%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818144430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818144430+01'00') /Title (Elizabeth?s Wars: War, Government and Society in Tudor England, 1544-1604) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4221 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars: War, Government and Society in Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England, 1544-1604)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arrival of this new synthesis provides an occasion for Elizabethan military historians to reflect how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this field has come in the past twenty years, as has the whole field of early modern military history. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past two decades, military historians interested in the early modern period have begun to focus increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the role of military affairs in the development of the state and society, and today few would attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write serious military history of this period without a firm grounding in the political, diplomatic, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic context in which military events occurred. Indeed, military history has become so integral to early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern studies that at a recent session of the American Historical association considering the role of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in American Universities, noted military historian John Guilmartin was able to say he helped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment prospects of his graduate students by sending them out ?disguised as early modernists?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Hammer?s new book )] TJ ET BT 163.328 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 247.664 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clearly reflects this development in the field of military history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shows how it has come to affect the study of British history in general. In the 1980s, the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan England was drawn into the emerging debate in the field of military history over the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of a proposed ?military revolution? in the early modern period. Geoffrey Parker placed himself at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forefront of debate on the nature and role of military changes in the period with his article ?The ?Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, 1550-1660? ? a Myth?? \(published in idem, Spain and the Netherlands, 1559-1659: Ten Essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(381)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Hammer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333919424X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John S. Nolan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7957 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([London: Collins, 1979]\) and his more extensive elaboration of his theories in )] TJ ET BT 410.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Military Revolution: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800)] TJ ET BT 305.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter work generated numerous critiques, including challenges to Parker?s chronology and his vision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a technology-driven process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For scholars of Elizabethan military affairs however, Parker?s explicit exclusion of Britain from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Military Revolution? constituted a particular challenge. Was Parker correct in asserting that Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century was ?behind? the rest of the west, at least as far as land warfare was concerned? A new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective was cast on this question when Simon Adams, addressing a Folger Shakespeare Library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference in 1991, asserted that all the talk of England?s war weariness in the 1590s needed to balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the apparent reality that England seemed to be winning its conflict with Spain in that decade. Taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in light of Parker?s opinion concerning military affairs in Britain, how could this be possible? Clearly, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to reassess the military practices of Elizabethan England, consider how they measured against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary military practices elsewhere and reevaluate their importance in Elizabethan society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of military affairs in Elizabethan England traditionally centred on the navy, and was especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on accounts of the colorful seadogs like Drake, Hawkins and Frobisher. Land warfare received very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little attention by comparison, and indeed even studies of the Navy lacked much in the appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of naval action in Elizabethan military strategy or of the importance of the Navy?s institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in this period. As far as land forces were concerned, only two modern works, C. G. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cruickshank?s )] TJ ET BT 107.672 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Army)] TJ ET BT 192.668 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966\) and Lindsay Boynton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Elizabethan Militia, 1558-1638)] TJ ET BT 206.024 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967\) existed. While both were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and to some extent remain\) valuable works, neither was intended to be a comprehensive study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s forces at war. There were also several good works on Elizabethan military theory by John X. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans and H. J. Webb, but there was little on the actual implementation of these ideas in practice. Most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, there was no work that focused on the impact of warfare on the development of the English state or its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians who took up the challenge of reassessing Elizabethan military practices were blessed with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunate coincidence that the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the culmination of the lifetime work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preeminent scholar of Elizabethan diplomacy, R. B. Wernham. With the publication of )] TJ ET BT 453.956 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Armada: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan England and the Struggle for Mastery in Western Europe, 1588-1595)] TJ ET BT 427.664 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\) and )] TJ ET BT 85.340 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Return of the Armadas: the Last Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain, 1595-1603 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Clarendon, 1994\), we were presented with a comprehensive template of the diplomatic framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which Elizabethan armed forces operated, based on a lifetime of detailed study of the state papers relating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to foreign affairs of the period. Perhaps even more significantly, Wernham?s volumes provided a thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide to the existing archives, an invaluable aid to scholars wishing to explore them further. Indeed, if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?challenge? of Parker?s military revolution provided an impetus for further study of Elizabethan military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs, Wernham?s work provided the framework that defined such study, while also making its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important archival sources more accessible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result of the fortuitous convergence of academic challenge with the appearance of vital tools to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has been a period of fruitful scholarship relating to Elizabethan military affairs in the 1990s. There has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a veritable cornucopia of articles examining aspects of Elizabethan military history by Simon Adams, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Ashley, J. E. A. Dawson, Paul Hammer, J. S. Nolan, P. Thomas and D. J. B. Trim \(to name only a few\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1990, adding breadth to the field and particularly highlighting the domestic impact of military affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Britain. There have also been several larger works of significance in the attempt to pinpoint a ?military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution? in Elizabethan England as well. Richard Stewart?s )] TJ ET BT 336.968 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Ordnance Office, 1585-1625: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Study in Bureaucracy)] TJ ET BT 137.996 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge: Boydell, 1996\) significantly highlighted the growth of bureaucracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one branch of the Elizabethan state as a result increased military activity. J. S. Nolan attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the wide variety of Elizabethan military experiences by following the career of one prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldier in )] TJ ET BT 82.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World)] TJ ET BT 338.348 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1997\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Paul Hammer contributed )] TJ ET BT 201.008 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: the Political Career of Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585-1597)] TJ ET BT 228.980 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997\), a major work that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted the effect of military affairs on politics at the highest level of Elizabeth?s government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly the most important work to appear in the last decade however, has been Mark Charles Fissel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-anticipated )] TJ ET BT 115.004 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Warfare, 1511-1642)] TJ ET BT 252.668 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge, 2001\). The culmination of twenty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of study, Fissel?s work examines firmly establishes the Elizabethan period as central to England?s ?military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution?. Fissel argues that the key to English military changes in the period was a flexibility that allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English forces to absorb foreign military practices, combine them with uniquely English elements and apply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them in a variety of differing situations. Further, Fissel correctly points out that this was not a process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely dependent on the state, by emphasising the Elizabethan state?s tendency to make use of the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources of her kingdom to achieve its goals. Finally, Fissel begins to make an essential connection, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing that it is impossible to separate the Elizabethan army from the operations of the Navy, a theme he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will explore further in a forthcoming article.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly, the evolution of Elizabeth?s armed forces would be incomprehensible without reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy, and historians of the Elizabethan Navy have not been slow to respond with new work in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade. David Loades? )] TJ ET BT 148.640 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tudor Navy: an Administrative, Political and Military History)] TJ ET BT 468.980 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scolar, 1992\) deals primarily with the institutional evolution of the navy, but again highlights how military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change had broader political implications. There have also been a number of good reassessments of leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan naval figures, including biographies of Drake and Hawkins by Harry Kelsey, James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDermott?s treatment of Frobisher and R. T. Spence?s biography of the privateering Earl of Cumberland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter being particularly interesting because of its focus on the economic implications of ?private? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.652 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.652 500.211 m 87.644 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.644 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Together these biographies have brought the image of the famed seadogs more into line with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic context of their times. Most significantly, N. A. M. Rodger?s masterly )] TJ ET BT 475.640 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Safeguard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Sea: a Naval History of Britain, Vol. I, 660-1649)] TJ ET BT 299.012 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: HarperCollins, 1997\) engaged in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively radical reinterpretation of the Elizabethan Navy?s strategic role, in emphasising the strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities of national security and supporting relatively limited land operations that were imposed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the appearance of Paul E. J. Hammer?s new book )] TJ ET BT 315.944 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 400.280 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prompts such an extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting of where we, as historians of Elizabethan military affairs, have )] TJ ET BT 392.264 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(been)] TJ ET BT 414.920 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the last decade, because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a very good statement of where we )] TJ ET BT 215.972 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 231.968 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( today. As his notes and bibliography show, Hammer has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated all the scholarship of the last twenty years into this work. In the best traditions of synthesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, he also goes further than that, taking ideas found in these works and carrying them on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions implied, but not fully elaborated, by previous historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent, the title of this work is misleading, since Hammer, like Fissel and Gervase Philips in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anglo-Scots Wars, 1513-1550: a Military History)] TJ ET BT 293.672 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge: Boydell, 1999\), identifies the 1540s as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decade in which the ?military revolution? first came to Britain, and thus begins his account over a decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before Elizabeth I came to the throne. Indeed, there is much to be said for this, since the innovations made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Henry VIII in order to prepare his kingdom for war with France and subsequently by Lord Protector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somerset in the attempt to absorb Scotland, certainly conformed closely to the ?military revolution? theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Geoffrey Parker. However, as Hammer points out, the financial burden of these innovations proved too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much for England to bear. Hammer effectively uses this episode to set the stage for later military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, by casting it as an experiment that failed, leaving the Elizabethans to search for a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution. It is a construction that makes a good deal of sense, especially when we consider that the Queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most trusted advisor, William Cecil, would have had clear memories of the 1540s and the financial disaster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the government that followed it. One of Hammer?s central ideas is that subsequent military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the Elizabethan period were all firmly based on the determination not to repeat the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misguided ?modernization? of the 1540s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6517 500.5255 87.6437 512.4055 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Working from this thesis, Hammer proceeds to document the Elizabethan state?s search for military forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate to meet achieve England?s goals within the scope of its resources. Hammer keeps a firm eye on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slim resources Elizabeth I had available for military purposes, and with good reason, for this is the key to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding why the Elizabethan military establishment did not evolve along continental lines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In pursuing this line of thought, Hammer shows he has absorbed the same lessons Mark Fissel highlighted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work. The ?military revolution? of the sixteenth century, if it existed at all, cannot be categorized by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single set of criteria, but instead took on different forms, depending on the conditions in which it occurred. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military innovation was after all a tool of the state, and would naturally adapt itself in ways best suited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve the needs of the state in question. The model of biological evolution first introduced into the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution debate by Clifford Rogers is appropriate here, as we see military practices evolving in ways best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suited to the environmental ?niche? they occupy. In the case of the Elizabethan state, this environment was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by Britain?s island position, the financial limitations of the Elizabethan state and the relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited goals which Elizabeth I set for her armed forces. Hammer wisely keeps his eyes on each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors throughout )] TJ ET BT 125.336 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 209.672 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, this work highlights the fact that military change in Elizabethan England was evolutionary in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways. Hammer is careful to point out the survival of feudal levies even during the Armada campaign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1588. If anything, Hammer may underestimate the survival of feudal mentalities among the military class of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, since there is plenty of evidence that virtually every expedition that left England?s shores was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent organized around the clients of its commanders. There is even some reason to see various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions as the tools of specific court factions, and to view important courtiers as the heads of rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military organizations that spanned everything from recruitment to supply. It is a bit surprising that Hammer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not pursue this further, given the orientation of his previous work, for there remain many questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the role of such rivalry in strategic decision-making by the Elizabethan government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably the most original element of )] TJ ET BT 218.672 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 303.008 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is Hammer?s view of Robert Devereux, the Earl of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex. Inspired by two articles L. W. Henry produced in the 1950s highlighting Essex?s military writings )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.972 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.972 404.931 m 556.964 404.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which Hammer elaborated on substantially in his own previous work, he convincingly characterizes Essex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a military reformer at the cutting edge of contemporary military practice. This is a long stretch from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common image of Essex as a chivalric throwback that has predominated in many works, adding a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to our understanding of this complex figure. It is now possible to see Essex as a living example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rapidly changing role of the nobility in early modern military practice, which saw movement from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval role of warrior leading by example in combat to a more polished form of military technician. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, whom Elizabeth I ordered to stay away from the battlefield and study books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war, is another fine example of this trend, and Hammer would have profited by looking into his career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The biggest success of this book is Hammer?s ability to see the Elizabethan military establishment as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, with no distinction between militia and army, or for that matter army and navy. This is certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the Queen?s government viewed its armed forces, and it behooves us to follow suit. In this vein, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammer is particularly effective in following the line of Fissel, N. A. M. Rodger and others by recognizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deeply intertwined nature of land and sea forces in the Elizabethan military establishment. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented the other, and no Elizabethan campaign, especially those central to the nation?s security, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been possible without close cooperation between the two arms. Thus Hammer gives equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight to Elizabethan forces? operations on both land and sea, and is careful to point up the interconnected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even this does not give a complete picture of the military resources available to the Elizabethan state, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Hammer indicates, Elizabeth I was not hesitant to make use of the private resources of her subjects to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve the purposes of the state. Likewise the Crown was never slow to pass the financial burdens of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to the county level. Hammer is especially good when dealing with the political consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s increasing reliance on such resources, and is particularly judicious in not overestimating the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.9717 405.2455 556.9637 417.1255 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4926 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?s discontent in the 1590s. Still, if the system for maintaining the war effort was as fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound as Hammer asserts, one must wonder why the government of James I was in quite such a hurry to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilize. This is a subject that deserves some further attention however, for as Hammer points out, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves the rapid disappearance of a fairly elaborate military establishment. Likewise, it would be worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the effect of demilitarization on a culture that had grown used to war after twenty years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as these questions illustrate, )] TJ ET BT 209.660 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 293.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( need not be the last word on this subject. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammer has effectively pulled together the fruit of a decade and a half of research by a number of historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and put it into a coherent narrative, there are few new archival sources here, or for that matter many totally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ideas. A synthesis such as this is valuable contribution to the literature of Elizabethan and early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history as a summation of what has been achieved in this field, a chance to consider where we stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today. However, even more importantly, it provides an excellent platform for further research, for in addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what has been done, it shows what still needs to be done in the field. As such, )] TJ ET BT 422.312 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s Wars)] TJ ET BT 506.648 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required reading for all scholars of Elizabethan military history, especially those just entering the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Kelsey, )] TJ ET BT 134.324 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Francis Drake: the Queen?s Pirate)] TJ ET BT 321.296 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Yale University Press, 1998\); idem, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir John Hawkins: Queen Elizabeth?s Slave Trader)] TJ ET BT 311.996 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Yale University Press, 2002\); James )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McDermott, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Martin Frobisher: Elizabethan Privateer)] TJ ET BT 340.004 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Yale University Press, 2001\); R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Spence, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Privateering Earl: George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, 1558-1605)] TJ ET BT 467.336 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud: Sutton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 475.203 m 149.000 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. W. Henry, 'The earl of Essex as strategist and military organizer \(1596-7\)', )] TJ ET BT 438.584 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 68 \(1953\), 363-93; idem, 'The earl of Essex and Ireland, 1599', )] TJ ET BT 409.268 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the Institute of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 160.340 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 \(1959\), 1-23.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.328 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.328 432.435 m 298.316 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 388.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 370.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 370.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/381)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 369.417 m 322.316 369.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2141)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 475.5175 148.9997 487.3975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.3277 432.7495 298.3157 444.6295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 369.7315 322.3157 381.6115 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/381) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004938 00000 n 0000005047 00000 n 0000005157 00000 n 0000005266 00000 n 0000008827 00000 n 0000008955 00000 n 0000009039 00000 n 0000009104 00000 n 0000017114 00000 n 0000017198 00000 n 0000024607 00000 n 0000024637 00000 n 0000024763 00000 n 0000024799 00000 n 0000024883 00000 n 0000032303 00000 n 0000032333 00000 n 0000032461 00000 n 0000032497 00000 n 0000032595 00000 n 0000037574 00000 n 0000037701 00000 n 0000037756 00000 n 0000037884 00000 n 0000037939 00000 n 0000038067 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38162 %%EOF