%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 44 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728053605+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728053605+01'00') /Title (Byzantium and the Crusades) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2619 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Byzantium and the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 13 April 1204 the western or Latin armies participating in the Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capital of Byzantium. The approaching 800th anniversary of that event has generated renewed interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the background, context and impact of that crusade, expressed in several new studies and in conferences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The initial goal of the Fourth Crusade was the re-establishment of Christian rule over Jerusalem, lost to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sultan Saladin of Egypt in 1187. Instead, it ended with the capture of the capital of a Christian state that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withstood all previous sieges and assaults.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1852852984)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(277pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hambledon and London Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Jacoby)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The deviation of the crusade has been the subject of an ongoing and intense debate for the last 150 years or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so. The same arguments have been used time and again, yet in the absence of new evidence, no convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new explanations have been offered. Speculation has centred on a conspiracy theory and a search for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty of having masterminded the deviation. In a broader context, the Fourth Crusade has been viewed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clash between two civilizations, Byzantium and the Latin West, and has raised more fundamental questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding their respective nature and the relations between them. It has been argued that the Latin conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Constantinople in 1204 was the culmination of mounting cultural estrangement, intolerance and hostility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Orthodox and Catholic Christians, partly fuelled by differences in theology, liturgical practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical hierarchy. Others have viewed that conquest as the outcome of a random and unpredictable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chain of events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Harris rejects these explanations and provides his own reconstruction of the developments leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the conquest of 1204. His book deals with the relations between Byzantium and the West in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending from the death of Emperor Basil II in 1025 to the reign of Andronicus II \(1282-1328\). It focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the connections of these relations with the first four crusades launched by the Latin West before 1204, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and briefly considers Byzantium's recovery in the following eighty years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris argues that a key to the understanding of the interaction between Byzantium and the Latin West lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the nature of the Byzantine imperial ideology. The Byzantines considered Constantinople both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political centre of the Christian world and a holy city, a new Rome and second Jerusalem. This standing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by the city's strength, size and wealth, imperial and ecclesiastical buildings, as well as relics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapter 1\). The emperor's standing in the family of rulers, as leader of the Oikoumene or world order was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second basic element of the Byzantine ideology. The principles upon which the emperors based their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings with foreign powers and the crusaders were expressed by a small and influential group of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants with classical education, who served as their advisers on domestic and foreign policy and as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors. Despite the classical ring of their treaties, letters, manuals, panegyrics and writings of history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had a good knowledge of contemporary realities. The traditional display of wealth, magnificence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pomp to impress foreigners, generous grants of imperial honorific titles and subventions in coins and silks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cunning diplomacy to divide opposing forces and military force were all used in order to preserve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security of the empire and the emperor's standing \(Chapter 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris recounts the often-told story of the relations of Byzantium with the West from the mid-eleventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to 1204, with an emphasis on specific developments and a thematic treatment of certain issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapters 3-9\). He considers the rise of Leo IX to the papacy in 1049 as a major turning point in Byzantine-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western relations. Byzantium misunderstood the changed nature of the papacy, which in the following period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid increasing stress on the doctrine of papal supremacy and its claim to universal leadership within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom. It was unavoidable, therefore, that the traditional Byzantine policies would lead to a clash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two. The Pecheneg invasion of Byzantium, which began in 1046-47, the Byzantine defeat by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seljuks at the battle of Mantzikert in 1171, and internal political instability after 1025 opened the way for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Asia Minor by Turkish warlords and the Norman invasion of the empire in 1081. The defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the empire was ensured in the eleventh century by traditional methods, yet the hiring of western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercenaries was a new development that led to Byzantine requests for large-scale military assistance from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West in the 1090s. The worsening security situation of Byzantium thus generated the latter's interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the crusading movement \(Chapter 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Byzantine fears for the safety of Constantinople in 1096-97 did not prevent Alexios I from taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of the passing western armies of the First Crusade to regain lost territory in Asia Minor. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor's insistence on the safety of Constantinople as his first priority offers the background to his refusal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to participate in the crusade, his tense relations with the crusading leaders, and strong animosity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda against Byzantium in the West. The status of Antioch, over which he failed to restore Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, was to affect Byzantine policies towards the crusading movement and the crusader states of the Levant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the following decades \(Chapter 4\). According to Harris, Alexios I and John II were solely concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recognition of their supremacy with no intention of conquering Antioch, while the Latins were 'obsessed' )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7574 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the physical possession of territories \(Chapter 5\). In his dealings with the leaders of the Second Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1147-49, Manuel I used tactics similar to those of Alexios I, yet was more successful than John II with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect to Antioch. By more subtle means than his predecessors, he managed between 1158 and 1171 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impose his tutelage on the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and the two other crusader states, in need of support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Muslims of Syria and Egypt \(Chapter 6\). After the massacre of the Latins in Constantinople )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrated in 1182, Andronicus I was accused by westerners of collusion with Saladin of Egypt against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them \(Chapter 7\). The negotiations of Isaac II with the sultan following the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at ensuring the safety of the empire against a Latin attack, were perceived in the West as outright Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treachery \(Chapter 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Harris \(Chapter 9\), this perception and Byzantium's failure to make what the Latins considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be the rightful financial contribution to the recovery of Jerusalem were the two factors leading directly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Latin conquest of Constantinople. These same arguments were used by western writers to justify the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest of Byzantine territory, namely that of Cyprus by King Richard I of England in 1191.\(pp. 141-42\) In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1195 the western emperor Henry VI exerted strong pressure on Byzantium to provide financial assistance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a crusade, a precedent followed by Innocent III in 1199. In 1202 the pope issued a thinly-veiled threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexios III that force could be used against Byzantium if it did not comply. Although he neither advocated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor condoned an attack on the empire, his pronouncements allowed the participants in the Fourth Crusade to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that it was justified.\(pp. 149-152\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the fall of Constantinople, the three Greek successor states of Trebizond, Epirus and Nicaea competed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the imperial inheritance. The latter gained the upper hand by its successful territorial expansion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic moves, which led to its recovery of the imperial city in 1261. The ground had been prepared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the military weakness of the Latin empire from within the city, and by the alienation of the Greek population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting from the enforced submission of the Greek Church to the papacy \(Chapter 10\). Harris stresses that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Fourth Crusade was a major factor in the ultimate disappearance of the Byzantine empire in 1453, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was however perpetuated in the Orthodox churches and in the cultural sphere \(Chapter 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few remarks about Harris' bibliography. It includes translations of sources to stimulate the reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those unable to approach texts in their original language, yet this does not justify the omission of the latter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following are new editions of sources, replacing those used by Harris: Michael Choniates, )] TJ ET BT 490.604 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michaelis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Choniatae Epistulae)] TJ ET BT 132.356 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Foteini Kolovou, Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae, XLI \(Berlin and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York: de Gruyter, 2001\); for imperial charters delivered to Venice, )] TJ ET BT 357.932 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I trattati con Bisanzio, 992-1198)] TJ ET BT 514.940 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pozza and G. Ravegnani, Pacta veneta 4 \(Venice: il Cardo, 1993\); for those delivered to Genoa, see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I Libri Iurium della Repubblica di Genova)] TJ ET BT 238.004 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I/1, ed. A. Rovere, Fonti per la storia della Liguria, II/ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato, Fonti XIII \(Rome: Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrale per i beni archivistici, 1992\), pp. 262-64, no. 181, and the following volumes in the same series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by other editors; Marino Sanudo Torsello, )] TJ ET BT 288.668 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Istoria di Romania)] TJ ET BT 379.340 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Papadopoulou, Institute for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine Research Sources 4 \(Athens: National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2000\). Harris has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked several recent studies, some of which are cited below. In the list of secondary works, instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Meyer', read 'Mayer'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maps illustrate events and historical processes and further their understanding. Unfortunately, all five maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 3, 7, 77, 97, 167\) in this book are seriously flawed. Numerous cities are misplaced, beginning with ports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Constantinople that appear inland. Corinth, Gallipoli and Abydos are far removed from the isthmus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peninsula and the access to the Dardanelles, respectively, where they should have been sited. Various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretches of political boundaries are unclear or inaccurate in the regional maps 1, 3 and 5. Map 3, ?The Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states in Syria and Palestine?, lacks a date, indispensable in view of the territorial changes that occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth-century Levant. Map 5, ?The Latin empire and the successor states, c. 1215?, contains anachronistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features; Mongol dominion in Anatolia began only in 1242, that of the Mamluks in Syria in 1250, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euboea was not Venetian until 1390. Finally, in map 2 of Constantinople, the street pattern is partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrect; the church of the Forty Martyrs is grossly misplaced, the Genoese quarter is missing and, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was no separate Amalfitan quarter, it should not have been mentioned.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris' book nevertheless makes pleasant reading. His narrative is fluent and enlivened by the frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citation of contemporary sources or their paraphrase. It is all the more important, therefore, to be aware that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it contains factual mistakes and questionable interpretations, only some of which are mentioned here for lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 992 Venice obtained only a reduction of the tax paid by ships passing through the Dardanelles. Therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary to Harris, the Byzantine alliance with Venice in 1082, directed against the Normans, did not expand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing trading concessions. Nor did these concessions cripple the empire's revenue from the export-import )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading tax, or enable the Venetians to monopolise trade between Constantinople and the West \(pp. 39-40, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(113-114\). These sweeping generalisations have already been convincingly discarded.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.252 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.252 657.027 m 457.244 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far more important in our context is the link between the policies of Alexios I and the passage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusader armies through Byzantium. The letter of Alexios I to Count Robert of Flanders, asking for troops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and admitting the weakness of the Empire, has been decisively shown not just to be spurious in form, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also unlikely to have ever been sent. It is also highly doubtful that a Byzantine request for troops was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted in 1095 at the Church Council of Piacenza \(pp. 37, 47-50, 54\), as there was no need for them at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that time. The western sources reporting these events were all written several years later and coloured by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of subsequent developments. They clearly reflect western, rather than Byzantine views.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.592 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.592 545.235 m 492.584 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 492.584 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable, therefore, whether the armies of the First Crusade came to Constantinople in response to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine appeal. In any event, at that time the land route through Byzantium was the only possible one for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large crusading expedition, in the absence of adequate maritime transportation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris' account of the negotiations of Isaac II with Saladin \(p. 131\) requires several corrections. The emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed in 1188 to the sultan's request to build a new mosque \(and not just use an existing one\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. Its construction is mentioned by Pope Innocent III in a letter of 1210 to the Latin Patriarch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Constantinople, Tommaso Morosini.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.688 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.688 433.443 m 237.680 433.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.680 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Isaac II presumably intended to further thereby the transfer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin ecclesiastical institutions in the territories recently conquered by Saladin and especially in Jerusalem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the jurisdiction of the Greek Church. Yet he made an explicit request to that effect only in the spring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1192, which Saladin turned down.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.668 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.668 390.675 m 212.660 390.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.660 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, no Orthodox Patriarch replaced the Latin one in Jerusalem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1206/1207.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.360 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.360 376.419 m 127.352 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.352 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In short, there was no de facto renewal of Byzantine protectorship over the Holy Sites, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as claimed by the author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Various developments following the Fourth Crusade are inaccurately described. A Venetian was elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patriarch of Constantinople, yet the church of Hagia Sophia was not included in the enlarged Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter in the city.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.000 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.000 307.395 m 135.992 307.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.992 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The exodus of many Greeks did not leave the city ?largely to the poor, the aged and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the infirm? \(p. 164\), as high-ranking civil servants contributed Byzantine elements to the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial of the Latin court and ensured the continuity of the Byzantine administrative and fiscal systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Latin rule.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.332 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.332 264.627 m 128.324 264.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.324 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Large sections of the Empire were divided between the Latin emperor, his major vassals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Venice, yet the Roman Church was not the beneficiary of territories as claimed on page 164. Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither occupied Dyrrachion nor the island of Euboea, in which only a section of the city of Negroponte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came under Venetian rule in 1211.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.976 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.976 221.859 m 213.968 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More importantly, there are serious flaws in Harris' basic argument, which hinges entirely on ideology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy and politics, without due consideration for other factors in Byzantine-western relations and long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term developments within the empire itself. His own account fails to provide evidence that the conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal claims of the Byzantine emperors and the popes had any direct impact on the course of events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the conquest of 1204. While the first two crusades were conducted through Byzantium, the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one signalled a decisive shift towards direct maritime transportation from western Europe, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick I Barbarossa still took the land route. The maritime option was also chosen for the Fourth Crusade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was no reason, therefore, to cross Byzantium to obtain financial or other assistance. Harris has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misread the letter addressed by Innocent III to Alexios III in 1202.\(p. 150\) It did not allude to the danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately facing Byzantium from the Latins if it failed to offer assistance to the crusade, but the danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Muslims. Once we put aside this crucial link in Harris? argumentation, the moral justification the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.2517 657.3415 457.2437 669.2215 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.5917 545.5495 492.5837 557.4295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.6877 433.7575 237.6797 445.6375 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.6677 390.9895 212.6597 402.8695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.3597 376.7335 127.3517 388.6135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.9997 307.7095 135.9917 319.5895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.3317 264.9415 128.3237 276.8215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.9757 222.1735 213.9677 234.0535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8129 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pope supposedly provided for an attack on Byzantium is also removed. Moreover, in June 1203 the Pope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly prohibited the use of the crusade as a pretext for conquering Byzantium. On the other hand, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not surprising that the letters addressed by the crusaders to the pope, or the arguments they invoked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuade the crusader armies to attack a Christian state such as Byzantium were couched in idealistic terms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to provide the required moral justification for action. They assume a total and unflinching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedication of the western leaders to the crusading ideal, whose pronouncements cannot always be taken at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris' linear approach leaves no room for flexibility in attitudes resulting from changing circumstances in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of the crusade, nor for individual or collective interests or ambitions. It is hard to believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boniface of Montferrat and especially Venice had none. Harris' failure to acknowledge them goes far to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why, in his account, Venice appears to be no more than a silent partner in the deviation of the Fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade, instead of the major factor it was. In sum, the book fails to deliver on the author's promise. It does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not offer a new and convincing interpretation of the developments leading to the Latin conquest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople in 1204.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example D. Jacoby, ?Italian privileges and trade in Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade: a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsideration?, )] TJ ET BT 149.324 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anuario de estudios medievales)] TJ ET BT 301.640 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 24 \(1994\), 349-69, repr. in idem, )] TJ ET BT 468.284 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trade, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commodities and Shipping in the Medieval Mediterranean)] TJ ET BT 346.664 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997\), no. II.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.636 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.636 503.715 m 555.632 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 78.008 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See P. Schreiner, ?Der Brief des Alexios I. Komnenos an den Grafen Robert von Flandern and das )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Problem geflschter byzantinischer Kaiserschreiben in den westlichen Quellen?, in G. De Gregorio )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and O. Kresten, eds, )] TJ ET BT 164.324 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documenti medievali, greci e latini. Studi comparativi)] TJ ET BT 425.636 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Spoleto: Centro italiano )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(di studi sull'Alto Medioevo, 1998\), pp. 124-40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.180 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.180 432.435 m 344.168 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrologia Latina, CCXVI, col. 354.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.004 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.004 418.179 m 291.992 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See D. Jacoby, ?Diplomacy, Trade, Shipping and Espionage between Byzantium and Egypt in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Twelfth Century?, in C. Scholz and G. Makris, eds, )] TJ ET BT 313.988 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Polupleuros Nous. Miscellanea fr Peter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schreiner zu seinem 60. Geburtstag)] TJ ET BT 235.664 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Byzantinisch Archiv, 19 \(Munich and Leipzig: K. G. Sauer, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\), pp. 94-99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.008 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.008 361.155 m 200.996 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See J. Pahlitzsch, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Graeci et Suriani im Palstina der Kreuzfahrerzeit)] TJ ET BT 395.012 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\), pp. 253-28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.008 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.008 332.643 m 206.996 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See D. Jacoby, ?The Venetian Quarter of Constantinople from 1082 to 1261: Topographical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considerations?, in C. Sode and S. Takcs, eds, )] TJ ET BT 295.664 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Novum Millennium. Studies on Byzantine History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture Dedicated to Paul Speck)] TJ ET BT 221.996 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001\), pp. 160-67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.972 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.972 289.875 m 470.960 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the latter, see D. Jacoby, ?The Venetian presence in the Latin Empire of Constantinople \(1204-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1261\): the challenge of feudalism and the Byzantine inheritance', )] TJ ET BT 379.448 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jahrbuch der sterreichischen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantinistik)] TJ ET BT 126.020 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(1993\), 141-201, repr. in idem, )] TJ ET BT 298.664 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium, Latin Romania and the Mediterranean)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001\), no. VI.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.656 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.656 232.851 m 288.644 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See D. Jacoby, ?La consolidation de la domination de Venise dans la ville de Negrepont \(1205-1390\): )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(un aspect de sa politique coloniale?, in Ch. A. Maltezou and P. 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