%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417104407+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417104407+01'00') /Title (Urban Europe 1100-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4122 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Urban Europe 1100-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious book, attempting as it does to span the whole of Europe and cover six hundred years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanism. It is also ambitious in trying to bridge the conventional divide drawn between the ?medieval? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modern? ages usually placed by historians and archaeologists somewhere between the fourteenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth centuries. The question is, does the book succeed in these aims? The short answer, I think, is yes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it does so with two main shortcomings. One concern is the balance struck between detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisation, and the other is the book?s overall coherence. Both are perhaps a price that has to be paid for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with such a long time period and broad geographical area, which leads me to ask whether a project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this kind can really ever be successful? And yet, the need exists to occasionally take a longer-term view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when it comes to trying to understand how urban Europe was made ? the main aim of David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas?s book ? into what it is today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe 1100-1700)] TJ ET BT 158.672 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is presented thematically, with seven chapters dealing with particular topics that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range across this chosen time-period. An alternative would have been to have had one chapter per century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each comprising elements of the topics that Nicholas examines, such as social structure and corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanism, enabling the reader to see for themselves how a seventeenth-century town differed from, say, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth-century one, or indeed how certain aspects of urbanism remained constant across time. Instead the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book opens with a couple of chapters that attempt to look at the longue dure of second millennium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(390)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 29 February, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nicholas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33394982)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(251pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Lilley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European urbanism. The first of these is scene-setting and tries to set out what defines a town, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some general demographics of urban population change across the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here two issues emerge which I think might have been addressed more directly: one is what defines a town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a city, while the second concerns what defines the ?medieval? from the ?modern?. In vernacular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, for example, the word ?city? was becoming commonplace by the fifteenth century, yet the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?town? persisted in a generic sense to mean an inhabited place ? rural or urban. Nicholas slides between both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?town? and ?city? in his usage. There is also scope to discuss more specifically the perceived differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between ?medieval? and ?modern? urbanism and urbanisation ? for a book such as this, with its broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporal perspective, surely is a basis from which to challenge and even overthrow these very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodisations?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second of the two introductory chapters draws upon what Nicholas describes as ?geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory?.\(p. viii\) By this he \(by and large\) means locational theory, used especially though not exclusively by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human geographers to explain patterns of urban hierarchies and networks.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.264 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.264 600.003 m 403.256 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.256 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Influenced by the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic giants such as Von Thnen and Christaller, Nicholas looks at the relationship between the city and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its region, or hinterland, and its place in a broader urban system. This subject is a book in itself. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographers were writing such books in the 1960s, Dickinson?s )] TJ ET BT 343.304 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City Region in Western Europe)] TJ ET BT 514.292 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an example of this genre in practice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.304 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.304 542.979 m 222.296 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 222.296 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, today?s urban geographers have abandoned central place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and rank size rule as explanatory tools, and prefer instead the socio-spatial theoretical ideas of Henri )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lefebvre, Michel Foucault, Walter Benjamin, Georg Simmel and Bruno Latour.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.292 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.292 514.467 m 432.284 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.284 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So Nicholas?s use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?geographical theory? in the chapter on the city and region is not quite so innovative as is made out in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preface, and may even be viewed by some to be somewhat out-dated, although the empirical examples he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses in this discussion ? for example, Cologne and London ? are drawn from recent research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the remainder of the book, Nicholas moves from looking at inter-urban relationships to intra-urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics and internal organisation. This is accomplished in four chapters that cover, in sequence, urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiognomy, politics, society, and economy. Of these the author seems least at home with the first, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more confident on the more socio-economic aspects of urbanism to be found in the later chapters. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable, considering Nicholas? particular expertise, but unfortunately it leaves the chapter on ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morphology of the urban plan? looking weak and vulnerable. This is an area where recent geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study might have helped, for urban morphology ? the study of urban form ? has increasingly begun to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the layouts of towns and cities of Europe contain evidence in their forms of their origins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, which when tied into written accounts and archaeological evidence provides a picture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics of urban landscapes and the processes that shaped them over time. Instead, Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunately falls back onto the artificial and unhelpful distinction that is often made between ?organic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned towns?.\(pp. 62-8\) Conzen questioned this distinction long ago, and yet so often it still appears in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.684 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.684 274.371 m 73.676 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is unhelpful for two reasons. First, it oversimplifies the complexity of urban forms and their formation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, it draws a false connection between irregularity in form and ?organic growth? on the one hand, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularity in form and ?planned growth? on the other. Urban planning takes many different forms and occurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a variety of social levels and need not be manifest morphologically as ?regular? layouts of streets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plots. Conzen and other geographers have shown how past and present urban landscapes are composite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form, that is they are made up of discrete areas that reflect phases of development, even in cases of so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new towns?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.332 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.332 162.579 m 113.324 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.324 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These phases of development vary in terms of their degree of morphological regularity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet at one level or another are nevertheless ?planned?. Some degree of ?planning? is always at work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making of urban landscapes, so to categorise towns according to whether their plans are ?organic? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?planned? is to obscure the processes that formed them. ?Town foundation? is thus but one aspect of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning, and an examination of the forms of ?new towns? reveals great variety rather than conformity. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter could have benefited from more engagement with recent geographical \(and historical\) study of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morphology of the urban plan? therefore, and in doing so curious generalisations might have been avoided, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as ?the plans of the earliest cities were extremely irregular?.\(p. 91\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.2637 600.3175 403.2557 612.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.3037 543.2935 222.2957 555.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.2917 514.7815 432.2837 526.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.6837 274.6855 73.6757 286.5655 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3317 162.8935 113.3237 174.7735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the first three chapters of the book might be seen to owe rather more to geography than history, the reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is true for the last three, for here we see Nicholas providing a highly readable and thorough examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what people did in towns and cities ? how they lived and worked. Quite a lot of this, looking at the footnotes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to borrow on the author?s previous works ? and why not, since they are good sources to use ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again there are some odd generalisations \(for example, ?prostitution was rampant? \(p. 135\), ?streets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squares of the pre-modern city were thus noxious and dangerous? \(p. 160\)\) that might be queried; but on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole the student who may be reading this will be well-informed on certain topics, such as how citizenry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was formed, or how urban inhabitants were educated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the time, though, the temporal balance seems to shift more towards the earlier part of the book?s period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the latter, and the attention paid to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries especially begins to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced down a little to the familiar topics of religious discord, or the growth of printing. This again might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be an argument for adopting more of a chronological approach in a book such as this ? that the period being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered is somehow too stretched to work as a set of separate themes, for doing so means having to treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some superficiality the specificity of certain moments in European urban history. It also has the effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of lessening the overall coherence of the book, for by the end of it we have lost sight of the introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of long-term change set out at the start. The impression, then, given by the latter three chapters is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while they no doubt reflect \(at least as far as the medieval material is concerned\) the author?s true expertise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they form a second book, distinct from the ?book? created by the first few chapters: it is as if the first three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are telling one type of story, and the second three tell it in another way. The short concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter with its a long title requires perhaps a little more extended reflection to help bring the two halves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is undoubtedly a useful addition to a growing stock of recent books on ?pre-modern? European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban life. It sits alongside offerings such as Dyer?s )] TJ ET BT 285.968 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making a Living in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 458.624 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Schofield and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vince?s second and Europeanised edition of )] TJ ET BT 249.968 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Towns)] TJ ET BT 328.964 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as my own )] TJ ET BT 426.620 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Life in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ages)] TJ ET BT 57.344 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, among others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.336 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.336 416.931 m 145.328 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 145.328 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While each of these books approach the subject of medieval urbanism from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular disciplinary perspectives, namely, history \(Dyer\), archaeology \(Schofield and Vince\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography \(Lilley\), they also blur traditional disciplinary boundaries. Nicholas?s book is different to each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these in that it tries to cross the conventional medieval-modern divide \(the others are concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?middle ages? per se\), but it shares their interdisciplinarity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent this blurring of disciplinary boundaries is to be commended, for much is to be learned from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing knowledge across history, archaeology and geography ? not least when trying to make sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote periods of the past for which evidence is often patchy and can be usefully drawn together in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that compliment each other \(though not always of course\). But there are difficulties and dangers in straying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from one?s own disciplinary territory, as it were, and Nicholas? book \(and mine too I might add\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps begins to highlight these.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At its simplest there is the matter of language, of using particular concepts from other disciplines. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Nicholas uses ?morphology of the urban plan? as the title for a chapter that in reality covers far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than the shape of town plans, dealing as it does with the ?occupational geography of the pre-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?.\(pp. 75-9\) If the focus of the chapter )] TJ ET BT 237.956 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 245.960 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the morphology of the urban plan, then I feel more ought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been included on the formation and transformation of urban landscapes. But of course ? as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographer ? I am perhaps bound to pick up on those points where it seems Nicholas is straying into ?my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field?, which raises the question of the appropriateness of trying to approach a subject by crossing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary territories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The broader issue, then, is how best to incorporate ideas, concepts and material from disciplines other to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s own. Again, Nicholas?s book highlights the difficulty posed by this, in the way he draws upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?geographical theory? long abandoned by academic geographers. While this in itself is no criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas ? there is always more mileage to be had from applying old theories to new contexts and data ? it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that geographers reading )] TJ ET BT 189.308 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe)] TJ ET BT 258.968 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(as indeed they should\) may view the book as ?out-dated?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.3357 417.2455 145.3277 429.1255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6439 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply because of the use made of approaches that were around in the 1960s rather than those with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human geographers are currently working. I was conscious of this issue myself when writing )] TJ ET BT 482.936 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 112.004 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; how might historians view my attempts at raking over the work of Tait and Ballard, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example? Would this be considered in the same light that geographers now see the likes of Christaller and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Von Thnen? The tide of theoretical faddishness within geography, and some other social science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines, does not seem to ebb and flow as fast in medieval history, and this, perhaps with some irony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it more acceptable for a historian to draw upon old geographical concepts than it does for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interdisciplinarity is an important issue for medievalists quite simply because the field depends upon it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, interdisciplinarity is being pushed in the UK by the funding councils, as well as by some HE )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, as well as the publishers of our work. The latter seem to favour it as a selling point. Palgrave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus informs us that )] TJ ET BT 132.020 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe)] TJ ET BT 201.680 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?will appeal to students and scholars of history, geography and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies? as well as ?sociologists and political economists? and ?urban planners?. Having read the book I do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder whether it would really appeal to all these groups. I made similar claims for )] TJ ET BT 439.280 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Life in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 94.340 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but are they justified? I am doubtful. Indeed a geography student will not pick up either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas? book or mine quite simply because at the moment UK geography undergraduates \(and sadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic geographers more generally\) just do not deal with the period of the middle ages \(with rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions\), and typically venture only as far back as the 1700s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.288 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.288 540.723 m 355.280 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.280 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The same may be said for sociology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban studies and urban planning, all of which seem to me to hardly care for the middle ages at all.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.268 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.268 526.467 m 522.260 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.260 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while publishers, institutions and funding bodies may all be pushing the need for greater interdisciplinarity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and while we as authors may use cross-disciplinary approaches and recognise their worth, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocate that our books will have broad appeal, the reality is that in teaching and research disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories are more impervious than they are permeable ? and doubtless all the more so because of the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent RAEs ring-fence disciplines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One field of medieval study where intellectual permeability genuinely seems to work is archaeology. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject area archaeology appears to draw happily from both geography and history, and at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also contribute to debates in each. This is to be seen clearly in Dyer?s )] TJ ET BT 370.952 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making a Living)] TJ ET BT 450.284 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in Schofield and Vince?s )] TJ ET BT 170.324 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Towns)] TJ ET BT 249.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, especially regarding the use of palaeo-environmental evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in the former\) and documentary sources \(in the latter\). The work of archaeologists has less of a presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe)] TJ ET BT 103.676 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than it perhaps might, and it is curious to note that among the wide number of disciplines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is marketed towards, archaeology does not feature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So because it seems that there is interesting work going on elsewhere, and because we are being led to do so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by funders and publishers, we medievalists seek to look beyond our own disciplinary territories. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger is that what we borrow from other disciplines is at best seen to be out of date \(especially by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline being borrowed from\) or at worst ill-treated \(by being misappropriated\). This is a broad issue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those concerned with trying to write about aspects of medieval urban life need to grapple with, and should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so in an honest and open way that recognises the positive benefits of working across disciplines, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also shows awareness of the pitfalls and possible shortcomings of so doing.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.2877 541.0375 355.2797 552.9175 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.2677 526.7815 522.2597 538.6615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8743 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, David Nicholas?s book manages to cover a lot of ground in a relatively slim volume. It provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good introduction and does try to give the student a broad overview of a very formative period of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban history. Where I suppose I have most problems is with the earlier parts of the book, in part because I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think the earlier chapters sit a little oddly in relation to the later ones, and in part because I think the attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at bringing in some geography into what is ostensibly often the realm of history do not quite succeed. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admit, this criticism comes down to my own particular views of what geography is, and the feeling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas?s idea of a geographical approach does not tally with mine as a geographer. Geography as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline has moved on from rank size rule, central place theory and the like, and yet to read )] TJ ET BT 483.920 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a student \(most likely of history\) may be forgiven for thinking that this is still what urban geography is all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about. There are more interesting contributions contemporary human geography has to offer to debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban life in the middle ages ? to do with culture, landscape, identity, politics, gender, flows of ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce, to name but a few ? than those that are represented in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But equally I am aware that interdisciplinarity is the way forward, and the fact that historians are prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn from geographers, and geographers from historians, is surely something that should be celebrated. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this end, notwithstanding my particular concerns over Nicholas?s handling of geography, )] TJ ET BT 465.620 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Europe)] TJ ET BT 535.280 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be commended to students of both disciplines, as well as to those of others too, for at the end of the day, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any book that raises the profile of the importance of studying the middle ages to a wider audience deserves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Carter, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Study of Urban Geography)] TJ ET BT 265.988 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4th edition \(London: Arnold, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.316 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.316 463.203 m 499.304 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. E. Dickinson, )] TJ ET BT 146.684 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City Region in Western Europe)] TJ ET BT 317.672 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 434.691 m 118.004 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example see D. Gregory, )] TJ ET BT 206.312 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geographical Imaginations)] TJ ET BT 339.308 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Blackwell, 1994\); E. Soja, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postmetropolis)] TJ ET BT 136.688 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Blackwell, 2000\); H. Thrift and A. Amin, )] TJ ET BT 387.656 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cities: Reimagining the Urban)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.684 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.684 391.923 m 275.672 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. R. G. Conzen, ?The study of town plans?, in )] TJ ET BT 296.996 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Study of Urban History)] TJ ET BT 430.328 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. H. J. Dyos \(London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold, 1968\), 113-30. Examples being A. E. J. Morris, )] TJ ET BT 335.324 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Urban Form)] TJ ET BT 447.656 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow: Prentice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall, 1994\) and P. M. Hohenberg and L. H. Lees, )] TJ ET BT 304.640 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Urban Europe, 1000-1950)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.312 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.312 334.899 m 362.300 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conzen, op. cit.. See also T. R. Slater, ?English medieval new towns with composite town plans: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence from the Midlands?, in )] TJ ET BT 222.656 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Built Form of Western Cities)] TJ ET BT 382.328 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. R. Slater \(Leicester: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester University Press, 1990\), 60-82; A. Simms, ?The early origins and morphological inheritance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European towns?, in )] TJ ET BT 178.328 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Landscapes: International Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 403.304 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds J. W. R. Whitehand and P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Larkham \(London: Routledge, 1992\), 23-42; K. D. Lilley, ?Mapping the medieval city: plan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis and urban history?, )] TJ ET BT 200.996 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban History)] TJ ET BT 271.328 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27 \(2000\), 5-30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.316 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.316 249.363 m 409.304 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 108.008 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making a Living in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 280.664 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, Yale University Press, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.640 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.640 235.107 m 526.628 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, see B. Graham and C. Nash, eds, )] TJ ET BT 291.308 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Historical Geographies)] TJ ET BT 445.964 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow: Prentice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.676 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.676 206.595 m 175.664 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. 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