%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220172339+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220172339+00'00') /Title (Noblewomen, Aristocracy and Power in the Twelfth-Century Anglo-Norman Realm) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3971 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Noblewomen, Aristocracy and Power in the Twelfth-Century Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Norman Realm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This exciting new study argues that medieval aristocratic women not only had power to exercise authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that they did so in different capacities depending on the times of their life cycle. Medieval aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were capable of doing so in the knowledge that their men folk accepted what they did and supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and thus not, as has so often be argued, against their men?s wishes, as their victims, or as acts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion. This is an important argument, entirely convincing and as such forms an important contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of gender in the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although its main body is a thoughtful study of charters and other documents, based around Johns? original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PhD thesis, written under the supervision of David Bates at Cardiff, it has been extensively reworked with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant additions discussing narrative texts like chronicles, poems and other literary works. As the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself notes, the juxtaposition of literary and documentary texts poses methodological problems due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that both genres are discourses written for different purposes. The former were composed as entities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to inform and entertain, while the latter are mostly utilitarian ?frozen? narratives without a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context \(in the now famous words of the late Timothy Reuter\) because the immediate socio-cultural context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(378)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan M. Johns)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719063043X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719063053)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elisabeth van Houts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7471 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that gave birth to them has not survived. Where a chronicle introduces, explains and narrates a story with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions, protagonists and storylines, the charter \(or inquest report, or other document\) plunges straight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the action ? often a grant of land or rights without giving any of the detail the historian or the poet normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives. Put bluntly, the action described in a charter often ?hangs in the air?, and we as historians frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are at a loss how to fit the action within the wider framework of the society for which it was meant. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these problems, how does the historian set about to use the two sorts of narratives to approximate the power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised by medieval aristocratic women?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In each of her ?charter? chapters, Susan Johns helpfully summarises the recent historiography of her subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(witnessing, counter gifts, seals, royal inquests\), so as to enable the uninitiated to follow where her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions originate. Although these historiographical introductions are a clear reminiscence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertation origin of the book, they are fundamental in underlining the novelty of Johns? work. In almost all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases she has to realign the arguments from \(predominantly male\) historians? reluctance to think about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s power, offering the clich of the subjected women as victims of male restrictive authority, to a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dawn of presenting the same evidence as revealing women?s initiatives and cooperation with men, women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions sanctioned by men, or women?s rights defended by women and men. In short, we are presented with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole gamut of gendered cooperatives allotting tasks and wishes to men and women, not as battles, but as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-cultural reciprocal enterprises. Let me give you the striking examples with which Johns ends her book: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countess Petronilla of Leicester ended up in a ditch and in her frustration she threw away her rings; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countess Matilda of Gloucester visited Lincoln Castle in 1141 and together with her hostess diverted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone?s attention, enabling her husband to capture it ; Nichola de la Haye, under siege three times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinedly hung on to her castle by defending it. All three women acted under their own steam, took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives, executed them in roles traditionally associated with men?s actions. They did what they did, not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of men?s orders but off their own bat. Susan Johns? book is so important because it identifies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive scope women had for their own initiatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said this, Johns is the first to qualify her conclusion by pointing out that the scope for action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended very much on the stage in a woman?s life cycle. There is no doubt that the period of a lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic married woman?s greatest freedom was the period of her widowhood. This is neither a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, nor a new qualification. But what is new is that Johns provides us with the evidence )] TJ ET BT 497.636 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(explaining)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the medieval aristocratic woman came to exercise her authority at that stage. The important question is: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if she had never had an opportunity to act independently, how was she able do so, once her husband died? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surely, common sense dictates that the medieval woman must have had opportunities earlier on in her life to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn, experience and act in such a way as to develop the skills for which she is so well known in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowhood. The charters are deceptive as sources because of their quality of suspension; the aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hanging in the air? wrongly suggests that women only suddenly become capable of thinking, deciding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediating and acting once their husbands are dead. And it is at this point where the contextual narratives are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so crucial; the examples of the three women given above are all cases from chronicles and they all concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women whose husbands were still alive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditionally historians ? and twentieth-century British political and constitutional medievalists, following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the path of Stubbs and Stenton, are a particularly guilty lot ? swore by charters and rejected chronicles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unless the chronicles confirmed the charters. Any ambiguity of the chronicles, shrewdly highlighted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johns, was interpreted in such a way as to confirm the charter?s presupposed victimisation of women. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, we read the two in conjunction, we often find that the charter and the chronicle can support each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other in our interpretation, which allows the medieval aristocratic woman leeway of action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book concludes with two enormously helpful appendices. The first one is a catalogue of seals of 145 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, who owned and used seals in twelfth- and early thirteenth-century England. Five are royal women: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edith/Matilda, Adeliza of Louvain, Matilda of Boulogne, Empress Matilda and Joan, daughter of Henry II. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are apparently no seals for Queen Eleanor. The seal for Constance, wife of Eustace of Boulogne, son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of King Stephen, could have been signalled as well. Admittedly, it is only preserved as part of her legacy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countess of Toulouse, but, as Bedos-Rezak convincingly argued, it dates from her life in England where it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was modelled on that of Empress Matilda; her seal, though now lost, was once attached to her charter for St. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radegund, Cambridge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 795.075 m 158.996 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.996 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The impressive number of seals reveals for the first time how wide spread the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custom had become towards the late twelfth century. The list gives the name of the woman concerned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximate date, a short description of the seal, its image and legend \(if any\), and the archive. The dating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles are not always clear, so for example the dates for Empress Matilda are given as 1136-54, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those for Isabella, countess of Warenne are 1162-1198. The appendix has to be scrutinized in conjunction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the chapter on seals, which argues strongly and convincingly that women had a hand in the design of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their seals and that the seals were the material symbol of the authority they could confer. Therefore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography and the legend are all important indications of these women?s self-identification.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second appendix is a list of noble women mentioned in the famous )] TJ ET BT 378.980 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli de dominabus)] TJ ET BT 478.316 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of 1185, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the income and type of lands they held. This is a long-neglected resource, the study of which by Dr Johns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves our gratitude. This appendix forms the graphic illustration to her Chapter 9 on royal inquests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of noble women. The chapter discusses various aspects of the inquest, such as the fact that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the women \(108\) are widows; several are heiresses, some are minors \(male and female\); the ages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women are given with some precision up to the age of forty. Thereafter, they are rounded off at fifty, sixty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventy, or simply state ?very old?. The reason is of course the declining rate of fertility and thus the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the women as potential rewards as marriage partners for men in need of remuneration. The main issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter is the discussion of the information provided by the )] TJ ET BT 340.316 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli)] TJ ET BT 369.656 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on land tenure and lordship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are various ways in which women held land. First of all they held land like men if they were heirs or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-heirs. However, the most common form of landholding by women was determined not by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of their inheritance but by their marriage. Marriage provided the women with two types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land: land acquired by way of dowry, the portion of land given to a husband upon marriage by her birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, which as maritagium, could revert to the widow after the husband?s death; or dower land, the portion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her husband?s land, usually one third, set aside for her upkeep, which could be given either on the day of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wedding or after the husband?s death. The )] TJ ET BT 258.296 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli)] TJ ET BT 287.636 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( interestingly reveal that dowry, or )] TJ ET BT 456.608 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maritagium)] TJ ET BT 512.612 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred mostly in families that could afford to give land worth over 5 to a daughter. Presumably, if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not that wealthy they would give cash or moveables instead. It is important to note that in England, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed on the Continent as Laura Napran has shown in her study of marriage contracts in the southern Low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countries and Northern France in the twelfth centuries )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.300 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.300 386.163 m 313.292 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.292 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, increasingly from the late twelfth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards dowries consisted of money and other valuables in preference to land. In both areas receiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maritagium)] TJ ET BT 90.020 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( land did not preclude women from receiving other lands as part of their patrilinear inheritance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johns notes, however, that of the 108 widows listed, only eleven women held land consisting of exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maritagium)] TJ ET BT 90.020 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lands. This low incidence suggests that most women held more land than simply the dowry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands. In contrast, dower was the common form of land tenure by women. A significant number of widows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had survived more than one marriage and thus could receive income from more than one maritagium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement and indeed more than one set of dower incomes. The list suggests a rate of remarriage between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1:6 and 1:3, which is quite high, but is skewed in favour of richer women. It is likely, so Johns suggests, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthier widows had a higher chance to remarry than poorer noble women. Although the )] TJ ET BT 468.920 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli)] TJ ET BT 498.260 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to list the women as ?victims? of an effective royal administration, it is also possible, as Johns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly points out, to see their position as one of strength in that they were recognised as being in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession of resources over which they had considerable authority for them selves or on behalf of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children. That the king wished to know this information, no doubt in order to use it, does not diminish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say the women had over the land.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The information of the )] TJ ET BT 146.000 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rotuli)] TJ ET BT 175.340 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was compiled, as Johns acknowledges throughout her book, on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information from the localities, namely local jurors providing the king?s justices with the details of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s circumstances. Such information was therefore local, not always complete and depended on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justices? questions asked. Several women occur in more than one shire and no cross-referencing is provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the document. It is interesting that a woman occurs as an heiress of her birth family in one shire but as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow in another: clearly her entries depended on the different rights by which she held the lands. In my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book )] TJ ET BT 61.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and Gender in Europe 900-1200)] TJ ET BT 260.648 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999\), I suggested that the list can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be used to gauge a notion of how the women were seen in relation to their birth family and what information )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.0037 795.3895 158.9957 807.2695 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.2997 386.4775 313.2917 398.3575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3637 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had going back several generations. They might be listed with the name of their father or grandfather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much as by the name of the husband. This private information on their family background and dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history could have been compared with that of such women?s interest in the past as discussed in the first two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of Johns? book. Power and authority to commission historical narratives was one way to ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s past \(birth or marital\) was recorded; making oneself known in a locality as the daughter or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granddaughter of so-and-so was another way. Clearly, we cannot be sure whether the Rotuli record how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women themselves wished to be remembered, but one could argue that the local jurors would reveal them by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the names and affiliation by which they were best known. A woman?s agency is difficult to discern but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not be underestimated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I very much enjoyed reading and digesting this book. It constitutes a significant contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of women and land tenure in England, and to a lesser extent in Normandy. I strongly recommend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it to an audience of both beginners and the well-initiated, in the study of women and gender in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigitte Bedos-Rezak, 'Medieval women in French sigillographic sources', in Joel T. Rosenthal, ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Women and the Sources of Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 326.300 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990\), pp. 1-36, on pp. 21-2, n.74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.004 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.004 517.971 m 282.992 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Napran, 'Marriage contracts in the southern Low Countries and the north of France in the 12th )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century', unpubl. PhD. dissertation, University of Cambridge 2001.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.156 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.156 489.459 m 440.144 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 445.615 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 427.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 427.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/378)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 426.441 m 322.316 426.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.464 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.0037 518.2855 282.9917 530.1655 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.1557 489.7735 440.1437 501.6535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 426.7555 322.3157 438.6355 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/378) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004683 00000 n 0000004792 00000 n 0000004902 00000 n 0000005011 00000 n 0000008572 00000 n 0000008700 00000 n 0000008784 00000 n 0000008849 00000 n 0000016373 00000 n 0000016464 00000 n 0000025142 00000 n 0000025172 00000 n 0000025300 00000 n 0000025336 00000 n 0000025366 00000 n 0000025494 00000 n 0000025530 00000 n 0000025628 00000 n 0000029318 00000 n 0000029446 00000 n 0000029501 00000 n 0000029629 00000 n 0000029684 00000 n 0000029812 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29907 %%EOF