%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725171029+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725171029+01'00') /Title (Courts and Conflict in Twelfth-Century Tuscany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4375 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Courts and Conflict in Twelfth-Century Tuscany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Courts and Conflict in Twelfth-Century Tuscany)] TJ ET BT 266.372 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first English version, slightly revised, of a study that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was previously published in an Italian translation \()] TJ ET BT 276.992 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legge, Practiche e Conflitti)] TJ ET BT 410.324 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [Rome: Viella libreria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editrice, 2000]\). In it, Chris Wickham brings his incomparable knowledge of the Tuscan archives to bear on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question of how Italians conducted their disputes, both in court and out. At the core of the book are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham?s account of numerous conflicts, often enduring for years, which vividly convey the strategies by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which individuals and groups could assert and defend their claims to property and status. What results is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably fine-grained picture of daily life in a society where legal and quasi-legal procedures were in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of displacing direct resort to violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That such work was possible at all reflects documentary and court procedures that were new in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under study. Whereas early medieval )] TJ ET BT 215.300 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(placita)] TJ ET BT 248.636 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had become largely formulaic by the tenth century, twelfth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century courts and arbitrations generated a variety of documents, including sworn testimony of witnesses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the claims and counter-claims of the litigants, and the judgment of the arbitrators. Some of the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation has been lost over time, to be sure, but enough remains for Wickham to recreate for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader the history of 26 conflicts, tracing the background of each dispute, how they played out over time, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? because the documents sometimes provide enough direct speech to reveal how these often humble Tuscans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the issues between them ? the arguments offered by the opposing parties in support of their claims. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(389)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Wickham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199265860X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Radding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham, who appreciates sources that permit him to hear his subjects speak, the opportunity to immerse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself in these documents must have been part of the attraction of doing the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This new abundance of documentation reflects, in part, the emergence of communal courts as a venue for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settling disputes. Chapter 2 of the book traces this process for Lucca, in one of the most lucid treatments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relevant historical issues that I have read in any language. Wickham situates this development in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of Italian government that began in the later eleventh century as the investiture contest heated up. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucca, this process began with the expulsion in 1080 of bishop Anselmo, an ally of Matilda of Canossa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after which the city received imperial privileges from Henry IV, which compensated for the loss of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously central role in the march of Tuscany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The actual development of judicial institutions took much longer, however, and tended to follow the model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of informal arbitrations that had grown up outside the )] TJ ET BT 294.320 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(placitum)] TJ ET BT 336.320 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tradition. These arbitrations were, in effect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private courts. Having chosen one or more arbiters, the parties presented their claims and the witnesses they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed could support them, with the arbiters then arriving at a judgment on the basis of what they heard. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the communal courts took root, their judges followed much the same procedures. There was not even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily much difference between the personnel involved, for the same individuals might appear in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucchese communal courts and in the arbitrations that continued to be used, especially in the countryside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The documentary remains from settling disputes are thus rather similar regardless of whether arbitrations or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts are used.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using this documentation, the rest of book studies how disputes were pursued and ultimately settled in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of different jurisdictions within Tuscany: Lucca, Pisa, the Florentine countryside, and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. Each of these venues provides a different take on how Tuscans disputed. Pisa, a neighbour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional rival of Lucca, was quicker to develop urban institutions \(starting in the 1080s\) and to adopt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman law, which appears rather suddenly in 1159. Florence was smaller than either Lucca or Pisa in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century and its institutions were less developed, leaving disputes in the )] TJ ET BT 414.320 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contado)] TJ ET BT 452.984 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( largely outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the city's courts. Ecclesiastical institutions, finally, had the option of recourse to church courts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the papal courts, even for cases whose legal substance was no different from those that secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts routinely dealt with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these differences in the character of societies, institutions, and even the law applied, Wickham found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant uniformities, both in the way twelfth-century Tuscans conducted their disputes and in the proofs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they recognized as decisive. Documents could be used a proof, but in societies where land was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveyed or registered and social relations often were undocumented, public behaviors could be almost as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important. In a boundary dispute between neighbouring landowners Passavante di Sesto and Chianne di )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ghiandoro \(pp. 81-5\), it mattered a great deal whether Passavante's wife had cut down a certain tree secretly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or openly: ?Open, i.e., public, direct action was a claim to rights; people could see you doing it, and would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude that, if you were not challenged, you had right on your side.?\(p. 83\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The corollary, of course, is that it was legitimate and even obligatory to defend one's claims by public protest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, if one was strong enough, with a controlled violence ? driving the intruder off one's property or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking up the canals feeding a mill-pond. Whatever their personal temperament, medieval Tuscans could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not simply let infringements attempted by their neighbours slide by unchallenged, without risking loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own rights: helping a neighbor carry wood away could later be cited as evidence that they had the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to that wood. Such logic was not, of course, confined to Italy. As Wickham knows, the kind of evidence he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered in Tuscany shows up equally in the earliest cases of )] TJ ET BT 346.952 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(novel disseisin)] TJ ET BT 417.284 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which could hinge on who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was seen ploughing land or performing other acts demonstrating control of a property. By the mid-thirteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, English courts even tolerated the forcible, public dispossession of intruders by rightful owners. Put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another way, and without wishing to speculate too wildly about comparative law, it would seem that what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English courts did, at least at the beginning, was to build a legal system that could take advantage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes typical of rural life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Italy, however, this reasoning went well beyond cases involving land. It appears equally in cases )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving legal status, or patronage of a church, or the operation of a mill. Whatever the dispute, its seems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence could be entered about the words spoken in public, meals eaten or not eaten, or any of a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tiny details that shaped what everyone said and knew \()] TJ ET BT 296.300 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(publica fama)] TJ ET BT 359.300 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and could be offered as evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how matters stood. The individual cases summarised in the book leave no doubt that such events were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully observed and remembered, and could even be brought to bear on behalf of competing narratives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same dispute. The reader is reminded constantly that legal disputes often provide the best and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only sources for reconstructing the daily details of social behaviours.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Wickham is not interested only in the social dimension of disputes. Part of his purpose was also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the role of legal structures ? courts and arbitrations ? in shaping how disputes played out. Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this aspect of his study particularly significant is the fact that this was the period when formal legal studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferated at Bologna and also elsewhere: did the advances in legal learning have any effect on actual legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice? The consequences of the revival of Roman law can be seen most clearly in Pisa. Some fragments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Roman law start appearing in the 1150s, and then, rather suddenly, one encounters the use in 1159 of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically Roman actions. This innovation was quickly followed, in 1160, by a \(considerably exaggerated\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration in the )] TJ ET BT 120.332 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(constituta)] TJ ET BT 167.672 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Roman law was long traditional in Pisa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction of Roman law in Pisa was essentially ?an ideological choice? \(p. 120\), stemming from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to invoke Roman political parallels; in practice, it took a long time before Roman rules, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage property arrangements, actually pushed aside previously prevailing custom. But while Roman rules )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were slow to take hold in Pisa, Roman law did alter what happened in court. Wickham's finely nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis shows that the key result of using Roman actions was to highlight the key legal issues so they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged more quickly from the thicket of extraneous details. Traditional litigation, as seen at Lucca and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pisa before the reform, had consisted of a flurry of charges and counter-charges, some of which were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite marginal to the underlying legal issue, which judges or arbiters then had to sort out in arriving at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment. Roman-style actions, in contrast, stated the key legal issue explicitly and at the outset, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent efficiency in management of the dispute. At least this is how it worked until, after a few decades' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, notaries learned to claim multiple actions when they initiated cases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The procedural clarity of Roman law differs not only from Lombard law, as seen in Lucca, but also from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned canon law. Canon law had the practical effect of directing a great deal of litigation to the papal court, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if responsibility for making the final decision was often delegated back to people on the spot. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although a few documents cite Gratian's )] TJ ET BT 229.472 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 276.788 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was certainly available by the 1150s, explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to it are rare. This is so despite the presence in two cases of Bazianus, a noted glossator of Gratian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, however, never felt the need to cite the )] TJ ET BT 250.292 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 297.608 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in his cases. In considering this apparent paradox, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 166.004 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 213.320 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( simply may not have been entirely suitable for resolving real disputes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which often needed more compromise than provided for by the letter of the law \(p. 237\); even the proofs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered often had more to do with local custom than bookish rules.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This particular point might eventually repay further attention. A study focused specifically on the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect of learned law, as this book is not, might find it worth considering whether, especially for Lombard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, the lack of explicitness reflects the survival of an older style of argument that did not explicitly mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific laws or principles, even when they were being implicitly invoked. The )] TJ ET BT 415.952 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(placita)] TJ ET BT 449.288 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are too stereotyped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal this, but one can glimpse this principle in action in the eleventh-century commentaries to the Lombard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law ? learned law, perhaps, but written by practising jurists whose names appear in the documentary record. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the standard methods of these commentaries was to illustrate the application of individual laws by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model pleas written in direct speech; but these model pleas, often quite complex, almost never name the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under which they were proceeding, other laws that might bear on the case, nor even broader legal principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when the authors of the glosses had them in mind. For example, a commentary to Roth. 227, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with leases, offers multiple model pleas in which the language given to the litigants speaks only about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the facts of the case. We know that the jurists had a theoretical framework in mind only because of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment inserted between two of the pleas: ?Thus it is done for an )] TJ ET BT 358.964 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(actio in rem)] TJ ET BT 416.960 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; but if it is to be pursued as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an )] TJ ET BT 48.344 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(actio locati)] TJ ET BT 102.680 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( let it be done this way.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.668 62.787 m 233.660 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.660 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If these commentaries are at all accurate about eleventh-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleading, it seems at least possible that enough of this pleading style survived to have influenced how cases )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.6677 63.1015 233.6597 74.9815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 3289 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were argued in Wickham's documents from a century later. Certainly the technical skill of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lombard\) judges, even in the later period, is apparent in their ability to arrive at the real issue between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties, as they generally seem to have done, despite the smoke screens of extraneous argument laid down by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides: my years of listening to professors discuss university policies suggest that true amateurs, or those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who know rules only from books, rarely do so well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final point of interest is Wickham's effort, implicit throughout the book but explicit in both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction and conclusion, to connect twelfth-century materials with legal anthropology. His meticulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern with process, with narratives, and with the interaction between rules and power was informed by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive theoretical reading ranging from Max Gluckman to Pierre Bourdieu. Here, too, the institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluidity of this particular period has its payoffs, as the rules themselves were, perhaps, more subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation than they would be when the courts were better established or ? to put the matter another way ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they could dispose of more coercive power to enforce their judgments. These broader theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns add a further layer of interest to a book that is entirely satisfying even when read only for its rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local detail and social description.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monumenta Germaniae Historica)] TJ ET BT 226.664 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Leges, vol. 4 \(1868\), p. 355.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.648 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.648 532.227 m 422.636 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wickham is happy to accept this very generous review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 462.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 444.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 444.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/389)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 442.953 m 322.316 442.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 417.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2159)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.6477 532.5415 422.6357 544.4215 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 443.2675 322.3157 455.1475 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/389) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000005058 00000 n 0000005167 00000 n 0000005277 00000 n 0000005386 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000009075 00000 n 0000009159 00000 n 0000009224 00000 n 0000016545 00000 n 0000016629 00000 n 0000025172 00000 n 0000025202 00000 n 0000025328 00000 n 0000025364 00000 n 0000025455 00000 n 0000028797 00000 n 0000028925 00000 n 0000028980 00000 n 0000029108 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29203 %%EOF