinent in this final section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps to speculate on how the dismantling of welfare states visible in parts of Europe involves shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back care of the aged onto the family \(and hence probably onto the shoulders of women\) and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment fragility and the linkage of pension entitlements with full time in the work force menaces those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part time work or the unemployed with a very difficult situation as they pass into old age.Or, to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why the homeless, those whose families have rejected them or vice versa, are the most precariously situated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all. Nevertheless the message is loud a clear:the family, the maison toleree of the human race in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifold forms, continues to prevail at the end of the twentieth century and none but a fool would put his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money on its demise in the next.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 92.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 74.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 74.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/37)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 73.305 m 316.316 73.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 48.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 73.6195 316.3157 85.4995 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/37) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 233 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/320)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004729 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000008618 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000016015 00000 n 0000016080 00000 n 0000023031 00000 n 0000023096 00000 n 0000030631 00000 n 0000030696 00000 n 0000038484 00000 n 0000038549 00000 n 0000046113 00000 n 0000046197 00000 n 0000052876 00000 n 0000053002 00000 n 0000053096 00000 n 0000053161 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 53446 %%EOF