%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724032525+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724032525+01'00') /Title (Print, Manuscript and the Search for Order 1450-1830) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4184 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Print, Manuscript and the Search for Order 1450-1830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book I have before me feels rather expensive, well-made, a hardback with a striking dust jacket bearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an enlarged portion of an historic print. Inside, the paper is silky smooth, the ink dark and clean, the layout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegant with generous outer margins. The illustrations too are clean and clear, dropped into the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everything is present and correct, from the title page, to the scholarly apparatus of endnotes, and an index. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handsome product of the modern press, its binding allows the book to sit open where I leave it. Before I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun to read, I am happy from the small pleasures that a well-made book brings. My expectations now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to focus on the content, what the author wants to say: if my reading experience is to be marred, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely to be from major faults in production. Perhaps the tiniest typo may have survived the proof reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and correcting process, but I will not be distracted from pursuing the threads of the author?s arguments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When I read this book, as surely as when this review itself is read, direct communion with the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts is possible. At least, I assume that after discussion with the editor, the interventions of the copy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors, the designer and the proof corrector, the author is happy to let the book stand as a true artefact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from the original submission. And so I read on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s main thesis is that what I have just related is a very historically specific experience. Of course I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that the copy I am reading can stand for any copy in the print run, and that my comments regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page 49, for instance, can be checked by any reader of any page 49. Since I have some familiarity with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(382)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David McKitterick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52182690)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susie West)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal framework of the nation state where this book is published, and with the high probity of the author, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not occur to me that any part of this book may be missing text as a result of censorship or legal advice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are no warning notices, and happily no errata notices either. I can read on with full confidence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product. In effect, I am reviewing a stable product, where some of its authority as a work of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes from my confidence in the production process, as much as from the achievements within the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, if the author and the reviewer were to go back to say 1500, we might have very different concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stability achieved by reputable publishing houses in 2003 has probably only been possible for the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150 years of printing. The first four hundred years of the use of moveable type also produced moveable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content, unstable books. Why this should have been tolerated for so long, how deviations are detectable, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the implications for historians \(literary included\) should be, are laid out here from the perspective of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 starts with the present, and emphasises our assumptions about the fixity of print produced from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanised processes, in contrast to our contemporary concerns about the instability of electronic texts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former is an inheritance from the later nineteenth century. Recognisably modern bibliography emerged at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, and arguably carried the same assumptions back to the study of early printed books. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography, the elucidation of questions about how texts come to be represented on the page, has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through considerable methodological and theoretical change since, but, as the final chapter suggests, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more hard thinking to be done about the position of the basic source material \(books\) in this and its sister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline of literary criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The start of the long history of the printed book inevitably raises the question of the relationship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed version to manuscript production. Modern scholars are increasingly aware of the continuation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scribal tradition well into the early modern period particularly for the circulation of literary manuscripts ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, a functional separation ? but the point is made that the conceptual distinction between the forms took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to 200 years to solidify. This is exemplified by librarians of the seventeenth century who began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate out manuscripts and printed books in catalogues and on shelves. In other words, the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference in the means of manufacture was not immediately relevant. Once this became the dominant means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of classification, a significant fracture in understanding the history of the reproduction of texts occurred, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we still need to address today. Printing was not a quick replacement of one time-consuming method of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copying books, but a technology that supplemented contemporary expectations of what books should look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like and how they should be read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme, that printing was not adopted because it offered multiple identical copies, is developed across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first five chapters, focussing on the early printed book in detail up to the late seventeenth century. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing was seen to offer changed within that period, beginning with the early decades of experimentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that saw pen and typeface used in the same book. McKitterick argues that readers of manuscript books in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth century were used to variations between copies, including the flexibility over adding illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from prints, and that printing was not seen as a resolution for this instability. It was attractive for its speed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relatively high volume production, which came to be seen as a guarantee that the ?text? would acquire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longevity and survive better than in a manuscript copy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The body of evidence from surviving books is that readers were tolerant of considerable variation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimental world of printing. Levels of finish \(the addition of colour, marginal decoration\) included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing levels of correction. It is crucial to understand the production processes of the early printing house, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to accept the variants to be found across a nominal edition \(one issue\). Because proofs were read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and corrected almost instantly to avoid tying up costly sets of type, errors spotted as sheets continued to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed could be corrected at various times in the printing process. Sheets were gathered up for binding with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no reference to the order in which they were printed, and so a heavily corrected print run could result in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copies with variant printing on many pages. Sometimes late realisation of errors results in manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrections, sometimes to the insertion of erratum slips, or even the replacement of whole pages. The early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed book is characterised by ?bibliographical dissimilarity? \(p. 108\), but contemporary readers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undismayed, preferring to comment on the wondrous speed of production. They were quite used to prefaces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the author regarding the wobbly state of the text that invited them to add their own corrections. In other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, there is plenty of evidence for a shared understanding of the mobility of texts and for the readers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in part of the book?s manufacture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For modern bibliographers, this means that there can be no ?ideal copy? of an edition, no perfect exemplar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a stable text because it has been reproduced in an unstable medium. McKitterick emphasises that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process in which the author participated with the printer is not a linear sequence but a series of reflexive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?heterogeneous compromises? of which the reader becomes a part. We are left with the dominance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularity:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To examine an early printed book is ? to seek to understand the people who made, used and read )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this particular copy, in this particular edition and on this or that particular occasion. \(p. 139\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When, in that case, does an early printed book seem to be ?finished?? Probably never, since contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers rarely seem to have added all the suggested amendments from the errata, although they did chase up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing pages. So, up to the early eighteenth century it is difficult to define the end of the manufacturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, setting aside the separate processes in the binder?s workshop. Not even institutional censorship had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a guaranteed level of application within regions, let alone nations. All this adds up to considerable variation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in reading experiences of the same ?text? across space as well as time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the middle of the eighteenth century, change is detectable not in the technology but in the way that print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is discussed by commentators. McKitterick suggests that recent scholarship on the eighteenth century has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been dominated by publishing history \(author/bookseller relations, copyright law\) rather than by production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. There is a body of contemporary literature on the history of printing, particularly the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedic projects of the later decades, that offer ways to identify perceptions of print. Authors stopped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaining in prefaces about the faults of their printers, although the mode of production and ensuing errata )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had hardly changed since the previous century. Printers began to achieve a higher status as a skilled trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the manufacturing revolution. Authors came to be treated a little better too, when their texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were no longer hastily shortened by the printer in order to resolve a miscalculation. Perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant cultural influence on print quality came from the wider discussion about the need to stabilise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language in print, through many dictionary projects and through anxieties about the consistent use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punctuation in denoting speech. Print was increasingly problematized as unstable, as the market for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals expanded after 1770, and as high quality images originally produced as scientific records became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debased by cheap reproduction on ceramics and textiles. So finally the recognisably modern issues over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardisation, accuracy and quality control, used in relation to other manufactures, were introduced into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions about printing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From 1800, technological advances took over as the means to advance the newer concerns over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardisation in print. The social importance of printing and its possibilities is exemplified by its repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references within Charles Babbage?s essay ?Introductory View of the Principles of Manufacture?, first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1832 and widely circulated. The old excitement about speed was joined by the new possibilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of accuracy in reproduction, particularly through casting copies of the original type formes, so that multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing was possible without introducing new errors \(stereotyping\). This was the nature of innovation by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close of this period; but the appearance of the book changed little, leading to the conclusion that the ?idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book? is inherently conservative, a notion that readers of the 1450s would recognise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter returns to the disciplinary questions raised at the beginning: how can we deploy the body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evidence to be gathered from the systematic examination of many early printed books? What does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the material manifestations of instability of text alert us to, when considering issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception and interpretation? More questions than answers are offered, touching particularly on how literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory might address the empirical data on offer from historical bibliography. The role of the reader has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thread running through the earlier chapters, and it is suggested that the history of reading could pay greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to how the text is shaped after it leaves the author?s hands, inserting the reader at the culmination )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the production process, rather than as a recipient of a fixed form. The bibliographical interrogation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book as artefact can generate much of interest to the wider history of the book community, whether one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribes to the ?sociology of the book? perspective or not. By this account, there was no printing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution before 1830, in the sense that there was no shared conceptual leap away from the prime concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of manuscript transmission: textual survival through copying. Speedier copying and great numbers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed, but infallible accuracy could wait.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKitterick deploys his great experience of handling early printed books to furnish the detailed examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to argue the historical bibliography case for a ?back to basics? approach. The illustrations ? only 44 in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that relies on visual evidence ? at times provide startling examples of what was acceptable variation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early printed book trade. In a way, this book is also a plea for the continued scholarly need to handle the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original artefacts, to assess and compare multiple copies, in order to produce fine-grained accounts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support wider syntheses in intellectual and social history. The provision of electronic databases and digital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of selected copies will not obviously supersede some of the unique qualities of old books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those of us who are not historical bibliographers, but who rely on such accounts to feed our related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, this book is a challenging read. Firstly, because it does have several polemical targets: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary librarianship, overly theoretical literary criticism \(and those who rely entirely on the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of knowledge\), reductive accounts of the ?printing revolution?. In wishing to refine the latter, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is of course not the first attempt, but I believe it is the first major account from the perspective of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. We should pause here to consider its relation to a very successful account of the social history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early modern book, Adrian Johns?s )] TJ ET BT 237.980 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of the Book)] TJ ET BT 349.976 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.976 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.976 500.211 m 366.968 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.968 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Johns writes from within the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science; his starting point is how knowledge is made and validated, and )] TJ ET BT 380.312 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of the Book)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematises the idea that the printing revolution provided ?fixity? of text through multiple copies, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence reliable knowledge. Johns concentrates on the social practices around the production of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern book, rather than production practices. His answer to why the early modern book is unstable is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely derived from a range of social transgressions \(embraced by the contemporary term ?piracy?\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in illicit and partial departures from the author?s intentions. McKitterick makes it clear that even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most actively involved author could not guarantee a text in total accord with his intentions, simply because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of production practices in the press room. This has rather different implications for the reader. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations for why this instability should be tolerated for so long are social, but can be related back to pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing assumptions about the circulation of texts. It is rather important that McKitterick can demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that an understanding of the ?internal? history of written transmission \(manuscript and print\) can supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant insights into this problem: historical bibliography is maturing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, it pays the reader the compliment of assuming a reasonable understanding of early modern print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, when passing explanations of technical terms would be welcome. However, the extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes supply an impressive bibliography and the means to follow up queries. It also assumes a working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of early modern French and Latin, necessary to the scholar handling the range of thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions alluded to throughout the book, but less certainly available to the specialist in the English novel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance. It ranges widely and sometimes too briefly, in the first half covering the earliest period, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisting that illustrations need to be yoked back to their historic partner, the text, rather than adhere to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artificial divorce resulting from the activities of print collectors and the emergence of art history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline. The second half places less emphasis on close study of individual copies, and more on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary literature about printing. The context of the post-1730s literature is a little sketchy, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reflects the relative lack of attention given to the book as artefact by historians who work with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption of knowledge as well as of goods. Conventional periodization by labels is give short shrift: no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the word Enlightenment, and one dismissive reference to the Romantic idea of the artist as individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genius. Of course the whole account of nearly four centuries suggests its own chronology for the early idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the printed book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The target audience is in many ways the post-graduate historical bibliographer \(that is, attending to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material facts of books\), onwards to the history of the book community \(who tend towards the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings of the book as artefact\), yet the rewards for the non-specialist include a finely nuanced vision of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.9757 500.5255 366.9677 512.4055 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3160 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the printed book carries meaning as a material object. Fledgling historians are routinely asked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstruct texts, from extracts newly typeset in modern text books, without, I believe, any induction into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mysteries of the original copy that supplied that particular text. There is no pretence that this is easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mastered, or that the tensions implicit in gaining insight into individual copies of books and the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create an historical account based on the distribution of multiple copies \(a readership\) can be quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved. But this is part of the craft of producing history, and an extension of the familiar need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how the words got onto the page. However, to conclude on this note risks downplaying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated aspirations within )] TJ ET BT 188.348 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Print, Manuscript and the Search for Order)] TJ ET BT 398.672 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a stimulating combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of detailed exposition \(1450-1700\) and allusive synthesis \(1700-1830\) that offers real challenges for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the book and beyond to respond to. In particular, all those who read the more accessible )] TJ ET BT 521.264 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Book)] TJ ET BT 88.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should reach out for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Johns, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of the Book, Print and Knowledge in the Making)] TJ ET BT 402.344 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago and London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press, 1998\), particularly Chs 1 and 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.320 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.320 546.483 m 411.308 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 502.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 484.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 484.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/382)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 483.465 m 322.316 483.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2143)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.3197 546.7975 411.3077 558.6775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 483.7795 322.3157 495.6595 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/382) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004880 00000 n 0000004989 00000 n 0000005099 00000 n 0000005208 00000 n 0000008769 00000 n 0000008897 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000009046 00000 n 0000016504 00000 n 0000016569 00000 n 0000023383 00000 n 0000023467 00000 n 0000031343 00000 n 0000031373 00000 n 0000031501 00000 n 0000031537 00000 n 0000031628 00000 n 0000034841 00000 n 0000034969 00000 n 0000035024 00000 n 0000035152 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35247 %%EOF