%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826014505+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826014505+01'00') /Title (Italy's Social Revolution: Charity and Welfare from Liberalism to Fascism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1842 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Italy's Social Revolution: Charity and Welfare from Liberalism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fascism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(385)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria Sophia Quine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333632613X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(436pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl Levy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Quine's study of the Italian welfare state between the Liberal and Fascist eras is an impressively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched, well-written and original contribution to an under-researched field. Even in Italian there are few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global accounts of early Italian welfare state. In English the field is covered in general accounts of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Italy or in passing in reference to the working-class movement, women's history or economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic histories. Dr Quine announces that she will not produce this global history; instead she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches the welfare state in Italy by examining how it treated unwed mothers and their children. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of women, the family and children in Italy are now familiar to an anglophone audience, but this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first study in English that brings these interests consistently into the context of understanding the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Italian welfare state. Dr Quine is rather dismissive of the sociological model makers who study the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state, although perhaps she is unfair, since Esping-Andersen )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.940 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.940 654.771 m 378.932 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.932 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the general European context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and certainly Maurizio Ferrera )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.968 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.968 640.515 m 197.960 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.960 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the Italian, can be read with great profit by historians. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Quine is forgiven for her historian's bewilderment at parallel sociological and political science universes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She employs a marvellous array of archival material to illustrate the plight of unwed mothers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Italy \(State archives, Church archives, private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives, and private papers\). As the historian should, she brings to life her 'case studies'. But she also does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not slight a theoretical framework, which ties together the three parts of this study at its conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first section she examines the origins of the welfare state during the elitist Liberal regime \(1862-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890\). In the second section of the book she examines the reform of the charitable organisation of welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Crispi, the rise of the 'insurer state' under Giolitti and the Fascist 'totalitarian' welfare state under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini \(1890-1939\). In the third part of her book, Dr Quine examines the problem of child abandonment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under liberalism and fascism to highlight the continuities and changes in treatment of powerless groups by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These three sections of the study are bound together by two overarching themes, firstly, how 'how Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments from liberalism to fascism attempted to build a welfare state atop a charitable foundation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was fast set in the Middle Ages'. \(p. xiii\) Thus the result was a welfare state in the twentieth century that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a peculiar blend of the old and the new, the traditional and the modern, the religious and the secular and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and the private that even Tittmuss would have had trouble describing it '.\(ibid.\) The other major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of this book is what one can call \(if I may use a rather ungraceful turn of phrase\) the implementation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap. Plans and organisations on paper never quite impact on the real world. And this is where Quine comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into her element: the use of archival material illustrates in a grubby human way the vast canyon between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paese reale)] TJ ET BT 89.000 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 112.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paese legale)] TJ ET BT 171.980 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other important approach in Dr Quine?s study is its periodization. There is no 'year zero' for the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 'totalitarian' welfare state. The Fascists drew upon their predecessors. Furthermore, the post-1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state inherited the institutions of welfare that the Fascist state had erected. Looking the other way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approaches of governments in the late nineteenth-century drew upon ways Napoleon and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment reformers approached the issue of poverty and charity. While this periodization is important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if I have a problem with Dr Quine's fine study it is in the role of the Great War and the massive reforms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enacted during the war years and the )] TJ ET BT 212.960 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(biennio rosso)] TJ ET BT 277.964 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1919-1920\), to which I will return in my conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overshadowing her periodization, indeed in the general history of modern Italy, are Church-state relations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Liberal state relied upon the institutions of Catholic charity, the )] TJ ET BT 363.320 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opere pie)] TJ ET BT 408.308 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to alleviate poverty. Thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century liberal elite, indeed the greatest representative of them all, Cavour, envisaged a )] TJ ET BT 508.244 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(carit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(legale)] TJ ET BT 63.344 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which the delivery of relief was in the hands of the Church, even if these institutions had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formally secularised. The suppression of certain religious orders and the sale of Church property were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to alleviate the enormous poverty that blighted the Kingdom of Italy. This windfall was diverted into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing armaments, shipping and building railways. The )] TJ ET BT 316.988 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opere pie)] TJ ET BT 361.976 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, controlled by local elites, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of corruption and influence peddling. Even Crispi's attempts to clean up a scandalous solution \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books of the )] TJ ET BT 96.344 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opere pie)] TJ ET BT 141.332 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were a black hole and the lot of orphans and the elderly poor in these institutions was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shocking\) did not amount to much. And with an adept use of archives, Dr Quine shows that Franco della )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peruta's and Raffaele Romanelli's claims that local administration and the prefects became more effective is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.9397 655.0855 378.9317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.9677 640.8295 197.9597 652.7095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7813 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grossly exaggerated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.656 795.075 m 146.648 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus the 'implementation gap' reigned supreme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in the 1890s, Italy was a land wracked by pellagra, scurvy, rickets typhoid fever, pulmonary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tuberculosis and, most deadly of them all, malaria. The decline in mortality was slow. The Giolittian era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1900-1914\) is often pictured as the great breakthrough. In 1900 Italy was thirty years behind France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany or the United Kingdom when it came to social legislation. But Dr Quine has little time for Giolitti's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts. His social policy was ungenerous and slight. Giolitti's introduction of social insurance was limited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Northern \(largely male\) industrial working class: in 1905 1 per cent of the Italian labour force were in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cassa nazionale)] TJ ET BT 110.348 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while 51 per cent of the German labour force was insured. His fiscal conservatism \(the lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of progressive taxation compounded by a huge budget deficit caused by his imperialist adventure in Libya\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited the cash available. And like his predecessors he lacked personnel to be factory inspectors or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspect orphanages and poor houses. The South was almost completely forgotten: betterment could only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought by massive emigration abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Fascists set to creating a welfare state after the collapse of Liberal Italy, a summary of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects on the eve of war in 1939, is damning. The effects of Fascist welfare state, Dr Quine argues, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodic, fragmentary and discriminatory protection. Unemployment insurance was set at starvation wages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workers gained access to an inadequate tiered system of health care. The alphabet soup of agencies set up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administer social insurance \(which carried on under the post-1945 welfare state\) were staffed by Fascists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their friends; Fascist aid to the unemployed during the grim 1930s went to those with the right politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peasants were forgotten. The battle against urbanism and it romantic twin, the praise of ruralism, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced in effect to the control of the movement of peasants into cities and the hounding of peasant beggars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who slipped through the net. Enormous surpluses were allowed to accumulate in the unemployment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pension funds and were used by the regime as milch cows for its pet projects. The regime's efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimise itself through loud and useless campaigns against alcoholism, cancer, drugs or leprosy produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few practical results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the Fascist welfare state shared much with its Liberal predecessor: widespread practices of patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and clientelism, patchy coverage and an implementation gap. It also shared a tortured partnership with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. Fascism of course did try to come to an understanding with the Church through the Lateran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaties, but its demographic campaign \(and other policies\) led to disagreement and tensions. And it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely in the Fascists? innovative approach to child abandonment and single mothers that the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke with Liberal and Catholic traditions. Until the late nineteenth century child abandonment was dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with through the institutions of the Church or their secularised successors. Because of the shame of unwed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, traditionally many women left anonymously their babies in a )] TJ ET BT 374.984 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ruota)] TJ ET BT 400.988 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(turnstile\) attached to a church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 47.012 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brefotrofio)] TJ ET BT 99.020 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(foundling home\). Liberals were shocked by the primitive and unhealthy conditions of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundling homes and the alarmingly high rates of mortality amongst the babies in their care. But whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church treated unwed mothers as fallen women who could still be saved, the secular social scientists at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn of the century turned them into incurable pathological 'types'. It was only the Fascists who attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid both alternatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first legislation to protect the rights of children in the care of wet nurses, foundling homes, orphanages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformatories and prisons was passed by the Fascists in 1927. The Fascists also established the ONMI, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which promoted benefits for mothers and children. The Fascists were the first government in modern Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who tried to tackle the problem child abandonment through the creation of modern, rational and secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of care. These progressive acts were driven forwards by the regime's aim to regenerate the Italian race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through welfare and to promote a higher birth rate, so that Italy could become a great imperial power. Until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938, when the Race Laws were introduced, these demographic politics could at times be confused with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the secular Left, and it was just this secular nature, which led to contradiction and failure. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand the Fascists still relied upon the Church to help administer the welfare state, but on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the treatment of unwed mothers outside of the moral compass of sin and redemption alienated the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy. Dr Quine demonstrates this in her case study of a progressive home for unwed mothers in Rome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(run by the aristocratic radical feminist-turned-Fascist, Daisy di Robilant. While she used the rhetoric of 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of the race' in her experiment, di Robilant alienated the Church, which felt she had not sufficiently )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.6557 795.3895 146.6477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded her inmates of the sinfulness of their lives. In any case, as with much of the rest of story outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, financial constraints destroyed this enlightened experiment, as it indeed limited the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ONMI on the lives of women and children in Fascist Italy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would like to conclude with one mild criticism of this valuable book. The most significant leap in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Italian welfare state before 1945 occurred during the Great War and in the immediate post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. This of course coincided with the massive industrialisation of the country due to the imperatives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war mobilisation. During the war years, women entered a wide variety of industrial occupations for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Dr Quine should have placed greater emphasis on this seminal shift. In the years 1917-1919 social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlements were dramatically increased. The first compulsory unemployment scheme for full-time workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was introduced and even agricultural workers were partially covered. And finally compulsory pensions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced: social insurance coverage of the labour force, which was at 2 per cent in 1915 leapt to 38 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent in 1920 \(versus 57 per cent in Germany\). Fascism inherited this watershed moment, but it neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created it, nor improved very much upon it. In a similar fashion, as Ester De Fort shows in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary education )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.664 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.664 597.747 m 138.656 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.656 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the late Liberal period saw a breakthrough in social citizenship in Italy. Although Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quine discusses the 1917-1919 watershed, she should have discussed it more thoroughly. She is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damning of Italian liberalism: 'Stripped of its high-minded principles and values, Italian liberalism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing more than a coterie of men dedicated only to the pursuit and preservation of political power'. \(p. 63\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, in the stormy war and post-war years one can detect a new Progressive synthesis of younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical liberals and reformist socialists, which might have created another Italy under other conditions. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Dr Quine shows in her useful conclusion, 'path dependency' \(with apologies for the political science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak, that is historical legacies\) in Italy limited alternatives to the messy compromises that plagued the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state. Lacking a Reformation, and the reform of the administration of poor relief seen in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia in the nineteenth century, meant that the secular state had to rely upon its sworn enemy to implement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Farrell-Vinay has written an excellent account of the opere pie in Italian )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.600 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.600 428.931 m 445.592 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.592 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dr Quine's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses a range of other interests. She has written a fine study that deserves translation into Italian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gsta Esping-Andersen, )] TJ ET BT 184.328 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 380.000 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Polity, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.336 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.336 322.899 m 552.332 322.899 l S BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 308.643 m 78.008 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurizio Ferrera, )] TJ ET BT 151.652 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il welfare state in Italia: sviluppo e crisi in prospettiva comparata)] TJ ET BT 469.652 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bologna: Il )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulino, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.352 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.352 280.131 m 190.340 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco Della Peruta, )] TJ ET BT 165.992 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Societ e classi popolari nell'Italia dell'Ottocento)] TJ ET BT 404.792 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palermo: EPOS, 1985\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco Della Peruta, )] TJ ET BT 165.992 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conservatori. liberali e democratic nel Risorgimento)] TJ ET BT 421.316 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Milan: Angeli, 1989\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raffaele Romanelli, )] TJ ET BT 163.664 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il comando impossibile: stato e societ nell'Italia liberale)] TJ ET BT 441.224 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bologna: Il Mulino, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988 and new edn 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.660 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.660 223.107 m 239.648 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ester De Fort, )] TJ ET BT 134.672 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La scuola elementare dall?unita alla caduta del fascismo)] TJ ET BT 410.336 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bologna: Il Mulino, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 194.595 m 118.004 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giovanna Farrell-Vinay, )] TJ ET BT 184.988 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Povert e politica nell?Ottocento. Le opere pie nello stato liberale)] TJ ET BT 504.968 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Turin: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scriptorium, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.348 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.348 166.083 m 212.336 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 122.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 104.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 104.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/385)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 103.065 m 322.316 103.065 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.6637 598.0615 138.6557 609.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.5997 429.2455 445.5917 441.1255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.3357 323.2135 552.3317 335.0935 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 308.9575 78.0077 320.8375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.3517 280.4455 190.3397 292.3255 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.6597 223.4215 239.6477 235.3015 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 194.9095 118.0037 206.7895 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3477 166.3975 212.3357 178.2775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 103.3795 322.3157 115.2595 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/385) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000002559 00000 n 0000002668 00000 n 0000002778 00000 n 0000002887 00000 n 0000006448 00000 n 0000006576 00000 n 0000006660 00000 n 0000006751 00000 n 0000015184 00000 n 0000015214 00000 n 0000015342 00000 n 0000015378 00000 n 0000015408 00000 n 0000015536 00000 n 0000015572 00000 n 0000015656 00000 n 0000023522 00000 n 0000023552 00000 n 0000023680 00000 n 0000023716 00000 n 0000023856 00000 n 0000031680 00000 n 0000031710 00000 n 0000031838 00000 n 0000031874 00000 n 0000031904 00000 n 0000032032 00000 n 0000032068 00000 n 0000032196 00000 n 0000032251 00000 n 0000032377 00000 n 0000032432 00000 n 0000032560 00000 n 0000032615 00000 n 0000032743 00000 n 0000032798 00000 n 0000032925 00000 n 0000032980 00000 n 0000033108 00000 n 0000033163 00000 n 0000033291 00000 n 0000033386 00000 n 0000033451 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33809 %%EOF