%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141222124025+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141222124025+00'00') /Title (Britain in Revolution, 1625-1660) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain in Revolution, 1625-1660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in Revolution)] TJ ET BT 135.356 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a huge book in every sense, the distillation of a lifetime?s-worth of teaching, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researching and writing, resulting in a large, sweeping narrative account of a very high standard. In over 800 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages and well over a third of a million words, this impressive volume ranges across three and a half decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English and British history, telling afresh \(in the words of the dust jacket\) ?the story of the cataclysmic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in England, Scotland, and Ireland that broke the course of royal government?. Like the Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrance and Clarendon?s classic account before it, the volume picks up the story in 1625, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accession of Charles I, and it goes on to follow and recount developments down to the return of Charles II in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring 1660, and ? in the ?Epilogue? ? a little beyond. Very occasionally the chronological imperative is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broken by a thematic arrangement ? thus the Protectorate?s handling of Scotland, Ireland and Europe is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely reserved for a chapter of its own. However, in the main a strictly chronological approach is retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within and between the chapters, with the whole period surveyed in 27 chapters grouped together into six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts, arranged pretty much as one would expect: the ?background and beginnings? of 1625-40, the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of 1640-46, the troubled period 1646-49 \(described here as ?towards a kingless Britain?\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth of 1649-53, the Protectorate of 1653-58, and the collapse of the Good Old Cause in 1658-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60. At the outset Woolrych makes clear that his main focus will be the period 1637-60, from the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubles and wars onwards, and that he sees his opening three chapters, on Charles?s inheritance and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handling of his three realms down to 1637, as something of an extended introduction. He even invites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(377)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 December, 2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austin Woolrych)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198200811X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(825pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gaunt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers who already know their bearings to skip through to Chapter 4, though it would be a shame if they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, for these opening chapters provide a clear and judicious discussion of the first decade or more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles?s reign and a firm foundation for what follows. Overall, then, this volume recounts the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and of Britain from 1625, though deepening markedly from 1637, through to 1660, and provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grand and overarching narrative of that troubled period. It is by some margin the longest and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial single-volume history we have of these years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At heart, this is a political history, though the many faces of politics in this period ? royal, republican and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protectoral, executive and parliamentary, military and radical ? are all embraced. It is, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly top-down in its approach and coverage, focusing on the political elite and the application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their policies, and on the military commanders and the grand national campaigns they mounted. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workings of successive national regimes and their political and administrative impact form the backbone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume. The ordinary mass of the population in the towns and countryside of England and \(to a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent\) Scotland and Ireland are certainly not overlooked. They are shown reacting to Charles?s religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Scottish policies in the 1630s, electing MPs in 1640, tumultuously swilling around London and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palaces of Whitehall and Westminster in spring 1641 and winter 1641-42, rising up in rebellion in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitioning king and parliament in vain hopes of a settlement in 1642, and responding ? often half-heartedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? to musters and recruiting drives by both sides in the summer and autumn of 1642. In due course, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration is given to the civil war allegiances of the English provinces, to neutralism and the clubmen, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the personal, financial, material and physical impact of the English civil war of 1642-46, to army discontent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the rise of radicalism in later 1640s, and so forth. Thus it would be quite wrong to suggest that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume overlooks popular expressions or the experiences of the masses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, these subjects are generally covered quite briefly and for the most part primacy is given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre, the elite and the political and military high command. Thus while detailed accounts of parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates and developments and of the campaigns of the principal armies and generals dominate large parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume, there is limited coverage here of issues such as ?the people?s war?, the grass-roots, bottom-up, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular perspective on the war of the sort recently pursued by Philip Tennant, John Wroughton, Mark Stoyle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.672 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.672 400.419 m 100.664 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.664 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, while the question of popular rural allegiance in the civil war is addressed \(pp. 255-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6\), it receives just two paragraphs and seems surprisingly kind to the ?ecology of allegiance? thesis. Again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clubmen are discussed at various points in Chapter 10, but we never get a really crisp or sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of the recent alternative explanations of the factors that triggered risings in some areas but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, or of the neutralist or partisan nature of clubmen groups. Excellent as the account of high politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly is, perhaps some of the very detailed, at times almost day-by-day recounting of parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and debates might usefully have been pruned back just a little to allow for fuller exploration of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these grass-roots issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume chimes in with the recent fashion for taking a British or three kingdoms perspective, but is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavishly wedded and glued to the preachings of the most fervent advocates of that faith. Convinced that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of the period covered by this book can only be told intelligibly if it embraces all three nations? \(p. 3\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolrych is throughout careful to survey Scottish and Irish developments, occasionally devoting an entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter to one or both of those kingdoms, but more often narrating Scottish, Irish and English developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in tandem within a chapter. However, he does not subscribe to the theory that each of the three kingdoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be accorded equal space and coverage and he vigorously defends the Anglo-centricity evident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume. Thus, he argues, while the Scottish wars and the Irish Catholic rebellion may have helped trigger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in England, both Celtic kingdoms had been reacting to English policies and English threats, real or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined. The course and outcome of the English civil war shaped subsequent events in all three nations, led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the execution of the British king and in due course produced an English conquest of Ireland and Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an enforced union of those two kingdoms with, but also very much under, England. Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political philosophy, the radical political and religious stances and groups and the new ideas of all sorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which burst forth in England during and after the civil war had at best only very pale equivalents amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scots and Irish. Woolrych concludes, surely correctly, that ?the fact is that England was where most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crucial decisions were taken, and most of the crucial battles fought, which determined the fates of all )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.6717 400.7335 100.6637 412.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7286 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three kingdoms?.\(p. 3\) Like the broader revisionist reinterpretation of the causes of the English civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1970s and 1980s, the British approach which underpinned much of the writing of the 1990s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrected lazy or narrow assumptions and enriched our view of the mid-seventeenth century. But like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionism, the British pendulum can be ? and in some cases probably has been ? pushed too far. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance struck in this volume, of what might be termed enriched Anglo-centricity, seems both sensible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible. The centrality of England is recognised and English developments are accorded fullest coverage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they are set beside meaty accounts of Ireland and Scotland that highlight the inter-relationships and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which the British kingdoms repeatedly impacted upon each other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fairly strict chronological structure adopted here creates some tensions, for the author obviously has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep a number of balls in the air in order to cover simultaneous developments in different parts of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Wales, and of Britain. Inevitably, therefore, the ?meanwhile? approach to history is evident in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters ? especially those on the war-dominated 1640s ? with a few paragraphs or a short section taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward the story in one particular region or kingdom, before scurrying back to the chronological starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to explore another geographical area. This is handled as well and as elegantly as possible, indeed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable care and skill, and even readers with little prior knowledge of the period should be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the overall story and the various sub-plots. Nevertheless, this is not always the best way to give the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearest account of complex sequences of events, most notably the military history of the English civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1642-46, with its bewildering array of national, regional and county-based armies on campaign, with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side gaining the upper hand in one area, at the same time as it was in retreat in another and with a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of very different county and regional stories to tell. In consequence, the military chapters in Part Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are quite dense, with lots of darting around England and Wales from one theatre of war to another. A few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more maps and plans, illustrating the campaigns, gains and losses, indeed perhaps a sequence of maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing the changing territorial possessions of king and parliament in the course of the war years, might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have enhanced the text and guided a novice coming to this volume with little prior knowledge of the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strong chronological imperative also makes it difficult to break away for sustained analytical discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of key themes, for there is always a lurking pressure to resume the narrative and to drive onwards. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways this volume could be said to explore the big questions of the mid-seventeenth century, the causes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and consequences of the civil war\(s\), but that is not how the material is overtly structured or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed. There is a tendency to eschew detailed consideration of historiographical debate and division and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead to pursue and narrate a single line. Most obviously, there is little sustained analysis here of the merits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and demerits of the interpretations of the causes of the war, and the huge and unresolved historical debate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that issue is directly addressed only very briefly. A preferred interpretation does become apparent, as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by implication and the storyline selected, as by direct and explicit analysis of the range of possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations. In his brief introduction Woolrych makes clear that he is sceptical of long-term interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which pursue the causes of the war back into the sixteenth century, and that, while sympathetic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionists? challenge to such long-term explanations, he believes they went too far in the other direction in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissing or belittling the problems of the 1630s. Accordingly, this account of the descent into war gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot of weight to medium- and short-term causation and to the shortcomings and blunders of those at the top. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolrych acknowledges that Charles I?s inheritance was a difficult one, with political problems and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unresolved tensions in all three British kingdoms in 1625, and that these might be seen as ?preconditions? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the civil war.\(p. 5\) But the inheritance was by no means ?impossible? and Charles?s ?success in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managing it would depend very much on his personal qualities?.\(p. 49\) The ensuing portrait of Charles as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man and monarch is fairly bleak and negative, stressing his personal and political failings, and much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blame for precipitating the wars of the late 1630s and 1640s is implicitly or explicitly laid at the king?s door. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one point Woolrych is ?left wondering how many more of his subjects in all three of his kingdoms might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have died in their beds if he had died in his in 1638?.\(p. 106\) In short, the civil war is portrayed as the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?a series of unanticipated crises? \(p. 5\), many of them fomented, provoked, worsened or mishandled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are readier to admit the role of the personal and the contingent in bringing even catastrophic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events to pass; a civil war, even the overthrow of an ancient monarchy, may be the climactic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of a gradual, inexorable increase of stresses in the fabric of society or the frame of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, but it may also come about through a failure of statesmanship.\(p. 4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This stress upon medium- and short-term causation, upon the failures and shortcomings of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians, especially the king, and upon the unintended and unexpected outbreak of civil war in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Wales, is supported by many recent studies in this field and has much to commend it. The concern is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much the line adopted here ? although there are plenty of historians currently working in the field who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would disagree with it ? but that the reader is not led to this interpretation via sustained analysis or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the various alternative explanations, some of which ? such as the long-term explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured by Whigs and Marxists ? are dismissed after cursory discussion in the brief introductory chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others ? such as the recent, more nuanced social and cultural interpretations ? are passed over in near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silence. It is, therefore, unfortunate that the fairly brief bibliographical note attached to this section of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book does not point the reader to any of the up-to-date assessments of the full range of interpretations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer, such as the recent studies by Ann Hughes and Norah Carlin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.280 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.280 559.491 m 366.272 559.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolrych structures his narrative around four so-called ?climacterics?: that is fairly short but crucial phases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?in which political crisis was particularly intense and decisions particularly momentous?.\(p. 155\) These he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies as the periods from the meeting of the Long Parliament to the outbreak of civil war in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales; from the New Model Army?s defiance of parliament to the regicide and the establishment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic; from the ejection of the Rump to the establishment of the Protectorate; and from the ejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protector Richard Cromwell to the restoration of the Stuart monarchy twelve months later. Woolrych )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully presents these four periods as especially important, not only in accelerating developments but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in changing the course of events in ways unforeseen by, and generally unwelcome to, most of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players. Thus civil war, the regicide and republic, the Protectoral system and the return of monarchical rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were far from the outcomes which most of the protagonists were expecting or intending at the outset of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four periods. This stress upon the unforeseen consequences of the climacterics is consistent with, and itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforces, the emphasis found in much of the volume upon unintended developments and unplanned twists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and turns of events caused by the actions of a fairly small number of key players.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The term and concept ?revolution? are reviewed at the beginning and the end of the narrative, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the closing chapter or ?Epilogue?, which ranges beyond 1660 and explores not only the Restoration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements in the three nations, but also selected developments of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. Although sceptical of comparisons with the later French, Russian and Chinese revolutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappy with the use of ?English Revolution? as a label for the period ? too English, too Marxist, too self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained ? Woolrych argues that the events of the mid-seventeenth century can be seen as a revolution as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by Macchiavelli and others and as it was coming to be employed in the seventeenth century: that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?to describe any major cataclysms that violently interrupted the history of the body politic, whether they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanently changed its institutions or not?.\(p. 792\) Focussing upon political structures, central government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and administration and the state church, Woolrych concludes that the case for such a revolution having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred in Scotland and Ireland at this time is not particularly strong, for he detects many signs of a post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1660 return to the pre-war position in both kingdoms, although the huge shift in land-ownership in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Catholic to Protestant is noted. He is much happier with the idea of major and permanent changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effected in England, with ?an irreversible sea change? there, even in institutions which bore the same name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their pre-1640 predecessors, and with many of the aspirations and goals of the mid-seventeenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarians coming to fruition and being firmly secured in the wake of the Glorious Revolution:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not everything that the reformers of the Interregnum had striven for was secured, for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary reform had to wait for the nineteenth century, and democracy as the Levellers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.2797 559.8055 366.2717 571.6855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood it was won even later; but enough has been said to show that they had not striven in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vain.\(p. 796\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These, the closing words of this volume, are indicative of the pro-parliamentarian tone, which is evident in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the work. There is no disguising or denying the author?s clear sympathy for the parliamentary cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for key parliamentarians. While Charles I receives an almost unremittingly bad press here and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded much of the blame for causing the civil war, and the war-time record of his nephew Prince Rupert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is painted in the blackest of shades ? those who stood against him ?paid the now usual price in butchery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pillage? \(p. 282\) ? the parliamentary champions are lauded. John Pym, Sir Thomas Fairfax and Henry Ireton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge covered in glory, while Cromwell is repeatedly supported and praised, even ? perhaps especially ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when in conflict with fellow parliamentarians deemed to be holding back the cause. Thus in the winter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1644-45 Cromwell ?was not pursuing a personal vendetta against Manchester, nor did he relish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonisms within and between the two Houses that their quarrel was generating?.\(p. 301\) Many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seen Cromwell?s attack on the Earl of Manchester in a very different light. In due course others who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(got in Cromwell?s way or did not strive to bring about his goals, including the Rump and the Nominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly, Protectoral MPs and even on occasion the army officers, were rightfully sidelined as the Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General and Lord Protector pursued liberty and justice. With Cromwell dead and the Protectorate gone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Monck in turn emerges as a hero of sorts, saving what he could from the wreckage. This reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly shares these perspectives, largely concurs with the warm interpretation of Cromwell and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally of the parliamentary cause found here and is sympathetic to the liberal, reformist outlook portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so positively in this volume and from which it springs. However, those holding a different viewpoint will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly question or dispute much that they encounter here and readers from the political right or with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royalist sympathies will certainly find their blood pressure rising alarmingly as they turn the pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text has been very well prepared and proofed and, considering its great length, the number of surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literals is remarkably low. Occasionally a slip of the pen or the keystroke has garbled a date, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusing the unwary. Thus Tawney?s century is usually recognised as 1540-1640 and patently cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640-60 \(p. 3\), the discussion on p. 166 seems to focus on winter 1640-41 and not winter 1641-42, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles opened his Oxford parliament in January 1644 not 1642 \(p. 274\). Factual errors are equally few and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far between and generally very minor. Worcester was firmly secured for the king and not for parliament at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of 1642 \(p. 255\), Montgomery castle was very thoroughly demolished at the end of the wars and did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not survive as a residence with living quarters intact \(p. 339\), Chirk castle was not still holding out for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king down to and beyond summer 1646 \(p. 344\), between December 1653 and September 1654 Protector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Council passed around 180 ordinances not 82 \(p. 588\), Charles Howard was never a member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protectoral Council \(p. 700\) and Charles Fleetwood, who was a Protectoral Councillor, was not a regicide \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(781\). The text is supported by occasional footnotes and brief bibliographic guidance to further reading, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(select blend of old and new works ? some expected, some unexpected ? placed at the end of each part. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of 26 half-tones appears in the centre of the volume, but slightly disappointingly there are just six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps or plans ? of the Marston Moor and Naseby campaigns and of Catholic ownership of Irish land in 1641 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1688, plus a trio of more general maps of the civil wars in England, Scotland and Ireland. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotation of the Scottish map claims that ?dates of all battles can be found in the index under ?battles??, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alas the index itself contains no such entry and many of the battles shown on that map appear nowhere in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in Revolution)] TJ ET BT 135.356 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a splendid volume and a fitting high point of a very distinguished career. It provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a masterly political \(and military\) narrative of a complex period. The style is elegant and lucid and it is a joy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to read. Woolrych makes particularly good use of contemporary texts and political writings and he is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent at laying out and weighing up the alternatives open to key players at crucial moments, with brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterfactual excursions. Although the portrayal of Charles I and his government is far from glowing, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of court faction during the 1630s is subtle and convincing, with clear assessments of how those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the king were divided on issues such as religious and foreign policies. But the narrative really gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into its stride once the parliamentarians are winning the main civil war, and from the mid-1640s onwards we )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 5792 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have an outstanding account of events, reflecting the author?s principal interests and sympathies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveying the excitement and richness of these years. He clearly understands soldiers and his story of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Model Army from conception to the eve of abolition is bright, vibrant and nuanced; as one would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect given his earlier work )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.312 752.307 m 190.304 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, his account of army politics during 1647 is superb and provides surely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive account of those developments. The story of the republic and Commonwealth is sensitive, full and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous, and the portrayal of Cromwell, though perhaps too fulsome for some tastes, is certainly strong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid and resonant; to this reviewer, it rings true and clear. Where some accounts of this decade tend to trail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off in 1658-9, losing interest or enthusiasm, rushing through Richard Cromwell?s Protectorate and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled twelve months which followed in a noticeably half-hearted manner as little more than a prelude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an almost inevitable Restoration, Woolrych gives us a very full and convincing picture of the unfolding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of these years, exploring the roles of, and options open to, the various key players: notably Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, army leaders such as Charles Fleetwood and John Disbrowe and the figure who came to dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the closing phase of this period and this volume, George Monck. From beginning to end, a complex story is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related with great skill and a deft and judicious touch, and a mass of detail is carefully controlled, managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moulded to form a clear and magisterial account. )] TJ ET BT 292.628 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in Revolution)] TJ ET BT 393.968 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a magnificent achievement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a magnificent book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Tennant, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edgehill and Beyond: the People?s War in the South Midlands, 1642-1645 )] TJ ET BT 484.652 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stroud: Alan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton, 1992\); J. Wroughton, )] TJ ET BT 207.020 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Unhappy Civil War: the Experiences of Ordinary People in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire, 1642-1646 )] TJ ET BT 319.664 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bath: Lansdown Press, 1999\); M. Stoyle, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Loyalty and Locality: Popular Allegiance in Devon during the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 453.008 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter: Exeter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.008 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.008 458.691 m 236.996 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Causes of the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 296.684 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edn \(Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998\); N. Carlin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Causes of the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 239.360 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Blackwell, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.004 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.004 430.179 m 426.992 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. 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