%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150528082153+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150528082153+01'00') /Title (Britain's Place in the World: A historical enquiry into import controls 1945-60) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2087 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain's Place in the World: A historical enquiry into import )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(controls 1945-60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan S. Milward)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Brennan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415139373)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Britains-Place-in-the-World-isbn9780415139373)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Gamble)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is considerable agreement among historians that any explanation of Britain's post-war relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic decline must take into account the foreign economic policy choices made by British governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1945. A common argument in the 1960s used to justify programmes of economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation was that Britain for too long had pursued grandeur at the expense of growth, and had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow to come to terms with its altered status in the post-war world. Specifically British Governments were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charged with giving priority to rebuilding Britain's former position in the world, restoring its imperial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial and financial supremacy, rather than with strengthening and reconstructing the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial base. One of the first such accounts was provided by Andrew Shonfield and it was later developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Stephen Blank. British economic decline was ascribed to a policy choice which gave greater priority to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign economic policy, involving heavy additional costs in the shape of overseas military spending and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures required to defend sterling as an international currency. These policies ultimately proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsustainable, but while they were in force they imposed a severe handicap on domestic economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such accounts have often been considered more plausible than cultural explanations of British decline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they point to identifiable actors and policy choices. But there is still a problem in explaining exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why British Governments should have acted the way they did. Was Churchill's rhetoric about Britain being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the centre of the three circles of Europe, Commonwealth, and Anglo-America ever really credible ? One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument has been that British policy was based on illusions about Britain's post-war strength, and that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took a very long time for these illusions to be dispelled. But this assumes that there was a plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative strategy which British governments might have followed which would have brought greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. There has been considerable debate among historians as to whether Britain's relative economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline after 1945 was because British governments failed to liberalise sooner, or because they gave priority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to spending on welfare and defence, or because they failed to create their own developmental state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recently, however, the idea of British decline has been questioned. Britain, it is argued, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous two centuries had evolved its own distinctive form of capitalism \(predominantly commercial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial\) and its own form of developmental state \(predominantly military\) and that as a result policy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not based on illusions, but on a rational understanding of the specific interests of the British economy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British state. If policy was at fault in the 1950s it was because it returned too slowly to the principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had given Britain commercial and financial supremacy in the nineteenth century, and which had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned for twenty years after 1931.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milward and Brennan bring new light to bear on this debate through a detailed study of a particular aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign economic policy in Britain between 1945 and 1960, the question of import controls. They argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(convincingly\) that import controls have been neglected in comparison with tariffs, which however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in earlier periods of state building, had become much less important by the middle of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Their purpose is to draw attention to a key policy area that has been relatively neglected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of the period, or dismissed as simply a hangover from the 1930s and the war-time economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They also raise some fundamental questions as to the nature of Britain's engagement with Europe. In doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so they endorse a version of the Shonfield/Blank thesis, but it has a different twist, because it is grounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less in high politics and more in the detail of trade negotiations and the policies of individual ministries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the industries they supervised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their main idea is quite simple. Quantitative import restrictions in the form of import quotas rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tariffs were the main instrument of trade policy used by Governments after 1945. The ostensible reason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotas was to save hard currency \(especially dollars\) but although this was important they show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly that there were many other objectives -including the strategic military importance of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries, regional development and employment, and safeguarding infant industries in new technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields. The system of quotas was a patchwork without an overall design or rationale. This is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons the authors argue why its importance has been overlooked, both at the time and subsequently. Policy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers failed to understand the extent to which the success of the British economy in the post-war period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction in rebuilding exports and eliminating the balance of payments deficit was due to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7116 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative restrictions on trade, which provided in their detailed application an embryonic industrial policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain sectors were protected and allowed to develop. Some of these became key industries of the future, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and electronics. Other industries such as jute were protected purely for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional employment reasons and would not otherwise have survived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The general view in the UK of quantitative import controls, which was in line with the official view at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, is that they were a temporary and transitional measure, a legacy of the depression and the war economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were dismantled as quickly as possible. They have no part to play in a dynamic, open, free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global economy, because they reduce flexibility and are likely to misallocate resources and so depress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity and living standards beyond what they might otherwise be. Only an open economy can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive enough to deliver a high productivity, high income economy. On this view, which has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been forcefully restated by economists like Paul Krugman in his diatribes against 'strategic trade policy' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protectionism has always been a political interference in markets which undermines economic efficiency by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing powerful lobbies to impose their preferences through the political process, the cost being borne by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all citizens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milward and Brennan are careful not to make a general case for protectionism, still less for quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(import controls. There are many circumstances in which their use would not be appropriate. They merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out that in the post-war period the extent to which Britain's trade recovery depended on them was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficiently understood, and that this led to serious policy errors in the 1950s, particularly in relation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves to European integration. British policy-makers, according to Milward and Brennan, thought that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's commercial position was stronger than it really was in relation to Europe. This illusion allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to oppose the moves to a European bloc and propose instead a vision of a one-world system in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all currencies would be convertible and there would be no trade discrimination. The purpose behind this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plan, which had several versions, the most notorious being Operation Robot in 1952, was to re-establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain as a leading commercial and financial power, the right arm of the US, and maintain sterling as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leading international currencies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this to be possible the British balance of payments had to be strong. The Treasury estimated that to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the overseas military spending and overseas investment which the British state and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies wished to fund an annual surplus of #200 -#300 million was required. The economic liberals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ascendant in key departments and agencies - the Treasury, the Board of Trade, and the Bank of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England - failed to recognise that their strategy actually required a continuation of quantitative import )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls, and participation in the kind of regime regulating trade and competition which the EEC initiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1956. Instead they encouraged the dismantling of these controls and strongly opposed participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussions which led to the setting up of the EEC. The result was to weaken many sectors of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy substantially, contributing to the periodic weakness of the balance of payments which led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterling crises, and ultimately creating the conditions in the 1970s which produced the elimination of large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the manufacturing base.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strength of this argument depends on the calculations the authors make about the effects of quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(import controls. They estimate that at its height in 1946-9 it reduced the import bill by 20 per cent; by 1955 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this had declined to 5.3 per cent. In terms of manufacturing they estimate that 16.5 per cent of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing output would have disappeared if quantitative import controls had not been in place. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge that in many cases special interests and lobbies were at work in pressing for controls, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the industries protected had no future unless protection were prolonged indefinitely. But for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, such as the petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries the fourteen years of protection were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential in getting them established.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this argument is sound then it necessitates a substantial revision of the way in which post-war history has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been written, and it provides new insights into Britain's tangled relationship with Europe. The essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question is whether the British governments have ever been correct to imagine that they could protect British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests outside a European regional arrangement. Milward and Brennan argue that the crucial error of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policy was to believe that Britain could maintain leadership of Europe and leadership of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth simultaneously. It sought both in order to convince the United States that it would continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as its most important ally. But the liberalisation policy it pursued through the OEEC to maintain leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe - the one world system of convertibility of all currencies and abolition of all controls and trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination - was rejected by the other European countries, and in particular by the French, who wished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build a customs union within Europe which would discriminate against countries outside it, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the USA. The other European countries were strongly opposed to non-discrimination, and found it odd that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British were urging non-discrimination on them while at the same time seeking to maintain its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of discrimination and preferences within the Commonwealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reluctance of the British to put themselves at the heart of the European project did not begin in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s. Maintaining a global role, and all which that has entailed, has been the dominant objective of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments this century, and was only shaken briefly when the Conservative party first under Macmillan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even more so under Heath, became committed to membership of the EC. Under Thatcher the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives reverted to an increasingly sceptical stance and many began to argue in the manner of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s that British interests were best served if Britain stayed independent of any political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union in Europe. Milward and Brennan doubt this. They ask: "Will Britain's partners in the European Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefinitely allow imports from the United Kingdom unhindered access to a large Single Market while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing Britain to retain the sovereign privilege of undervaluing its currency at will ?" \(p. xv\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Milward and Brennan are right the failure of the British economy to modernise successfully in the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1970s and to perform as well as the other European economies was directly related to the policy mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of backing liberalisation in the 1950s and shunning the protection which would have been provided inside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EEC. The modernisation programmes of the 1960s and early 1970s proclaimed objectives considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the capacity of government to deliver. The result of those failures was to polarise political opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and encourage a revival of economic liberalism on the right and national protectionism on the left. Milward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Brennan do not rehabilitate protectionism but they do enter a warning against assuming that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendancy of market liberalism in the 1980s and 1990s means that all previous economic history in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be reinterpreted. The advocates of market solutions believe that a much more thorough going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalisation in the 1950s would have avoided many of the problems of the 1960s and 1970s. What Milward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Brennan show however is that in important respects liberalisation went too far in the 1950s. It disrupted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the partial and piecemeal industrial strategy which the quantitative import controls represented without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putting anything in its place, in the belief that the British economy was strong enough to perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully in a global economy free of trade barriers. This turned out not to be so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milward and Brennan treat the ideas of the economic liberals in the government in the 1950s as doctrines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were blind to some of the practical realities which government faced. They were not just ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however. There were also powerful interests lined up behind them to promote their adoption, both within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government machine and in the industrial sectors. Their appendices show in detail how different industries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were treated and the arguments that were deployed for protection. These varied considerably, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest arguments were often strategic. With the war so recent the need to preserve particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing capacities was seen as essential. The case that is made is for the relative success of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial policy which did use criteria for picking winners and shaping the pattern of industrial activity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy was pragmatic rather than ideological. No overarching concept like the development state informed it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the results were remarkably similar to the kind of economic success which states consciously pursuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what later was designated a developmental state strategy experienced.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4778 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The implication of the analysis is that this embryonic developmental state might have developed further had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain participated as a full member in the European Community from the outset. On this view European co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation is a matter of negotiation between states, and the process of European integration has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted because in general European co-operation has proved a success, boosting the living standards and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic security of most citizens within the EU. On this view there is no alternative to participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European integration for Britain which will deliver as much, and British economic performance has suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the post-war period by the reluctance successive British governments have shown to become more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milward and Brennan do make a powerful case for re-evaluating the importance of quantitative import )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls in Britain's post-war reconstruction, and they shed new light on the economic reasoning which led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British governments in the 1950s to reject at that time participation in the EEC. But the lessons they wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw from this will remain controversial. They tend to underplay some of the persistent structural features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which can account for some of the policy choices they find so perverse. Maintenance of Britain's global role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was indeed incompatible with full participation in the EEC, yet if Britain could not present itself as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of Europe, then its importance to the United States was bound to decline. But the counter-argument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the long run Britain's interests did lie in the creation of a one world system rather than a European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional bloc. On this reasoning it is irrelevant that policy-makers had illusions in the 1950s \(it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising if they had not\). What they did have was a deep sense of the particular character and strengths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British economy which would be best served by returning as quickly as possible to the one-world system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of convertible currencies and free trade which had been lost in 1931. Britain's economic and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures have been so shaped by that experience that it has proved very difficult to pursue any other kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. The period between 1931 and 1951 - the high tide of national protectionism - does look aberrant in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long sweep of British economic and political history. Part of Milward and Brennan's case is that it need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be aberrant. Properly understood, Britain's post-imperial destiny is to be part of a regional European bloc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is informed more by the French than the British view of how the global economy should be organised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is certainly the big strategic issue of political economy for Britain in the second half of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and it is still unresolved. Milward and Brennan provide an important new angle from which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect on it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 324.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 324.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/38)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.145 m 316.316 323.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/322)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.4595 316.3157 335.3395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/38) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000002810 00000 n 0000002919 00000 n 0000003029 00000 n 0000003138 00000 n 0000006699 00000 n 0000006827 00000 n 0000006911 00000 n 0000006976 00000 n 0000014207 00000 n 0000014272 00000 n 0000021441 00000 n 0000021506 00000 n 0000027827 00000 n 0000027911 00000 n 0000032742 00000 n 0000032870 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32964 %%EOF