%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922073736+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922073736+01'00') /Title (Meanings of Manhood in Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4173 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Meanings of Manhood in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The explosion of research on early modern gender in England has focused primarily on the experience or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of women. Alexandra Shepard's excellent new book forms part of a new wave directing our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention equally to the construction of early modern masculinity. What gave men 'worth' in the eyes of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries? How did they achieve and retain 'manhood'? The plural title is significant. As Shepard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, male codes of honour and esteem varied far more according to factors such as age and status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than was the case for women. Only a minority of men possessed all the required attributes, and enjoyed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public credit they bestowed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shepard's book will take its place alongside the work of Anthony Fletcher, Elizabeth Foyster, Susan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amussen and Anna Bryson as a key text for early modern masculinity. It should also be read alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garthine Walker's recent )] TJ ET BT 156.464 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England )] TJ ET BT 444.440 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2003\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also addresses issues of male honour and violence. Shepard's emphasis on the importance of age and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life-cycle links her work further to that of Paul Griffiths and Ilana Ben-Amos \(on youth\) and Keith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas and Lynn Botelho \(on old age\). Shepard's own book contributes not only to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity, but to our understanding of youth, old age, and the broader operation of gender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first three chapters, based mainly on medical treatises and prescriptive literature, explore the theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of early modern manhood. Later chapters, focusing on social practice and tensions, draw heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(380)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Shepard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198208189X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Capp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7418 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the extremely rich records of the University courts of Cambridge. These present an obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological problem, as Shepard acknowledges, in that the social dynamics of a university town differed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly from those of other urban centres, but she deploys a range of counter-arguments to justify her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice. The Cambridge courts dealt with many cases where plaintiff or defendant had only a tenuous link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the University, so that their records are as much about town as gown. Operating with written rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral testimony, unlike most secular courts, they generated a rich body of deposition material. And the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival of the local ecclesiastical records allows useful comparisons to be made, for example, between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of defamation litigation in secular and church courts. Shepard has also drawn on other ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and other secular records \(notably London companies' minutes\) to balance her Cambridge material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key themes of the book is that while patriarchy privileged the male sex, by no means all men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were beneficiaries. Full manhood implied a specific age-range, sufficient economic independence to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a family, and an appropriate 'temperament' enabling the individual to govern his own passions as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the behaviour of his dependants and inferiors. Shepard gives even more weight to age than to status in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessing these qualifications, at least for the earlier part of the period. Youth was widely perceived in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of excess and instability. Full manhood belonged only to the 'manly age', and while contemporary writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed a range of age-schemes, most allowed only about fifteen years \(commonly 35?50\) before the onset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of old age brought diminished capacities and reduced status. Tobias Whitaker thought that by sixty 'naturall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbecillity' rendered a man useless to the commonwealth, while for William Bullein, still more pessimistic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old age began at thirty-five. Even within that narrow window of opportunity, only a minority were held to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess a 'complexion' enabling them to govern themselves and their families judiciously, free from unruly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passions. As Shepard remarks, domestic conduct books were intended to educate male householders about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their duties and responsibilities as much as their rights. William Gouge, for example, devoted as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis to male tyranny or neglect as to 'froward' wives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By no means all men were householders, and many who married never achieved full economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. For some, this brought a lasting sense of inadequacy and failure. But Shepard rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises alternative 'meanings of manhood', other criteria by which subordinate males \(especially, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not exclusively, the young and the poor\) might attain a sense of worth and status within their own social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milieu. Young bachelors, in particular, might assert a radically different set of values, characterised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual promiscuity, heavy drinking, and violence. While many of their sexual 'conquests' may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empty brags and fantasy, the Bridewell records confirm that London apprentices were among the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent patrons of the capital's bawdy houses. Cambridge students were also given to youthful excess. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of nocturnal revellers \(two of whom later became bishops\) masqueraded as the proctor's men and used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that cover to hurl insults, smash windows and make themselves generally obnoxious. The cultural world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such young men revolved around friendship and camaraderie. In some cases, as in Shrovetide attacks on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London bawdy-houses, young men asserted a collective appropriation of the public authority they generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked, a pattern also visible in the fictitious adventures of the Pinder of Wakefield and his band. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, touched on rather briefly here, they might find a sense of power and achievement through football )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matches and other trials of strength between rival parishes or trades. Individuals, or mixed couples in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('dancing matches', might also win temporary fame at seasonal festivities throughout the year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Youthful excess leads on to a chapter exploring the culture of male violence. As Shepard observes, some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its forms were officially sanctioned, such as the state's use of violence in war or judicial punishments, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic discipline by householders. If the former was exclusively male, women played a rather larger part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in domestic discipline than is suggested here; the mistress generally punished the maidservant, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries disapproved as much of male householders usurping that role as of women beating male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprentices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of the chapter is a close analysis of the unwritten codes governing honour and violence among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men. When did a man feel obliged to respond to a challenge or insult? When could he, or should he, ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it? Shepard shows how men fought mainly with their social equals; it was improper to challenge someone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly higher status, and a gentleman insulted or challenged by an inferior found other ways to put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him in his place. But in what circumstances could a man decide to sue an equal for assault without risking )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7480 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his reputation? In many cases, Shepard argues persuasively, plaintiffs sued not because of the assault per se )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but because of its circumstances; any attack launched by superior numbers or when the victim was unarmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exposed could be dismissed as inherently unfair. We might add that recourse to the law sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied, rather than substituted for, violence. And, of course, indictments were only one aspect of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recourse, so we also need to explain the thousands of recognisances obtained by men against other men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had threatened them. In some cases, they probably feared their adversary would 'break the rules' by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambushing them with a gang of armed supporters. Garthine Walker has recently emphasised that quarrels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often family quarrels, so a plaintiff might also move to bind over an adversary to protect his wife and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children rather than himself. Both factors help explain the not infrequent phenomenon of two men each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binding over the other. In some cases, no doubt, such considerations also helped men to 'rationalise' a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal aversion to violence. Shepard acknowledges the significance of other influential concepts, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on religion, civility, or self-restraint, and while many saw no problem in reconciling these with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recourse to violence, the terms on which they sought to do may well have shifted over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A chapter entitled 'Respectability, sex and status' raises issues that would almost certainly feature much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier in a book on female honour and reputation. While this underlines the gendered dimensions of honour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shepard makes good use of her material to argue convincingly that we should see male and female values as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently overlapping. The tight restrictions governing what was admissible before an ecclesiastical court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served to exaggerate the \(admittedly strong\) sexual basis to female honour. In the University courts Shepard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds that only half the slanders against women were sexual in character, with slurs based on alleged theft, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drunkenness, lying and cheating accounting for the rest. We might add that the thrust of insults such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('thieving jade' or 'whore of thy tongue', common in the church courts, concerned dishonesty and lying at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much as sexual promiscuity. Equally Shepard shows that sexual slanders featured in 20 per cent of cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought by Cambridge townsmen and 30 per cent of those brought by members of the University. She still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepts, nonetheless, that the construction of honour was gender-related, and pays particular emphasis to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas where she feels men defended their honour 'in entirely gender-specific ways, with reference to birth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means, occupation and authority' \(p. 182\) In cases between men of roughly comparable status, she observes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(litigation was often prompted by one party's attempt to claim hierarchical precedence over the other. True ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although quarrelling women also rated their own 'worth' in competitive terms, a worth gauged not simply in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of sexual honesty but with reference to clothes, means and status more generally. In this area too, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may need to think in gender-related rather than gender-specific terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Credit' and its gendered associations form the core of chapter 7. The basis of male honour for the archetypal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(householder lay in his ability to provide for his family, and in a society where liquid cash was always short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men had to depend on their personal credit \(rather than our ubiquitous credit card\) to oil their daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transactions. Such credit was a compound of economic sufficiency and a reputation for honesty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliability, and Shepard documents the centrality of these concerns, building on Craig Muldrew's seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. If credit was forfeited, whether through bad luck, incompetence or dishonesty, the very survival of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household was at risk, a subject yet to be fully explored; historians have hitherto devoted far more attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to family formation than to family disintegration. We know too that many poor families depended on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earnings of wives and children to reach a margin of sufficiency, and Shepard shows how in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances a wife's own reputation for economic honesty became important in its own right. Litigation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cambridge courts reveals women not only trading and bargaining, but fighting to retain or regain their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own economic credit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ends with a survey of old age in its gendered context. With no retirement age, a man still enjoying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical and mental health could go on as long as he wished, and urban magistrates were often in their fifties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sixties. But most of those reaching old age encountered increasing medical problems that might well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduce them to poverty and force them to give up house-keeping. The loss of economic and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence was likely to bring a rapid diminution of respect as well as status, and Shepard suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women may have adjusted better than men to the problems of old age. Spinning and knitting, though ill-paid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently enabled aged women to keep working and earning to the very end. By contrast, men who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned their bread through heavy manual labour might be rendered totally dependent once their physical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3906 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength had gone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book focuses on the period 1560?1640, a period favoured by social historians not least because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincides with the high point of ecclesiastical court litigation. How do Shepard's findings fit into the longer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term history of gender, and the evolution of 'meanings of manhood'? In a brief conclusion, she suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social and cultural shifts of the period meant that traditional codes of patriarchal masculinity, closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to economic independence, were progressively confined to a shrinking proportion of the population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If a culture of respectability and civility was becoming stronger but more socially distinctive, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow that a larger swathe of the male population was left to find solace or alternative forms of status via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other means. The world of drink, gaming and roistering condemned by the conduct books represented an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative model of manhood, always attractive to some. Shepard has concentrated on what she calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(following R. W. Connell\) the 'hegemonic' meaning of manhood in early modern England, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising throughout the importance of alternative meanings for other male groups. One task facing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future scholars will be to tease out these alternative meanings of manhood for those who embraced them. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct-book writers and magistrates alike, drinking, gaming, wenching and fighting represented dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of disorder, or at best reprehensible 'tricks of youth'. But to those involved, as Shepard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes, they comprised alternative codes of manhood, with \(presumably\) their own unwritten rules and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies. We are still far from fully understanding these rules. And what of those young and unprivileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men who aspired to some modest 'reputation' but had no wish to endorse the alternative values of disorder? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Shepard's fine book constitutes an important addition to the literature of gender in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and her emphasis on diversity in contemporary meanings of manhood lays down a challenge for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others to pursue still further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Shepard would like to thank Professor Capp for his generous review, and does not wish to comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 413.599 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 395.819 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 395.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/380)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 394.425 m 322.316 394.425 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 369.448 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 394.7395 322.3157 406.6195 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/380) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004853 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000005072 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009019 00000 n 0000016490 00000 n 0000016555 00000 n 0000024088 00000 n 0000024172 00000 n 0000028131 00000 n 0000028259 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28354 %%EOF