%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126143955+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126143955+00'00') /Title (A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4184 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are several novel things about this book that make it worth reading. The first one relates to the author. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike most other historians of Japan, who come from the areas of Japanese or East Asian studies, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this book arrives from an unexpected field. L. M. Cullen is Professor of modern Irish history at Trinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College, Dublin, and a scholar of early modern trade. An acquaintanceship with a Japanese scholar \(Matsuo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taro\) in Dublin and two more years at Hosei University and the International Research Center for Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Kyoto turned the expert in Irish history, in a remarkably short time, into an expert in Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In this book the author demonstrates a proficiency in the Japanese language, a familiarity with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese sources, a mastery of the historical details, and a grasp of the voluminous scholarship on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject in the west and Japan. His knowledge of western history and the history of trade enables him to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Japanese history in a new and fresh way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second novelty is the periodization. We are accustomed to the classical division of Japanese history into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-modern and modern eras, with the dividing line being the opening of Japan in 1854 or the Meiji )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration of 1868. In the sub-division of those eras, we have been taught that the last age of pre-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan was the Tokugawa period, which started with the battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and ended with the fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the shogunate in 1868; while the first era of modern Japan was the imperial period, which ended with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat of 1945. Instead of that conventional periodization, we are presented here with a 360-year story that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(383)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis Michael Cullen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52182155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben-Ami Shillony)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starts in 1582 \(the rise of Hideyoshi\) and ends in 1941 \(the attack on Pearl Harbor\). This forces us to rethink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the premodern and modern history of Japan in a new paradigm as a continuum.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.948 780.819 m 427.940 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third novelty lies in the book?s approach. Most history books of Japan focus on personalities, ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions, and political differences. This book focuses on economic and political interests, multilateral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions, and strategies of survival. Social developments are explained in terms of trade, growth, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative changes. The protagonists of this book are neither the great individuals of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, nor the feuding classes of Marxist historiography, but rather the interest groups that acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reacted in complex national and international systems. The decisions of the policy makers are judged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their effectiveness to promote their group interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After an introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 \(?Japan and its Chinese and European worlds, 1582-1689?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses foreign trade in East Asia in the seventeenth century. It shows that unlike the situation in Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean, where international trade implied a vast exchange of voluminous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods, foreign trade in East Asia was restricted to the exchange of high-value goods \(like silk and silver\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried on a small number of large ships. As international trade was of less importance in East Asia than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the west, the international traders there were viewed with suspicion, and the governments tended to impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls on the conduct of trade. The author claims that the closure of Japan in the sixteen-thirties \(he refers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it as ?)] TJ ET BT 74.348 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sakoku)] TJ ET BT 107.672 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, although the term was coined only in the nineteenth century\) was not a sharp change, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed in the standard textbooks, but rather a refinement of previous controls. The exclusion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese and the confinement of the Chinese and the Dutch traders to the port of Nagasaki were motivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a wish to preserve the balance between shogun and daimyo, more than by the fear of Christianity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 \(?The Japanese economy, 1688-1789?\) describes the phenomenal economic growth of Japan in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It dismisses the theory that the eighteenth century was a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnation, and asserts that despite the fall in foreign trade and a few harvest failures, the economy continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grow. Edo became a huge consumption centre for shogun and daimyo, Osaka turned into a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketing and finance centre, and Japan?s coastal trade was the largest in the world. Chapter 4 \(?An age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability: Japan?s internal world, 1709-1783, in perspective?\) describes the eighteenth century as an era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented security and stability, when threats of foreign invasions \(European or Chinese\) and internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turmoil finally disappeared. This eased the way for the authorities to seek and acquire European \(?Dutch?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge to promote their interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 \(?Prosperity and crises, 1789-1853?\) discusses the economic problems of the late eighteenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early nineteenth centuries, and the ways in which the shogunal and daimyo authorities grappled with them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from proving the ineptitude of the national and local governments to handle the situation, as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have argued, the author regards the measures that were taken as wise responses, given the fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and administrative constraints of that time. In a clearly different approach from the old regimes of Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which tried to solve similar problems by increasing taxation and indebtedness, the Japanese acted in a clever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way by cutting expenditures. Chapter 6 \(?Sakoku under pressure: the gaiatsu of the 1850s and 1860s?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the rationality with which the shogunate responded to the growing military threat of the west in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-nineteenth century. Contrary to the conventional image of an inefficient and irresponsible government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that failed to lead Japan in the right way, the author maintains that under the difficult internal and external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances the government acted remarkably well. It possessed a realistic perception of the threat, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved a degree of national consensus, and it managed to ward off the foreign peril in exchange for modest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two chapters are devoted to modern Japan. Chapter 7 \(?Fashioning a state and a foreign policy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan 1868-1919?\) shows how the Meiji government became convinced that westernization was the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to preserve independence and achieve strength and prosperity. According to Cullen, the Meiji reforms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not reactionary or oppressive measures, as left-wing historians claim, but rather rational and pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses. They neutralized opposition, freed productive forces, and mobilized resources for development. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the international arena they obtained western support, making Japan into a strong and modern state that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could defeat China and Russia within one decade. Chapter 8 \(?From peace [Versailles 1919] to war [Pearl )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.9477 781.1335 427.9397 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7545 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harbor 1941]?\) differs from the others. The positive and optimistic picture of the Tokugawa and early Meiji )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes turns here into a negative and pessimistic view of Japan in the twentieth century. The rationality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had characterized the Japanese governments from the early seventeenth century, broke down in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteen-thirties, leading the country into a disastrous war and foreign occupation. The author does not stop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1941, but discusses in brief the postwar governments, which in his view have been characterised by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amalgam of rational and irrational elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a thought-provoking book, providing interesting information and interpretation, but it also invites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of both its assumptions and conclusions. The first element that can be questioned is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization. Granted that any division of history into rigid periods is arbitrary, the adoption of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division requires persuasion. Why start A History of Japan in 1582 and end it in 1941? When Toyotomi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hideyoshi assumed power in central Japan after the assassination of Oda Nobunaga in 1582, the country was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still in the throes of internal war. It was only in 1590 that Japan was unified under Hideyoshi, and only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1600 that Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated his opponents and established the long rule of his family. Starting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-modern \(or some would say modern\) history of Japan in 1600 may look old-fashioned, but it is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible than starting it in 1582. Ending the story in 1941 is even more questionable. In that year Japan had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been at war \(with China\) for four years and the attack on Pearl Harbor was a culmination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of expansionism that had been developing for at least a decade. The end of this process occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945, when the whole militaristic and imperialistic structure collapsed, and not in 1941, when it embarked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its final stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sub-division of this period, as proposed in the titles of the chapters, raises similar questions. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders why the chapter on ?The Japanese economy? carries the dates 1688-1789. Nothing special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened in 1688, except for the change of the era name from Jokyo \(which lasted for four years\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genroku \(which lasted for six years\), and nothing special happened in 1789, except for the suppression of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ainu rebellion in the far north and the change of the era name from Temmei \(which lasted for eight years\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kansei \(which lasted for fifteen years\). These two dates make more sense in Europe ? where they stand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Glorious Revolution and the French Revolution ? than in Japan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more problematic feature is the use of the dichotomy of rationality and irrationality, sometimes phrased as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism and recklessness, or realism and adventurism. These attributes rest on hindsight. Everything that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds is ultimately praised as far-sighted, rational, pragmatic and realistic. Everything that fails is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately condemned as short-sighted, irrational and unrealistic. Was Ieyasu?s policy of inward orientation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more rational than Hideyoshi?s policy of external expansion? Yes, because we know the outcome, but no if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we look at the personalities of these two leaders, both of whom were highly pragmatic. Was ?)] TJ ET BT 483.932 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sakoku)] TJ ET BT 517.256 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rational than the continuation of openness to the outside world, as the author claims? Yes, because we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the positive outcome, but no if we think about the risks that self-isolation involved. The author?s assertion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?[R]ealism was one of Japan?s strengths from the 1850s onwards; abandonment of realism was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?s later undoing in the 1930s? \(p. 13\) is historically problematic, because the people who make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions never know the outcome. There were many moves before the 1930s \(like the decision to attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia in 1904\), which might have ended in disaster and there were later initiatives \(like the negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the United States in 1941 about a new status quo in southeast Asia\) that might have ended in success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s strength lies in the panoramic view that it presents, but its weakness lies in sweeping and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious generalisations that this approach produces. It is difficult to agree with the author that ?Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history poses greater problems of interpretation than the history of other countries?.\(p. 17\) It seems highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated to say that ?in some respects, up to 1945 Japan had remained the )] TJ ET BT 408.272 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bakufu)] TJ ET BT 440.936 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [shogunal government] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it had still been under Meiji: a wide range of groups existed whose interests never fully converged? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(279\), just as it seems greatly overstated that ?in a sense, Japan?s place in the world has never been settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1868?.\(p. 282\) These generalisations obscure the historical picture of Japan more than they enlighten it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author does not regard culture as an important element in history. Although the book carries the title of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Japan)] TJ ET BT 125.012 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and spans a period of three-and-a-half centuries, it hardly refers to cultural subjects. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great artistic and literary achievements of the Tokugawa era, like woodblock prints, haiku poetry, urban )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels, or kabuki drama are absent or hardly mentioned. The names of twentieth-century thinkers, writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poets, and artists like Uchimura Kanzo, Natsume Soseki, Mori Ogai, Yosano Akiko, Tanizaki Jun?ichiro, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nishida Kitaro, and Mizoguchi Kenji, who influenced millions of prewar Japanese, are absent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author criticizes the western historians of Japan, like John W. Hall and Marius B. Jansen, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing personalities. These historians, in his words, ?concentrated on men rather than systems.\(p. 285\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They neglected ?broad studies of socio-economic change? \(ibid.\), and ?remained fixated on personality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivation?.\(p. 287\) He accuses them of narrow-mindedness, looking at Japan without taking into account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader picture of world history: ?In some ways all historical scholarship of Japan is isolated, cut off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from historical studies at large?.\(p. 287\) Like Edward Said, he accuses them of serving the imperialistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of their states: ?Western historiography remains prisoner of the attitudes which drove western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy in the 1850s towards seeking to prise Japan open?.\(p. 288\) These statements do an injustice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad-minded and profound scholarly work of Hall, Jansen and many other western historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of the book, the author tries to draw lessons from Japan?s history, or as he puts it: ?What lessons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does Japan?s history, as outlined in this book, offer that may be relevant to the country?s future??.\(p. 278\) It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is doubtful whether a history book should present lessons from the past. Such lessons are usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronistic and patronising. Cullen?s main lesson is that Japan performs well under pressure, as evidenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early seventeenth century, the mid-nineteenth century, and the mid-twentieth century. The conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that only foreign pressure \(?gaiatsu?\) can extricate Japan from its present economic predicament: ?only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of threat, wider than the real but diffuse public unease of the present days, could harness Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energies, and entail reform?.\(p. 291\) This is a simplistic and anachronistic lesson, assuming that ?Japan? has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a personality of its own which does not change. It is also patronising, treating Japan as a child who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not move unless forced to do so by a mature adult, like the ?West?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another lesson is that political weakness breeds disaster. The author thinks that Japan?s ?drift into war? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result of weak leaders and the instability of the prewar cabinets.\(p. 279\) This explanation is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing, as one could easily argue the opposite. Usually it is the strong, and not the weak, governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that initiate war [and not the weak ones]. The Tojo cabinet which launched the war against the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Great Britain in 1941 was weak in fascist or communist terms, but it was the strongest cabinet that Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had had in the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusions, the author tends to moralise about the past. He accuses the Japanese leaders at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the twentieth century of missing ?the opportunity to take the moral leadership of East Asia?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of pursuing ?a policy of opportunism and narrow considerations?.\(p. 279\) This is a strange accusation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a historian who claims that interests rather than ideals guide nations. One wonders which other nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever based its policies on moral principles and eschewed opportunism and narrow considerations. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed ironic that when Japan thought that it was taking a moral stand, that of liberating Asia from western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism in the Second World War, it committed the greatest acts of aggression and the grossest atrocities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author finds fault with the present leaders of Japan who, unlike the wise leaders of the past or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(presumably\) clever leaders in other countries, are too weak and too dependent on their parties and voters: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Japanese senior politicians spend far more time, as even the most casual listening to television news )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bulletins shows, in conclave with party members than do their colleagues in other industrial countries.?\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(291\) Even more astonishing, in Japan various branches of government compete with each other instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minding collectively the common good: ?Ministries too, even at bureaucratic level, are much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent fiefdoms than in the West?.\(ibid.\) It is highly doubtful whether these characteristics of Japan are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique and whether the situation in the ?west? \(United States? France? Italy?\) is that different. In more ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than one, the book would have benefited from sticking to the past and not judging the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 2004)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 1463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The abolition of the sharp division between Tokugawa and modern Japan was achieved earlier by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marius B. Jansen in his final book, )] TJ ET BT 234.344 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern Japan )] TJ ET BT 380.660 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA: Harvard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2000\), which starts in 1600 and ends in 2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.664 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.664 715.299 m 421.652 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 690.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 671.455 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 653.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 653.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/383)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 652.281 m 322.316 652.281 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.304 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2145)] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6637 715.6135 421.6517 727.4935 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 652.5955 322.3157 664.4755 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/383) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000004887 00000 n 0000004996 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000005215 00000 n 0000008776 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000008988 00000 n 0000009072 00000 n 0000016639 00000 n 0000016669 00000 n 0000016797 00000 n 0000016833 00000 n 0000016898 00000 n 0000024496 00000 n 0000024561 00000 n 0000031279 00000 n 0000031370 00000 n 0000032886 00000 n 0000033014 00000 n 0000033069 00000 n 0000033197 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33292 %%EOF