%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416125448+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416125448+01'00') /Title (Suburban Century: Social Change and Urban Growth in England and the USA) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4314 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suburban Century: Social Change and Urban Growth in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the USA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a very long time, writers have sneered at the suburbs. They have looked down on suburbanites for being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialistic, unimaginative, and boring. They have complained about the social and physical monotony of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suburban scene while deploring its individualism and lack of community. Left-wing critics ? which is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say the majority ? have described the suburbs as places of ersatz satisfactions, where capitalism twists our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yearnings for a better life into double garages and barbecues. To this familiar litany many have recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added the charge that suburban living is irresponsible, the ultimate manifestation of our society?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to unsustainable growth. One alternative that is currently in favour is the New Urbanism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises to recreate the city in the suburbs. There is also a more pessimistic vision. Best expressed in Mike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis? dystopian view of Los Angeles, first in )] TJ ET BT 260.324 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of Quartz. Excavating the Future in Los Angeles)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London and New York: Verso, 1990\) and more recently in )] TJ ET BT 322.952 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecology of Fear. Los Angeles and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagination of Disaster)] TJ ET BT 148.688 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Holt, 1998\), it reckons that we are all going to hell in a hand-basket.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the storm of criticism has gathered in fury, the tide may yet be turning. A growing number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers have begun to defend the suburbs. In the United States the tone, and to some extent the fashion, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set more than a decade ago by Joel Garreau in )] TJ ET BT 257.948 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edge City. Life on the New Frontier)] TJ ET BT 430.952 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Doubleday, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\). His recognition of ?Edge Cities? suggests a new take on what is happening at the metropolitan fringe: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(388)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Clapson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1859736432)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Harris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7798 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of formless sprawl he discerns new nodes of economic activity, community, and \(yes\) culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead of uniformity he sees diversity; in place of isolation and anomie he describes vibrant communities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest; instead of conformity he finds limitless self-expression. Lately, American academics have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborated upon these themes, and in particular that of diversity. It has become conventional to note that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern suburbs contain all kinds of people, rich and \(fairly\) poor, immigrant and native-born, white and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other shades. Historians such as Andrew Wiese and Becky Nicolaides are now reporting that the same was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also true in the past. They are also re-examining their anti-suburban prejudices, as Rosalyn Baxandall and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Ewen do in their confessional introduction to )] TJ ET BT 301.988 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picture Windows. How the Suburbs Happened)] TJ ET BT 525.308 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York: Basic Books, 2000\). The same re-assessment is underway in Britain, although perhaps less vigorously. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, for example, the geographers Jeremy Whitehand and Catherine Carr have pointed out in )] TJ ET BT 489.236 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century Suburbs. A Morphological Approach)] TJ ET BT 253.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge, 2001\) that even the inter-war suburban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semis came a range of sizes and styles. Academics and writers of socially-grounded fiction, such as Zadie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith in )] TJ ET BT 78.032 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Teeth)] TJ ET BT 135.692 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Hamish Hamilton, 2000\), have shown that the people who now occupy those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semis come in all shades. This social and physical diversity is at least comparable with that of the nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century terraces that intellectuals have been gentrifying for a generation or more. Stereotypes are being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned and, perhaps for the first time, there is a real debate about the merits of the suburbs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suburban Century)] TJ ET BT 135.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Mark Clapson takes stock of the historiography, and the historical experience, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburban development over the past century. It is very much a work of synthesis, drawing in only a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases upon the author?s research. Focusing on the social aspects of the subject, he claims to present the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that will enable readers to draw their own conclusions.\(p. 7\) He does this, but it is clear where his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own sympathies lie. They are implied early on, in his suggestion that the emergence of a more favourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of suburbs is a sign that their historiography is finally ?maturing?.\(p. 9\) His own perspective is finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unveiled, however, when he declares that his purpose is ?to rescue suburbia from the enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condescension of the rich, young, and trendy?.\(p. 13\) He is not an uncritical booster, but it is clear where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depending on how broadly or narrowly they are defined, suburbs may be said to date back a couple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries or several millennia. Clapson concentrates on the past century, which is when suburban living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the norm in what is still usually described as the developed world. He covers some of the inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics and in an effective fashion. Early chapters survey the range of ?expert? opinion and outline what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many believe to have been the major forces that have shaped the growth and evolution of suburbs, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the rise of mass transit and the automobile. He discusses the aspirations that led or drove people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the suburbs, including a pervasive anti-urbanism, the desire to own one?s own home, and to live in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spacious, attractive districts that are close to, or incorporate some elements of, the country. He takes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, most fully developed by feminists since the 1960s, that suburban environments best suit men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely because women have found the transportation options to be limiting. Assessing the evidence he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that this may sometimes have been true but that it has usually been overstated. He also takes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have criticised the suburbs for their alienated individualism and social conformity. Again, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, both points have been overstated. Suburbanites are often joiners, especially in the early years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement when friends have to be made and social institutions built up, but this is their choice. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable conclusions, well expressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slightly less conventional is Clapson?s treatment of the class and ethnic dimensions of the suburban trend. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acknowledging recent arguments that modern suburbs are socially diverse, he plays up their ethnic mix. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes a chapter to the suburbanisation of Blacks, and another to Jews and Asian immigrants. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful corrective to the stereotype that English and American suburbs are still largely white. Interestingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his conclusion is that in moving to the urban fringe, minorities have been motivated by almost exactly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same considerations as the white majority, which suggests that ethnic suburbs are less distinctive than they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may at first appear. If true, I am not sure whether this conclusion is comforting or dispiriting. But suburbs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have often been stereotyped not only as white, but also as middle class. Clapson notes that this stereotype )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not been accurate, but he does not deal with the issue head on, for example by discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms that made it possible for workers to settle at the urban fringe. In Britain, the construction of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council estates after World War I was obviously vital in this regard; in the United States, speculative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builders catered to workers in industrial suburbs, while in the extensive fringe areas that lacked municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, many workers simply built their own homes. These corporation, industrial, and unplanned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburbs have differed significantly from the middle-class subdivisions of conventional mythology, and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points of class difference deserve more sustained attention in a survey such as this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most unconventional aspects of )] TJ ET BT 209.660 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suburban Century)] TJ ET BT 297.992 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and its main interest, is its comparative frame of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference and the manner in which it seamlessly connects past and present. Trained as a historian, Clapson is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless comfortable with the sociological literature and with the construction of a narrative that gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly balanced coverage of the entire twentieth century. He speaks, then, to historians and social scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike. Even more unusually, he undertakes to compare the English experience with that of the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with occasional references to Scotland, Canada and Australia thrown in for good measure. Most histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities and suburbs focus on just one place; a few have tried to interpret a national experience, but almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none compare countries. In particular, and to a remarkable degree, histories of suburbanisation in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States rarely make more than passing transatlantic references. This is obviously unfortunate. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Fishman has argued in )] TJ ET BT 181.004 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bourgeois Utopias: the Rise and Fall of Suburbia)] TJ ET BT 420.008 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Basic Books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\), a rare comparative study, the design of the early middle-class English suburbs had enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence in the United States. More importantly, as Clapson claims, many of the same motives have driven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suburban trend in both countries. There are, of course, national differences. The most obvious of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are residential densities and, because of different planning environments, varying degrees of sprawl. On this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point Clapson extends Arthur Edwards? vivid simile, suggesting that if English cities have grown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incrementally and amorphously, like lichen, those in the United States are lichen on growth hormones. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes other differences too, most obviously the contrasting history of race relations, and the differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportions of immigrants, especially in the first half of the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the challenges of a comparative study, particularly on a topic that has attracted a lot of attention, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being able to keep up with the pertinent literature and do justice to the major debates. Clapson is widely-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read: the list of references runs to about 560 items. The author of )] TJ ET BT 348.620 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invincible Green Suburbs, Brave New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Towns. Social Change and Urban Dispersal in Post-war England)] TJ ET BT 349.700 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1998\), he speaks with authority of the modern British experience but misses, or downplays, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important elements of the American scene. He suggests, for example, that Jews were central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of ethnic diversity in American suburbs. This is arguable for New York, and perhaps one or two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other places, but it is not generally true. In many eastern cities, and throughout the midwest, suburban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries led other immigrants into the suburbs. In the Chicago area, for example, it drew Germans to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammond, Poles to West Hammond, and Italians to Chicago Heights. With regard to the suburbanisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-Americans, Clapson barely acknowledges the argument that has been articulated most forcefully by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Julius Wilson, notably in )] TJ ET BT 199.364 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Truly Disadvantaged: the Inner City, the Underclass and Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy)] TJ ET BT 64.676 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987\). Wilson concedes that in the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburbanisation has reflected the opening up of opportunities for a new black middle class, but argues that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has left behind a ghettoised underclass, whose opportunities for social and geographical advancement have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been reduced almost to the vanishing point. With respect to the American working class, Clapson accepts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established view that workers followed the middle class into the suburbs and, in so doing, were essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitating their social superiors. This downplays the very long history of working-class settlement at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fringe of US cities, and overlooks the fact that, as a number of writers have shown, including Olivier Zunz in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Changing Face of Inequality: Urbanization, Industrial Development and Immigrants in Detroit, 1880-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1920)] TJ ET BT 58.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982\), in moving to the suburbs workers were driven by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motives that were different from those of the middle class. Workers were, above all, determined to gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over some aspect of their lives by emancipating themselves from the arbitrary tyrannies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlord.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.012 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.012 115.299 m 91.004 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Clapson underestimates the importance of the local political realm. To be sure, he acknowledges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the United States suburban municipalities have often exercised their powers to exclude those whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they view as socially undesirable. He also discusses, at some length, the implications of suburbanisation for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.0117 115.6135 91.0037 127.4935 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 3832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national party politics. But purely local politics has a different, and a greater, kind of significance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States than in Britain. American municipalities have constitutional powers; they cannot be abolished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or amalgamated by state and federal governments against their will. The proliferation of local governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to shape the suburbanisation process; indeed Americans commonly define suburbs, in part, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places with a political identity. Each of these features of the American experience sets it apart from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, and in neglecting them Clapson reveals the geographical bias of his knowledge and experience. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, I also believe that he overstates the commonalities in the historical experience of these countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be a pity if certain gaps in coverage were to discourage potential readers in the United States. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent review article, Mark Swenarton has noted that the literature on American suburbs is extensive, lively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in many ways diverse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.660 654.771 m 175.652 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.652 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That is true, but it is also consistently parochial. It is the great merit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suburban Century)] TJ ET BT 122.348 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that it tries to open up some channels of dialogue between historians of US and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburbs. This, as much as any specific claims that it makes, may be its lasting contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Harris, ?The suburban worker in the history of labor,? )] TJ ET BT 367.280 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Labor and Working-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class History)] TJ ET BT 129.692 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 64 \(2003\), 8-24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.680 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.680 546.483 m 267.668 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Swenarton, ?Tudor Walters and Tudorbethan. Reassessing Britain?s inter-war suburbs?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Planning Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 171.668 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 \(2002\), 267-86.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.656 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.656 517.971 m 321.644 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 474.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 456.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 456.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/388)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 454.953 m 322.316 454.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 429.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6597 655.0855 175.6517 666.9655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6797 546.7975 267.6677 558.6775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.6557 518.2855 321.6437 530.1655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 455.2675 322.3157 467.1475 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/388) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005350 00000 n 0000008911 00000 n 0000009039 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000009188 00000 n 0000017039 00000 n 0000017123 00000 n 0000025197 00000 n 0000025227 00000 n 0000025353 00000 n 0000025389 00000 n 0000025494 00000 n 0000029379 00000 n 0000029409 00000 n 0000029537 00000 n 0000029573 00000 n 0000029701 00000 n 0000029756 00000 n 0000029884 00000 n 0000029939 00000 n 0000030067 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30162 %%EOF