%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728200402+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728200402+01'00') /Title (Women, Social Leadership, and the Second World War: Continuities of Class) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4129 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women, Social Leadership, and the Second World War: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Continuities of Class)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tenacity of the Women?s Voluntary Services \(WVS: they were awarded ?Royal? status in 1966\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining their unique position in the voluntary sector must, in no small degree, be due to the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality of its founder, the redoubtable Stella Charnaud, Lady Reading. Whether or not she would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise any trace of her vision in the organisation of 2003 may be another matter. The current WRVS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(website \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.672 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.royalvoluntaryservice.org.uk)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.672 179.265 m 245.300 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.300 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 262.292 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) gives no hint of the hierarchical and autocratic structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which characterised Lady Reading?s wartime and immediate post-war organisation; indeed it pays only brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homage to its history and the personalities involved. Yet from James Hinton?s detailed analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives of this anomalous, government-backed yet voluntary organisation it would seem that, without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social networks and consequent influence, the WVS as a civil defence entity in time of war would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faded gently into the background, passing its duties to the younger and professional social workers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergent welfare state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The effect of war, especially the Second World War, on changing gender roles for women is a much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehearsed debate within both mainstream and women?s history. Women?s activities on the Home Front, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(379)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Hinton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199243298X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(276pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199243297.do#.Ui3jy8akpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephanie Spencer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6717 179.5795 245.2997 191.4595 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.royalvoluntaryservice.org.uk) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed, established their right to full citizenship within the postwar welfare state. The simple narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that their efficiency in the workforce combined with the management of domestic responsibilities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times of trouble, and later austerity, proved once and for all that a woman?s place was not necessarily to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to the home. However the 1943 Beveridge Report which laid the foundations for the Welfare State )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed a family unit of male breadwinner and a housewife-mother who had ?vital work to do in ensuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the adequate continuance of the British race and of British ideals in the world?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.948 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.948 723.795 m 427.940 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.940 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Women were encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back into the home not least by social pressures and the dominance of John Bowlby?s time-consuming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of child-rearing. The resultant 1950s model of the middle-class housewife whose prime duty lay in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic and voluntary sphere with possible part-time employment for pin money demonstrates, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton suggests, a social and economic continuum of constructions of classed gender roles from the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian period. His argument that it was middle-class women who were instrumental in maintaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social hierarchy is persuasive and once again demonstrates the far-reaching significance of the ?private? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the obvious exception of Penny Summerfield?s research on women?s wartime lives, analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s role in the mid-twentieth century has been focused within the framework of the developing welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, most notably by Jane Lewis, Pat Thane and Hilary Land. It may be that the present generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s historians have scant interest in the world of their mothers. As Lytton Strachey?s review of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorians demonstrated, the following generation attach little importance and even a little contempt for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their parents? experience. Certainly the middle-class world which James Hinton describes of whist drives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ladies? lunch clubs, afternoon meetings and good works is strikingly reminiscent of this reviewer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood. For whatever reason, the WVS ? perhaps because of its somewhat old-fashioned image of green )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleeves and good works ? has not been examined in any depth by historians of social change in the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. As Hinton notes the leaders were middle-aged \(35-50\), and middle classes are not usually the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of historical interest. Yet, as the ?backbone of England? the Mrs Minivers should not be overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or underestimated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Social Leadership and the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 295.988 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is written in two parts; the first investigates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation of the WVS and the second brings the story up to date, focusing in depth in the immediate post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war years. Hinton makes judicious use of case studies to illustrate the regional peculiarities in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation which was dominated by a seemingly intractable central control. Lady Reading?s views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role to be played by the women under her command \(and this term seems singularly appropriate in this case\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be considered as an extension of the social maternalism of late Victorian philanthropy. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(WVS recruits male volunteers today, in wartime it was a female organisation which was partly directed by, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by no means subservient to, the dictates of Whitehall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s relationship to definitions of social class is notoriously difficult to define. To define their place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social hierarchy as dependent on their husbands? or fathers? status may be sociologically problematic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is clear from Hinton?s account that this assumed status did define social class during and immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war. Lady Reading is a fascinating example of one who played this card to its utmost effect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton?s biography of Lady Reading, which underpins the first part of the book, highlights the strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of eastern mysticism she retained from her early years in Constantinople with a practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity that produced her individual style of leadership. Lady Reading?s social status was clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from that of her husband. Although of middle-class origin she had to earn her own living after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War. She was employed as secretary to Lord Reading, becoming indispensable to this Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician who was briefly Foreign Secretary in MacDonald?s national government. The brief marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before widowhood \(she was 27 and he 70\) left her involved in the elevated social networks of her late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband, which enabled her to put her energies to immediate use in the organisation of the Personal Service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League. She was therefore the obvious choice when the decision was made to recruit women to assist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ARP \(Air Raid Precautions\) work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The administrative structure of the WVS was based on eleven civil defence regions with a volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organiser and paid administrator supervising the work of volunteer centre organisers. As a government-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded organisation that relied on volunteer workers, the WVS brought together women from other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.9477 724.1095 427.9397 735.9895 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7211 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, most notably the Women?s Institutes, Townswomen?s Guilds and the Guiding movement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local leadership was largely drawn from women who were already leaders of other organisations and a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy of command was established from the central offices in Tothill Street, London. Expenses paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included re-imbursement of first-class railway travel, indicative of the lifestyle of the women involved. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar green uniforms reflected the status of those entitled to wear them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Hinton has undertaken an in-depth study of the regional archives of the WVS, which are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive than many other associations. Strangely the London archives are missing, but this ensures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the relationship between the regions, even those in the far north-east of England, and the centre is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted. The study also omits Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but the regional differences that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become apparent within England provide a useful framework within which further local studies might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located. It is doubtful whether more wide-ranging geographical analysis would have contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly to this discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately for the historian, the ?weeding ? of the archive was left to the WVS itself and, as a result, far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more material has been retained than the familiar committee minutes and public statements. This mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation has enabled the author to detail the sometimes less than friendly relations between the centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the regions and to explore the nuances of the interpersonal networks and mores of the urban and rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites who formed the leadership of the WVS. The detailed primary material underpinning the book provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than enough evidence for the significance of personality, politics and idiosyncratic local social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks in understanding the deep-seated continuities of social class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the women who joined the WVS leadership belonged to non-partisan organisations like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Institute. Hinton nevertheless interrogates the role of party politics within the supposedly non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisan, but state-funded, WVS. He argues that with the rise of the professional society and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation of local party politics the social elites had withdrawn from local political involvement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower echelons yet still maintained their superior social status within the region. Labour party women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently found it particularly irksome to work with the WVS; they were far more politically active than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their conservative counterparts but had equally forceful personalities amongst their leadership. Hinton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however points out that Labour party supporters amongst the WVS leadership tended to be middle-class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus not compromising the dominance of this group. Hinton indeed asks whether the presence of working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women who did join the WVS simply acted to reflect and confirm the superiority of the middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members. The experience of the practice of middle-class philanthropy was still in working-class memory. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton observes, ?it is difficult to exaggerate the hatred with which Labour women viewed philanthropy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the de haute en bas condescension involved?.\(p. 71\) However the regional differences are important in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coventry and Leicester who did have Labour women leaders maintained much better relations with Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(councils.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case studies demonstrate that although minutes suggest centralised control from Tothill Street, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres did claim some autonomy. Despite the frequent references to Lady Reading?s autocratic style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership and the lack of power held by the local organisers, the County Durham section was one group that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defied central control, and Hinton devotes a chapter to examining the place of social class in the WVS in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area. He notes that Easington represented very different forms of social power with the core middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprising less than 5% of the population. The County organiser, Sabrina Gordon, widow of the bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jarrow, was unable to work with Winifred Waring, the local Easington organiser. Eventually the Easington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre was closed down because of conflict and lack of compliance with the central organisation. That this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to be an isolated and well-documented event also illustrates how harmonious relations were in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other regions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton locates the work of the WVS in relation to the plethora of female associations in existence ? not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy task given the number of these organisations recently identified by David Doughan and Peter Gordon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 79.299 m 48.008 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The glossary of abbreviations is extremely useful. Membership of one or more of these associations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to have been part of the quasi-public role of the middle-class woman before, during and immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war; this study of the WVS, which drew its members from these established groups, further )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 79.6135 48.0077 91.4935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7361 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates the complex workings of the rural and urban female networks upon which such organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew. Tory ladies and active Labour women complete the cast of thousands of women who joined the WVS, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming local leaders and regional organisers. Not surprisingly the women who became leaders \(personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed by Lady Reading\) did not always see eye to eye and, accustomed as they were to their ?natural? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, there appears to have been much in-fighting as to who controlled the organisation of evacuees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provision of food for troops and the housewives? service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton?s analysis, which so firmly integrates social class and gender, is welcome, since neither polarised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of working and middle class, or male and female experience provide a satisfactory framework for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the politics \(with a small ?p?\) of the wartime voluntary sector. Rather than seeing the war as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief window of opportunity for an embryonic classless society, James Hinton offers a persuasive analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which places the continuities of class in the hands of the upper middle- / upper-class ladies and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence in the urban and rural networks of power. The continuing hegemony of middle-class values into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s can be seen through the women?s magazines of the period and the experience of the grammar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools modelled on upper class public schools that, even after the apparently meritocratic changes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944 Education Act, attracted primarily middle class pupils. The WVS provides an ideal focus for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of this social and political power and the figure of Lady Reading acts as a wonderful example, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a nineteenth-century Lady Bountiful, but a woman who saw in her social position a duty and a mission to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put the ?character? of the female middle-class to work for the good of the nation in war and peace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton also raises the thorny problem of these clearly autonomous women and their relationship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary ideas of feminism. The divisive ideological gulf between maternal feminism and equal rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists did, he argues, diminish somewhat during the war; but, as the furious discussions over teachers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pay in the 1950s demonstrate, although these issues may have been overlooked at the time they certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained bubbling under the surface. Hinton observes that equal pay was less important to these women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the ?exercise of their skills as social leaders?. \(p. 179\) The relationship of social status and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence is of course at the centre of any discussion on the definition of social class. What is interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is that Hinton suggests that, through an analysis of WVS activity, we can see how the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves ordered the importance of social status over financial gain. Although not part of this current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research \(and the bibliography is evidence of the enormous number of files there are to consult\) this study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paves the way for a fruitful oral history investigation into the perceptions and memories, of what will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the younger members or children, of the way the management of the WVS reflected local social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton neatly examines the diversity of experience, even among the upper-/ middle-class women. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that most of the leaders tended to be widows and spinsters with a background in philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Single women may not have had the maternal ?expertise? but they did have more time to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary work, following the Victorian model of public social maternalism. For professional women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined the WVS, the relationship with the leisured amateur appears to have been particularly problematic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This antipathy became obvious after the war when the future of the WVS was in question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was expected that at the end of hostilities the WVS role would disappear and although a two-year delay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was negotiated, Hinton concludes that without the active involvement of Lady Reading and her contacts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, it is unlikely that it would have survived even into the 1950s. Out of the one million members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly as many as four-fifths of the membership left to take up their previous activities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.968 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.968 176.835 m 476.960 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, if continuities of class remained after the war, patterns of women?s work did change and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-aged, middle class women without training, the professionalisation and growth of social work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to undermine their role within the voluntary sector and the WVS. Inevitably this led to a decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the significance of social leadership. Lady Reading was clearly on her own in her vision that the WVS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would provide a peacetime model for the ongoing relationship between government and volunteer bodies. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears a pragmatic decision on the part of the government to use the WVS in communicating to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housewives the message of austerity, food education and fuel economy. It might also be significant that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s saw an increase in the number of women embracing the Myrdal and Klein dual role model of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9677 177.1495 476.9597 189.0295 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 4564 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and gaining status through paid work rather than through membership of voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations. It was not only the WVS membership that declined into the 1960s: other organisations reported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar declines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lady Reading mobilised the middle-class, middle-aged women who were the ?backbone of England? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through colonising the multitude of women?s organisations in existence during the 1940s. The leadership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women recruited through these organisations and existing social networks confirmed their superior position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the exercise of their character and notions of duty. ?Intelligence? came last in Reading?s list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desirable attributes, which included tact, patience, understanding and cheerfulness. Yet, worthy though these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be, they could not compete with professional expertise expected in the 1950s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinton?s detailed research into the WVS archive and examination of their close relationship with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations is a welcome addition to understanding the central role that women, supposedly marginalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from definitions of social class, played in the maintenance of middle-class hegemony through the war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the 1950s. ?Imagined communities? of class maybe difficult to define, especially within the disruption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war, but Hinton?s foregrounding of the position of the middle-aged woman through her voluntary work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds another dimension to the construction of class and gender identities into the 1950s. By adding age to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mantra of gender and class, Hinton offers a nuanced framework for further research into the significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the role of the not-so humble housewife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Insurance and Allied Services [SIAS])] TJ ET BT 276.320 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: HMSO, 1943\), Cmd. 6404, p. 53.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.988 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.988 477.459 m 541.976 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gordon and David Doughan, eds, )] TJ ET BT 255.980 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of British Women's Organisations, 1825-1960)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Woburn Press, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.332 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.332 448.947 m 270.320 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Note supplied by Dr Hinton] A February 1951 Home Office estimate of numbers leaving the WVS )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a figure of 200, 000, but sources suggest that by 1951 membership had been substantially )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated: p. 166.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.012 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.012 406.179 m 218.000 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Hinton is pleased to accept this review without further comment.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 364.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 346.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 346.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/379)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 345.417 m 322.316 345.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2137)] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.royalvoluntaryservice.org.uk)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9877 477.7735 541.9757 489.6535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 216.3317 449.2615 270.3197 461.1415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.0117 406.4935 217.9997 418.3735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 345.7315 322.3157 357.6115 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/379) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004853 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000005072 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009081 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000016782 00000 n 0000016812 00000 n 0000016940 00000 n 0000016976 00000 n 0000017060 00000 n 0000024324 00000 n 0000024354 00000 n 0000024478 00000 n 0000024514 00000 n 0000024598 00000 n 0000032012 00000 n 0000032042 00000 n 0000032170 00000 n 0000032206 00000 n 0000032311 00000 n 0000036928 00000 n 0000037056 00000 n 0000037111 00000 n 0000037239 00000 n 0000037294 00000 n 0000037422 00000 n 0000037477 00000 n 0000037605 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37700 %%EOF