%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728195957+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728195957+01'00') /Title (Africa Encountered: European Contacts and Evidence 1450-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4087 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Africa Encountered: European Contacts and Evidence 1450-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Hair, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Liverpool, is best known as one of the pioneers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the academic study of the history of sub-Saharan \(or in Hair?s own preferred terminology, Black\) Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1950s onwards. This volume re-prints a selection of his published output, comprising eleven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles \(one in two parts, so effectively 12 items\) which appeared between 1966 and 1992. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced without emendation, retaining even their original various fonts and separate paginations; with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only very limited notes of corrections and additions appended. There is also a Bibliography of the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications, not of their totality but of those specifically in the fields of ?African and World History?; and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief \(5 pages\) Introduction which sets the selected essays in their historiographical context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The articles selected for inclusion represent only one aspect of Hair?s work on the history of pre-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-Saharan Africa, concentrating on the earliest period of direct Afro-European relations: essentially, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of Portuguese dominance in western African trade, from the original discovery of the coast in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth century to the eclipse of the Portuguese by the Dutch in the mid-seventeenth century; though some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the items take in a rather longer time-scale, to the end of the seventeenth century \(and in one case, a study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the evolution of the linguistic form and denotation of the toponym ?Sierra Leone?, even beyond, down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. E. H. Hair)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780860786269)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(346pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Variorum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=2901&edition_id=3365)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N/A)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Law)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7558 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into modern times\). Of the eleven items, four deal specifically with Sierra Leone, the locus of Hair?s original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed research; five with western Africa \(?Guinea?\) more generally; while two represent excursions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the author?s usual geographical field, into south-east Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even within the geographical and chronological parameters specified, the articles in this volume comprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the totality, but only a selection of Hair?s output, though the basis for the selection is not made explicit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hair himself characterizes the selected items as ?groundwork in European sources on Black Africa? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Introduction, vii\). In fact, they do not include any of his \(very valuable\) critical analyses of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, but they do rest upon meticulous detailed analysis of the available primary evidence: in Hair?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-characterization \(p.ix\), involving ?complicated comparisons, long footnotes, and nothing more exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the regular expression of doubts about the evidential soundness of current generalizations?. Four of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays deal essentially with European enterprise in western Africa: two with the Portuguese - a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of the Portuguese ?discovery? of Guinea \(dealt with in terms of intellectual, rather than narrowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime history\), and a study of an abortive scheme for settlement in Sierra Leone; and two with early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English voyages to western Africa, representing incursions into what was still an established Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere of influence - one of these seeking to contextualize the curiosity of the first recorded performance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tragedy ?Hamlet?, which was on an English vessel moored off the coast in 1607. One deals with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of the legacy of early European contact, in a study of historical toponymy \(on the changing form and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denotation of the name ?Sierra Leone?\); and one with the provisioning of the Portuguese garrison at Sofala, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in south-eastern Africa, in the early sixteenth century, a question which is approached philologically, seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to identify various cereals mentioned in the records. Two essays deal specifically with the linguistic aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of early Afro-European contact, exploring the critical practical question of how communication was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved: what languages were used, and what knowledge of African languages did Europeans gain? This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic interest leads on to what might be regarded as the empirical core of the corpus, representing over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third of the whole, three articles \(published in 1966-7\) mapping out European knowledge of ethnic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic groups on the west African coast in the first two and a half centuries of contact. This is done for no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquarian purpose, but to sustain the thesis of long-term ?ethnolinguistic continuity? in the region, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the picture of frequent displacements and reconstitutions of ethnic groups suggested by an uncritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of local oral traditions. They also serve to illustrate the potential of detailed study of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for the reconstruction of indigenous African history, as well that of European activities in Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hair characterizes his own approach, as illustrated in these essays and by comparison with the work of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of Africa, not only in terms of its concentration on the critical analysis of conventional written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which in practice, means mainly European\) sources, but also in terms of his eschewing generalization in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of a particularistic focus. His evident distaste for generalization is reflected in some defensiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about his own forays in this direction; the most explicitly generalizing item in this collection, which happens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to be the most recently published \(1992\), on the Portuguese discovery of Guinea, is self-deprecatingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as the product of the author?s ?senescent maturity? \(p.x\). This opposition between the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the general, however, seems somewhat rhetorical, and does not do justice to the significance of Hair?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly contribution. However narrowly focused, these essays do more than simply challenge existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalizations; they also provide the basis, albeit mostly implicitly, for alternative generalizations on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and impact of early Afro-European contact. The argument for ?ethnolinguistic continuity?, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, certainly demolished the existing general framework within which early modern African history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was approached, but it substituted an alternative more plausible general framework, rather than leaving a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vacuum. Empirical solidity may make possible better generalization, and need not undermine the validity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any generalization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some problems are also presented by Hair?s account of the the historiographical setting of his work, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given in his Introduction. He self-consciously sets himself against what he sees as the dominant trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within academic African history, in his focus on detailed analysis and criticism of written sources, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically European sources. By contrast, the mainstream of African historical studies is condemned both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for neglecting the systematic search for written sources, and for failing to apply the usual standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic historical scholarship to their interpretation and evaluation. One difficulty here is that there is a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7546 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain ambiguity over whether these remarks are intended to describe the milieu of African academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history at its beginning, in the 1950s and 60s, or to apply more generally, down to the present. Thus, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hair is right to say that the discipline of source criticism traditional in other fields of history was generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected in the early days of the development of African history, this has become somewhat less true during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last few years. One symptom of this shift has been the institution by the African Studies Association, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993, of a Text Prize, specifically for work in the critical editing of source material. Ironically, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely appropriately, the inaugural winner of the prize was a work co-edited by Hair himself: the critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition/translation of the description of Guinea by the French trader Jean Barbot \(published by the Hakluyt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also, the explanation which Hair offers of this neglect of the fundamental task of source criticism does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry complete conviction. In fact, he offers a range of supplementary explanations, rather than a single one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first suggestion is that the desire to reconstruct an ?Afrocentric? history led to a conscious neglect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European sources, as necessarily biased, and ?a cult of oral traditions?, which were presented as offering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for an indigenous African perspective \(p.vii\). While there is clearly something in this, it may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested that, insofar as there was a ?cult? of oral tradition, this was perhaps due mainly to the belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were few written sources available, rather than that those that were available were irremediably biased; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Hair himself notes elsewhere \(item VII, 268\), there was a general failure to appreciate the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material which was, in fact, to be found in early European written sources. Far from facing a paucity of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, African historical studies have as yet done no more than scratch the surface of what is available. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in any case, it may be suggested that the ?cult of oral traditions? was to a large degree rhetoric. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering works of academic African history in the 1950s - K.O. Dike?s ?Trade and Politics in the Niger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delta? \(1956\) and S.O. Biobaku?s ?The Egba and their Neighbours? \(1957\) - actually made very limited use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of oral sources \(and in the case of Biobaku, these were mainly oral sources in written form - in published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories by local amateur scholars\), but were based on conventional written sources, the records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European government, commercial and missionary agencies. And this has generally remained true of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the history of coastal western Africa. Serious attempts to write history on the basis of oral tradition were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more characteristic of East and Central rather than West Africa, and generally related to areas in the interior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for which there were, literally, no European sources at all for the pre-colonial period \(as with B.A. Ogot?s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?History of the Southern Luo?, 1967\). Moreover, although early enthusiasm for the potential of oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions as historical sources was often uncritical, work done since the 1970s has produced greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity to the difficulties involved in their interpretation and evaluation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It remains true that early work on pre-nineteenth African century history often displayed a disregard of \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps unawareness of\) the normal standards of criticism of written sources. Hair?s second suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for this failing is that, in the hurry to constitute African history as an academic discipline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general synthesis was privileged to the expense of detailed scholarship: there was too much ?grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposition of major regional and national histories? \(or less politely, too much ?crude global theorizing?\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too little detailed work on ?very limited localities and areas of record? \(p.viii\). This too seems to me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful. Although there was of course pressure in the early days to produce textbooks for use in schools and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities, the earliest published monographs of academic African history \(Dike, Biobaku etc.\) studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific areas rather than regional or continental themes. Intellectual reputations in the field of African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history were made out of detailed scholarship rather than grand synthesis. The ?global theorizing? of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hair complains was hardly in evidence in African history prior to 1970s, with the hegemony first of neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist ?dependency? theory and then of Althusserian Marxism, and even these proved no more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemeral fashions. Over the long run, it might be suggested that African historical studies have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized \(and arguably, weakened\) by a lack of theory rather than the reverse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hair suggests that his own preference for ?the tedious duty of digging out all extant primary sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining them in detail? reflects the fact that, rather than being trained a specifically African historian, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ?drifted? into the field through the accidental circumstance of being employed in universities in Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Sierra Leone and Nigeria, in the 1950s and ?60s. This, however, does not differentiate him from others in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pioneering generation, whose training was necessarily likewise outside African history. I have sometimes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that the weakness of source criticism in African history was due to the fact that this pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation was constituted by scholars trained in modern history, rather than in the fields of medieval or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classical history, where the problematic nature of fragmentary source material imposes more explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to its critical analysis. \(Or, to put the matter more personally, I had thought that my own interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source criticism - still somewhat eccentric among Africanists of a younger generation - was a carry-over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from my initial training as a Classicist.\) But this schema cannot account for the phenomenon of Hair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, whose initial research was on nineteenth-century British social history. Perhaps it is ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitless to look for such general explanations; in what was a very small field, much may be attributable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accident of individual character and predilection. The profession should be grateful that, among much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoddy work, Paul Hair with some others maintained a commitment to traditional standards of meticulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed scholarship; and while he clearly savours self-image as a maverick individual going against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend, his scholarship has perhaps been accorded, however belatedly, greater recognition than he allows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 594.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 576.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 576.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/39)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 575.241 m 316.316 575.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 550.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/324)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 575.5555 316.3157 587.4355 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/39) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000645 00000 n 0000004784 00000 n 0000004893 00000 n 0000005003 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000008673 00000 n 0000008801 00000 n 0000008885 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000016561 00000 n 0000016626 00000 n 0000024225 00000 n 0000024309 00000 n 0000026883 00000 n 0000027011 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27105 %%EOF