%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818134430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818134430+01'00') /Title (A Century of State Murder? Death and Policy in Twentieth-Century Russia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3943 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Century of State Murder? Death and Policy in Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is about four episodes of excess mortality in Russia/the USSR: 1914-22, 1931-38, 1941-45, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s. The book is aimed at the general reader, although it may be of most use to older schoolchildren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and students on many courses. It may also be useful to pro-Soviet readers \(who seem to be an important part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the intended readership\) because of its combination of historical facts with left-wing political sympathies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have a good knowledge of the literature on the subjects they treat, and the book contains a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of important facts and helpful references. Positive features of the text are its sympathy for the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and oppressed who constituted the vast majority of the victims of premature death, and its stress on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociology of mortality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately the book contains a number of errors or one-sided formulations. For example, the 1916 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uprising was not in Turkmenistan \(p. 45\) but in Turkestan. The criticism by the UNDP of the results of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition is not an ?admission? \(p. 4\) by the supporters of transition orthodoxy, but simply one aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-standing conflict between the specialised agencies of the UN and the Bretton Woods Institutions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic policy. Chapter 2 is entitled ?The revolt against class society 1890-1928? despite the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1905 Russia was an estate society, not a class-based one. The table on page 59 refers to the USSR, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(387)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Haynes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rumy Husan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(745319319X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pluto Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Ellman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to Russia. The description of the Kazakhs in the early 1930s as \(p. 71\) ?nomadic peasants? is a strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Nomads and peasants are different categories. The Poles deported in 1936-37 \(p.77\) were deported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the western regions, not ?eastern?. The figure given on page 79 of 300,000 Poles who died in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation in September-October 1939 seems exaggerated. After all, according to page 167 of the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book cited by the authors as one of their two sources for this information, approximately 390,000 Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens were released from various Soviet places of detention in 1941-42. If they were released in 1941-42 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could not have died in September-October 1939. It is also not true \(p. 92\) that of the deported Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples only the Chechen and Inguish were allowed back to their traditional homelands; the Kalmyks were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well, as were the Karachai and Balkar peoples. In 2004 to read about the ?decisive failure? \(p. 132\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Soviet Russian reforms is more than a trifle strange. Russia is now in its sixth year of sustained high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic growth combined with falling and relatively low inflation, relatively low debts and rising foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange reserves. It is very doubtful whether nomenklatura privileges would have satisfied \(p. 208\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directors of large Western corporations: the latter are much greedier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strangest feature of the book is the relative attention Haynes and Husan pay these catastrophes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst of them ? the Soviet-German war ? gets only five pages \(pp. 80-84\). The second worst \(1914-22\) gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteen pages \(pp. 43-57\). The least important \(the Yeltsin-Putin era\) merits 83 pages \(pp. 119-201\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for this disproportionate attention seems to be political ? the wish to draw attention to the waste of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in ?liberal? post-Soviet Russia. Yet, from the point of view of human life, the proportions chosen are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely inappropriate. The main demographic catastrophe in modern Russia was in 1941-45, and the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst was in 1914-22. The authors? treatment of the nineteen-nineties as analogous to the three previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic crises is at the least quantitatively misleading; the number of victims of the former is much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller than that of even the least of the latter \(1931-38\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As far as 1914-22 and 1931-38 are concerned, an important issue is periodization. Most authors writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about excess mortality in the initial Soviet period focus on 1918-22. This makes sense in comparison with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other European countries involved in World War I. All of them suffered huge casualties in 1914-17, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in Russia did the situation worsen in 1918-22. However, Haynes and Husan want to play down the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Bolsheviks in causing excess deaths and therefore prefer to include 1914-17. It is of course true that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war began the brutalising process that culminated in civil war and famine; probably without the war the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge excess mortality of 1918-22 would not have occurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the nineteen-thirties, most authors separate out the famine of 1931-34 and the repression of 1937-38 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as separate episodes, and this is undoubtedly correct as far as historical detail is concerned. However, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haynes and Husan, they are both just aspects of one inhumane Stalinist policy. The reader interested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet famine of the early 1930s and prepared to read a long book would be better advised to read the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph of R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft \()] TJ ET BT 309.956 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia. Volume 5: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Years of Hunger. Soviet Agriculture 1931-1933)] TJ ET BT 283.004 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003\) However, the brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment \(pp 71-3\) by Haynes and Husan is quite sensible and is knowledgeable about serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations. As far as the nineteen-nineties are concerned, a valuable aspect of the treatment in this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the combination of a discussion of the high level of ?normal? mortality in Russia with estimates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality in the two Chechen wars and also a discussion of the sad situation in Russian prisons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possible disadvantage of the use of this book in British educational institutions is that it may contribute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an ?orientalist? approach to Russia, something to which the authors are opposed. If British history were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated this way it too would seem barbaric \(for example, the confinement of civilians in concentration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps in the Boer war, mass deaths in World War I, the Black and Tans, the Amritsar massacre, terror )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombing of German cities in World War II, indifference to the 1943 Bengal famine, numerous post-1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial and semi-colonial wars, persistent inequalities in mortality, poor prison conditions and relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high incarceration rates\). Hence many Russians will find the book one-sided.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors? approach to the history of the USSR derives from the inner-party polemics of the nineteen-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenties and -thirties and is surely no longer credible. They write very positively about the Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, which unfortunately subsequently ?degenerated?.\(p. 58\) Naturally, in their account, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik slogan of turning the imperialist war into a civil war, the Bolshevik dissolution of the Constituent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly, the Bolshevik attitude to opposition, the Bolshevik treatment of the Kronstadt uprising, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant uprisings, of the Tambov uprising, and of the Cossacks, the 1922 trial of the leaders of the Socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary party, etc all remain unmentioned. In their account of the civil war, as in Soviet accounts, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks? opponents are white generals and foreign powers, with no mention of the opposition of workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants, the Mensheviks, the Socialist Revolutionaries, and national movements in Ukraine, Georgia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the book?s stress on the role of the state in generating excess mortality is valuable, and one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which contrasts favourably with many documents of UN agencies and of writers such as Amartya Sen. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis is justified and important ? and not only for Russia/USSR.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/387)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/387) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000004644 00000 n 0000004753 00000 n 0000004863 00000 n 0000004972 00000 n 0000008533 00000 n 0000008661 00000 n 0000008745 00000 n 0000008810 00000 n 0000016257 00000 n 0000016341 00000 n 0000018492 00000 n 0000018620 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18715 %%EOF