%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 69 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080316+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080316+01'00') /Title (The Cult of King Charles the Martyr) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2194 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cult of King Charles the Martyr)] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Do you recollect the date?, said Mr. Dick, looking earnestly at me, and taking up his pen to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note it down, ?when King Charles the First had his head cut off??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.968 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.968 259.929 m 392.960 259.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(375)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lacey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8511592222)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(317pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Lunger Knoppers)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.9677 260.2435 392.9597 272.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Struggling ? without success ? to keep the troubles in Charles?s head out of his own, and to keep Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself out of his grand ?Memorial? to his own times, Mr. Dick in )] TJ ET BT 356.996 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(David Copperfield)] TJ ET BT 446.660 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( proves a prescient \(if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly deranged\) spokesman for the longevity of interest in ? and trouble over ? the figure of Charles I. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early Stuart historians continue to produce rich but differing accounts of this controversial early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch. Downplaying ideological conflict and pointing to short- rather than long-term causes of civil war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist accounts have looked at functional and structural explanations: financial difficulties, the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between centre and locales, and the difficulties of ruling three kingdoms.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.948 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.948 697.539 m 397.940 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.940 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the conversation invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns to the personality and practices of Charles I, the villain of earlier Whig history and not noticeably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved in most recent accounts. Various studies have found Charles inflexible, vindictive in applying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forced Loan, autocratic in temperament, and fanning the flames of religious tension.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.612 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.612 654.771 m 454.604 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.604 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, Kevin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe?s account of the king as a conscientious, able administrator, whose Personal Rule was marked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calm, compromise and co-operation before the Scots started trouble in 1637, offers another \(albeit contested\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(option.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.688 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.688 612.003 m 81.680 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, both literary scholars and historians have recognised the importance of the royal image in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony, painting, masque, poem and printed text. Himself a connoisseur, Charles in many ways controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own image: commissioning Bernini sculptures and the elegant paintings of Sir Anthony Van Dyck, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseeing lavish court masques in which both he and his queen performed, and imposing rules and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations to govern behaviour at court, in contrast to the improprieties of the Jacobean era. But again there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is scholarly disagreement over whether court culture was sycophantic, insular and isolating, part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions leading up to civil war, or whether it educated and advised the monarch, effectively promoting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of virtue to the nation. While Kevin Sharpe sees Caroline court culture as a last manifestation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance belief in the didactic power of images, Judith Richards argues that few subjects ever saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles and the now well-known images ?stayed in royal possession or went directly into private hands, well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from the general view?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.300 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.300 443.187 m 190.292 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While much of the discussion of representations of Charles I has centred on courtly representations, a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume edited by Thomas N. Corns broadens out to popular print from the 1640s through to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.996 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.996 388.419 m 139.988 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.988 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Essays by various authors in this volume stress change and malleability in the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image: from tensions over how to depict the prince and king in the 1620s \(warrior or king of peace\), to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital and national harmony in the 1630s, through challenges in popular print \(including opposition by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers, republicans, and fifth monarchists\), to the image of martyr that reached full force in )] TJ ET BT 489.248 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a text then variously augmented, appropriated, illustrated, turned into rhyme and set to music until well into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet despite all this interest, the single most important text on Charles ? the )] TJ ET BT 395.000 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 464.660 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concomitant martyrology ? has been the subject only of discrete chapters \(three in the Corns? volume\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single journal articles. The martyrology is a big and important subject, but, as Andrew Lacey points out early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cult of King Charles the Martyr)] TJ ET BT 222.368 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one that is ?usually mentioned rather than studied?.\(p. 5\) Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey has presented us with an equally big and important book, giving a rich and detailed account of the cult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of martyrdom from its inception in the civil war years, to its definitive rendering in )] TJ ET BT 435.308 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 504.968 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegies and sermons just after the 1649 regicide, to its official status when the Office of 30 January was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annexed to the Book of Common Prayer in 1662 and its final removal in 1859. According to Lacey, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of the cult, dependent upon a shared set of assumptions about divine right, patriarchy, and passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedience, opens a window into a conservative political theology that has at times been overshadowed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on revolution and change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving in chronological order, Lacey traces the development of the cult of martyrdom through a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed texts: early sermons on the regicide, biographies, political pamphlets, collections of elegies, printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotions, the Service in the Book of Common Prayer, and 30 January sermons before the Court or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houses of Parliament. By tracing the shaping of the cult of Charles the martyr from its beginnings in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s until its last official moments in 1856 \(although commemorations still continue\), Lacey provides the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longue dure usually absent in discussions of representations of King Charles. The result is a rich )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.9477 697.8535 397.9397 709.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.6117 655.0855 454.6037 666.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.6877 612.3175 81.6797 624.1975 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.2997 443.5015 190.2917 455.3815 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.9957 388.7335 139.9877 400.6135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7901 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration and reconsideration of a martyrology based largely on printed and literary texts, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormously influential )] TJ ET BT 146.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 215.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening chapters typify Lacey?s approach: judicious summary of multiple texts ? some familiar, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ? along with the pinpointing of key themes, which he sees as conservative and largely unchanging after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their initial articulation in the late 1640s. Lacey begins with a chapter on the royal actor, setting out how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 103.676 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appeared as part of longstanding fashioning of Charles in art, masque, and verse, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Protestant iconoclasm as exemplified by John Milton?s )] TJ ET BT 353.660 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikonoklastes)] TJ ET BT 420.320 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1649\). The theology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography of martyrdom, Lacey points out, were the common heritage of English Protestants, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even within Protestantism the true martyr was sometimes difficult to determine. Accounts of Charles include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the standard elements from John Foxe?s influential )] TJ ET BT 324.980 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Martyrs)] TJ ET BT 403.640 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: spurious worldly authority, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defendant speaking boldly at his trial, judges who are deaf to his arguments, physical and emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of the martyr, an affective leave-taking with family, steadfastness and constancy of the martyr in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the service of truth, and receipt of supernatural aid in suffering. Lacey also notes one unusual element in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of King Charles: a direct parallel or comparison with the passion and death of Christ, in part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the unique situation of a martyr who was also a reigning monarch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his chapters on the lineaments of the royal martyr, Lacey is very little concerned with Charles?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. The fiscal and ecclesiastical policies of the 1630s ? distraint of knighthood, forest fines, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granting of monopolies, ship money, innovations in the church \(in other words, the actions that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians see as provoking resentment and reaction\) ? do not appear. Nor do Charles?s war-time policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen by his opponents as double-dealing, intransigence, and unreliability, appear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, rather than look at opposition or complicating behavioural factors, Lacey focuses more narrowly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the component elements of martyrdom as put together well before the regicide, by Charles and his followers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are traditional views authorising kingship on the basis of divine and natural law and stressing non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance and passive obedience. Lacey does note that some of the most exalted language about Charles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including early use of the passion of Christ, stems from precise political contingency: the embarrassment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incriminating letters captured at the battle of Naseby in June 1645 and published in )] TJ ET BT 435.968 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King?s Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opened)] TJ ET BT 71.336 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Epideictic techniques enabled writers to avoid thorny political and constitutional issues, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate on creating a sympathetic and pathetic picture of a good king suffering for his people. But one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey?s central points is that the martyrdom ? far from being attributable to unique characteristics in Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself ? is based on a conservative myth reaching deep into the national psyche. The cult was thus ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and waiting, Lacey argues, for its main figure to step upon the scaffold on 30 January 1649.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 3 and 4 on the post-regicide period keep the focus on the cult and its promoters: the bishops and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy who fled abroad or found a space in the homes of the gentry; and the printed texts ? sermons, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegies, and most prominently the )] TJ ET BT 199.340 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 269.000 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Regicide seemed to validate the typologies and genres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already in place. Lacey does not spend much time on the trial and it would be interesting to hear his response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a recent series of articles by Sean Kelsey arguing that the Independents did not intend to execute Charles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, even at the point of the trial, they merely meant to back him into compromise, and that the king?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intransigence and refusal to recognise the court forced their hand and brought about his own execution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.244 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.244 219.603 m 543.236 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does the character of Charles trouble the image of the martyr?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although he does not detail the shortcomings of the king?s character, Lacey does recognise that, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles dead, his supporters ? proponents of the cult ? could develop his image with no fear of dissonant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions on his part; ?Charles was far more useful to the cult dead than alive?.\(p. 51\) The main use was in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 103.676 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which along with sermons and elegies elaborated on the image of king as martyr. As he sorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the complicated authorship of the )] TJ ET BT 215.996 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 285.656 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Lacey stresses that its presentation was remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent with the elegies and sermons that followed, showing Charles as innocent and his enemies as base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebels and Jews. Again, Lacey stresses continuity and conservatism; the themes developed in exile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat would be given an officially-sanctioned public arena with the Office of 30 January and ?were to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commonplace of 30 January sermons? over the next century.\(p. 118\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.2437 219.9175 543.2357 231.7975 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he turns to the Restoration, however, Lacey also begins to note competing versions of the martyrology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 notes that the establishment of the cult in the liturgy of the church represented the triumph of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular memory of Charles and the war. Attached to the Bill of Attainder of the regicides as instructions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep 30 January as a fast day, the service focused on an Old Testament theology of the chosen people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God?s law and human rebellion, judgement and vengeance provoked by disobedience and regicide, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expiation of bloodguilt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, the political doctrines embodied in these texts were deeply conservative: divine right of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings, non-resistance, passive obedience, indefeasible hereditary right and prerogative power. Hence Lacey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments that ?this process of fashioning and ?establishing? after 1662 reflected the process of Anglican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-definition ? and was profoundly conservative and monarchical?.\(p. 143\) Yet Lacey notes at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time that commemoration of 30 January became subject to party politics. With the Popish Plot and calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exclusion, these sermons became even more strident, part of the Tory counter-attack, hence underscoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party nature of the martyr who was reduced to a pretext for political discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey?s final chapters trace how the events of 1688-89 and 1714 made the Fast Day more important than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever. A battle over interpretation of the regicide was waged from the pulpits on 30 January. How could the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution be accommodated to conservative principles, retaining the basic premise of the divine origin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and the need for subordination in society? How could one reconcile the seeming contradiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between everything the cult stood for and the replacement of the divinely anointed king? Here Lacey does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to change in the core message of the cult. Official sermons, preached before the two Houses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament or the City increasingly reinterpreted divine right to mean the powers that be rather than kings, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a significant divergence from the early Restoration version of the cult. Lacey also notes opposition in print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1690s onwards. Nonetheless, in Lacey?s view, Charles?s new link with the Tories and emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a party symbol continued to evince an ongoing line of traditional thought and conservative popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey stresses, above all, the unchanging nature of the cult of the martyr. And in this amply-illustrated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling story, the martyrdom of Charles I shows significant continuity and an important conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strand. Lacey?s materials add important aspects of continuity to the turning points of 1649, 1660, 1688-89, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1714. Lacey is characteristically generous in acknowledging other scholars and careful and thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his own texts and conclusions. His account of the long and stable afterlife of the martyr king is one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which historians and literary scholars should take keen interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But at the same time, the rich and wide-ranging materials that Lacey amasses may have another story to tell: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more revolutionary, less stable, regarding authorship, readers, print, polemics, and the public sphere. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 103.676 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dominated the image of the king in the 1650s, it was not necessarily unchanging or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged, even before the party contestation of the later Restoration period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an important essay \(footnoted by Lacey\), in Corns? )] TJ ET BT 296.636 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Image)] TJ ET BT 378.620 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Elizabeth Skerpan Wheeler stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is no one text of )] TJ ET BT 162.332 225.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 231.992 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but rather multiple editions, varying formats, differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations, with added prayers, accounts of Charles?s leave-taking from his children, and musical settings)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 195.603 m 48.008 195.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Skerpan Wheeler argues that, rather than speaking with one voice, )] TJ ET BT 372.260 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 441.920 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was multi-vocal; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s book was a shifting composite, whose very mode of accretion, accumulation, and public composition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed the nature of the kingship that it celebrated. While the message was conservative, the form of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 103.676 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( radically transformed its ultimate meaning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe continues this line of argument, noting in a recent \(2000\) article on images of Charles I that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while at first sight ?the )] TJ ET BT 147.008 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 216.668 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appears as the most powerful articulation of conservative and royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics?, that conclusion must now be questioned. Following Skerpan Wheeler, Sharpe stresses multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors and influences, composite and shifting form: ?though the message of the )] TJ ET BT 423.632 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon)] TJ ET BT 451.628 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was conservative, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its form, its language, and its strategies it was a radical re-presentation of the king?. For Sharpe, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment of their construction, ?representations of kings and queens were labile, open to reading and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 195.9175 48.0077 207.7975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 9369 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation and shifting over both short and longer periods of time?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.308 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.308 795.075 m 386.300 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These recent assessments \(and indeed the general stress in Corns? volume on change and instability\) provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a challenge to Lacey?s reading. For Skerpan Wheeler and Sharpe, the mode of composition of )] TJ ET BT 488.912 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon Basilike)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, its shifting text and multiple appropriations, belie the conservative message of the martyr king, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot simply be seen as a conservative political theology. Lacey does trace this contestation post-1660, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not look at reception, treat printed oppositional images to the )] TJ ET BT 354.656 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eikon)] TJ ET BT 382.652 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from the Commonwealth period, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include manuscript accounts at any point. Lacey does, in fact, note the limits of time and scope in an already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(big book to explain why he focuses on printed texts alone. But the eschewal of manuscript sources may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to a reading of the cult as definitive, unchanging, conservative, and finally unable to adapt to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times rather than as a more complex ? if messier ? story of multiple adaptations, re-readings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also interesting and paradoxical is that in order for Charles successfully to be shaped as a martyr ? in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own time and ours ? he must be largely kept out of the text. Charles?s own actions, prevarication, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(double-dealing exasperated his opponents in his own day. But as the king himself faded as an actual person, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the martyrology took on deep and rich life. Lacey astutely observes that once deceased, Charles is no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to mar with his actions the idealised portrait of the martyr. But Lacey too largely keeps the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I out of his account. His is a story not only of divine right kingship, but of such kingship asserted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print, by the people, when the king himself is safely dead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lacey tells ? persuasively, clearly, and thoughtfully ? the story of the conservative martyr. But he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also gestures toward an alternative story of the power of print, propaganda, and political debate in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergent public sphere. This is a more radical story and one about which there is much more to tell. If, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dickens novel with which we began, the head of Charles I continues to trouble ? and inspire ? works as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly, insightful, and thought-provoking as Lacey?s ground-breaking study, the world of early Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship will only be the richer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Dickens, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(David Copperfield)] TJ ET BT 238.664 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. George Ford \(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958\), p. 161.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.980 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.980 365.667 m 556.640 365.667 l S BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 351.411 m 90.344 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conrad Russell, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Causes of the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 319.028 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.336 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.336 337.155 m 533.324 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for instance, Richard Cust, )] TJ ET BT 218.660 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Forced Loan and English Politics)] TJ ET BT 402.332 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\); L. J. Reeve, )] TJ ET BT 158.336 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule)] TJ ET BT 353.996 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1989\); Nicholas Tyacke, )] TJ ET BT 216.656 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Calvinists: The Rise of English Arminianism c. 1590-1640)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987\); and Julian Davies, )] TJ ET BT 357.308 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Caroline Captivity of the Church)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.324 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.324 265.875 m 278.312 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Personal Rule of Charles I)] TJ ET BT 285.332 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.288 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.288 251.619 m 551.276 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Criticism and Compliment: The Politics of Literature in the England of Charles I)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987\), and Sharpe, )] TJ ET BT 362.648 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Personal Rule)] TJ ET BT 430.976 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 222-35; Judith )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richards, ??His Nowe Majestie?, and the English monarchy: the kingship of Charles I before 1640?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 146.012 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 113 \(1986\), 70-96, on p. 74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.000 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.000 194.595 m 340.988 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas N. Corns, ed., )] TJ ET BT 175.340 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Image: Representations of Charles I)] TJ ET BT 401.984 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 166.083 m 233.996 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, Sean Kelsey, ?The Death of Charles I?, )] TJ ET BT 321.284 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 410.288 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45: 4 \(2002\), 727-54; and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelsey, ?The Trial of Charles I?, )] TJ ET BT 224.636 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 350.636 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 118 \(2003\), 585-616.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.624 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.624 137.571 m 512.612 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Skerpan Wheeler, ?Eikon Basilike and the rhetoric of self-representation?, in Corns, ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Image)] TJ ET BT 146.000 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 122-40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.996 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.996 109.059 m 260.984 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe, ?So hard a text? Images of Charles I, 1612-1700?, )] TJ ET BT 379.280 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 468.284 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43: 2 \(2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(383-405, on pp. 393, 394, and 385.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.340 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.340 80.547 m 286.328 80.547 l S endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.3077 795.3895 386.2997 807.2695 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.9797 365.9815 556.6397 377.8615 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 351.7255 90.3437 363.6055 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.3357 337.4695 533.3237 349.3495 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.3237 266.1895 278.3117 278.0695 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.2877 251.9335 551.2757 263.8135 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.9997 194.9095 340.9877 206.7895 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.0077 166.3975 233.9957 178.2775 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.6237 137.8855 512.6117 149.7655 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.9957 109.3735 260.9837 121.2535 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3397 80.8615 286.3277 92.7415 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 71 0 R ] /Contents 70 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/375)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2131)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/375) >> endobj xref 0 73 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000002887 00000 n 0000002996 00000 n 0000003106 00000 n 0000003215 00000 n 0000006776 00000 n 0000006904 00000 n 0000006988 00000 n 0000007017 00000 n 0000007145 00000 n 0000007181 00000 n 0000007293 00000 n 0000015796 00000 n 0000015826 00000 n 0000015954 00000 n 0000015990 00000 n 0000016020 00000 n 0000016148 00000 n 0000016184 00000 n 0000016214 00000 n 0000016340 00000 n 0000016376 00000 n 0000016406 00000 n 0000016534 00000 n 0000016570 00000 n 0000016600 00000 n 0000016728 00000 n 0000016764 00000 n 0000016848 00000 n 0000024802 00000 n 0000024832 00000 n 0000024960 00000 n 0000024996 00000 n 0000025080 00000 n 0000032676 00000 n 0000032706 00000 n 0000032832 00000 n 0000032868 00000 n 0000033022 00000 n 0000042444 00000 n 0000042474 00000 n 0000042602 00000 n 0000042638 00000 n 0000042766 00000 n 0000042821 00000 n 0000042947 00000 n 0000043002 00000 n 0000043130 00000 n 0000043185 00000 n 0000043313 00000 n 0000043368 00000 n 0000043496 00000 n 0000043551 00000 n 0000043679 00000 n 0000043734 00000 n 0000043862 00000 n 0000043917 00000 n 0000044045 00000 n 0000044100 00000 n 0000044228 00000 n 0000044283 00000 n 0000044409 00000 n 0000044464 00000 n 0000044548 00000 n 0000045355 00000 n 0000045483 00000 n trailer << /Size 73 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45578 %%EOF