%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729085550+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729085550+01'00') /Title (The King's Artists: The Royal Academy of Arts and the Politics of British Culture 1760-1840) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4844 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The King's Artists: The Royal Academy of Arts and the Politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Culture 1760-1840)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book sets out to give an account of what the foundation of The Royal Academy of Arts in 1768 meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for artistic practice in particular and cultural life more generally in Britain between 1760 and 1840. It is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed, because it fills a gap, and fills it well. The history of art institutions in Britain attracts sporadic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. Trevor Fawcett published what remains the canonical study of art outside the metropolis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of English Provincial Art )] TJ ET BT 202.688 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirty years ago, while Sidney Hutchison's history of the Royal Academy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came out in 1986.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.008 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.008 193.521 m 134.000 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.000 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More recently, however, attention has turned to the RA, largely because of the ground-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking exhibition, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art on the Line)] TJ ET BT 206.012 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that David Solkin curated in the Academy exhibition rooms at Somerset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House in 2001.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.012 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.012 165.009 m 121.004 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.004 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The essays in the book that accompanied the show dealt variously with some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(germane issues, from the politics of hanging, to the messages communicated by display, since when Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallett has written a fascinating paper \(to be published in Eighteenth-Century Studies\) on how the hang in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Room at the exhibition of 1784 was expressly designed to rehabilitate the public reputation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince of Wales. More recently, two doctoral dissertations have contributed to the field. Matthew Hargraves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Candidates for fame: the Society of Artists of Great Britain circa 1760-1792' \(University of London, 2003\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an exemplary and welcome account of the affairs of the first exhibiting institution. Patricia Morales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"Mere good taste is nothing else but genius without the power of execution": artists as arbiters of taste, 1792-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1836' \(University of Warwick, 2003\) deals with threats to the professional autonomy of the Academy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(391)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holger Hoock)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199266263X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(386pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Rosenthal)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.0077 193.8355 133.9997 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.0117 165.3235 121.0037 177.2035 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7536 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists, and with their relations with the connoisseurs of the British Institution over the specified period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Hoock's book, then, falls neatly in the middle. He has arranged his material around three main themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first, 'Academies of Art' focuses precisely on this topic, to ground the founding of the RA within history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to discuss how, once founded, it itself provided a model for provincial Academies elsewhere in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles. Part Two is concerned in an admirably wide-reaching way with 'The Politicization of Art', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding 'politics' to embrace both the conduct of the affairs of state, and the internal politics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution itself. We end with 'Forging the Cultural State', which supplies, amongst other things, a most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome account of how the RA was centrally important in wartime attempts to define a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography in those memorials to heroes that were incrementally filling St Paul's Cathedral, or to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts, mostly fruitless, to embellish London with appropriate public buildings. The whole is grounded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive research in both primary and secondary source material. The author is to be commended both for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitting to the shortcomings of the occasional passage where the current state of knowledge does not allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any definitive account, and for understanding the United Kingdom also to be a European country, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently, when appropriate, bringing in continental examples to contextualise particular passages. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is reasonably well-illustrated with monochrome plates throughout, and has an extremely helpful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Hoock sets the scene with an 'Introduction', before dealing with the events leading up to the foundation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Academy. Although the tale is fairly well known, it bears the retelling, and there is fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material on, for instance, the attitudes of George III to his Academy. Hoock demonstrates the degree to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the king was sufficiently interventionist to press for the admission of William Hoare and Johan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zoffany to Academicianship. This is in and of itself interesting, for Hoare was a painter of pastel portraits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based in Bath, and royal favour therefore indicates both the cultural clout of that city, and the catholicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taste exercised when it came to measuring the merits of some artists. The chapter is also particularly useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for two statistical tables; one outlining the numbers of students admitted, the other the numbers of visitors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the annual exhibition, each year. These allow one to judge such things as the public curiosity in the fine arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a glance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds had anticipated the formation of some future British school of art in his first )] TJ ET BT 449.648 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourse)] TJ ET BT 498.308 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 concerns itself with this issue. It is fascinating to learn, for instance, that by the 1800s this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon seemed to be taking shape with a rapidity that nobody had anticipated, while the old problem ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a national school should be realised in history painting, yet the only way to earn a living through art was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by painting portrait ? persisted. Hoock then goes on to demonstrate in Chapter 3 how many provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academies formed themselves on the London model, although the Foulis Academy, founded in Glasgow in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1753/4 had beaten Reynolds and his colleagues to it, by offering 'the full continental academic curriculum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught by a continental staff' \(pp. 55, 57, 97\) from that date. This chapter in general is excellent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. There is much that is new, and disparate information is coordinated with real literary skill. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural that the text should move on in the next chapter to contemplating the international significance of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the virtues of the next section on 'The Politicization of Art' is that it recognises that simply by being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established as a )] TJ ET BT 111.668 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royal)] TJ ET BT 139.664 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Academy the institution was saddled with a particular political identity; one that, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, made it a target for a Wilkesite mob in 1771, when it ripped down and destroyed a transparency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolically extolling the virtues of monarchy that had been draped across the faade of the Academy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premises. This is a fascinating topic because that political identity had potent potential to cause problems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds, for example, was closely associated with the Foxite Whigs, and yet had to deal directly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King, whose noted 'dislike' of Reynolds must arguably have extended well beyond personal antipathy. Again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is all excellent material. Hoock understands, too, that the exhibitions were used to manipulate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of public figures. As has been mentioned, the 1784 RA exhibition was of particular interest in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect. In the Great Room hung not only Reynolds's enormous equestrian portrait of the Prince of Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also his more modest representation of Charles James Fox. By its very format, which insisted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with Van Dyck's picturings of the Stuart monarchy, the former conferred what might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as improper status on the prince. The latter had Fox with his hand resting, at his own request, on a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper docketed 'A Bill for the better regulating the Affairs of the E. India Company &c.', which motif was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative. George III was later quoted as approving Reynolds's portrait but concluding that Gillray was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the better limner. Nobody hits off Mr Fox like him', to show that the point had been taken.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent chapters deal with the real tensions that the French Revolution and wars created in an artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community that contained such dubious Americans as Benjamin West, alongside notable radicals such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Banks, the sculptor. There is an account of the Duke of York ordering the closure, on grounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political sensitivity, of William Hodges's exhibition of his two pictures, )] TJ ET BT 380.180 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Effects of Peace)] TJ ET BT 478.496 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 501.824 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of War)] TJ ET BT 67.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1794, to highlight the significance that the fine arts could have in the wider world. Hoock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintains that these tensions took the Academy to the edge of dissolution in the earlier years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, before stasis was restored to a demonstrably weaker institution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section, on 'Forging the Cultural State' is both extremely interesting and very welcome. We read of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the Academy and Aademicians were active in trying to lobby for legislation positive to the institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and themselves. This ranged from lifting the duties on the importation of works by artists, on the grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these were for study and not for future sale and profit \(a position that some might rightly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered dubious\), to issues of copyright. It is instructive to learn of the role that artists were taking upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to assume in public life, and, in a useful way, this discussion increases our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities which the forgotten landscapist but influential institutional fixer Joseph Farington detailed in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluminous diary \(indeed, the section opens with an account of what he was up to in 1798\). It forms a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary scene-setter to a final chapter which details the efforts made to gain Academical control over state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissions for monumental sculpture, or great public monuments. That an influential group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connoisseurs, prominent amongst whom were Sir George Beaumont and Richard Payne Knight, was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thwart these efforts at gaining exclusive control points to the evolving situation in which authority in taste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was becoming contested. Which one would have to expect if the arts were aspiring to so central role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining the national culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had the book attempted to be inclusive, it would have been far longer than it is, and would have presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many more problems of structuring differing narratives than have been surmounted in the volume that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have. There are inevitably some areas with which Dr Hoock deals with a lighter touch than others. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society of Arts does not attract much attention. However, even without the account we now have from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hargraves, it did present an intriguing counter to the RA in various ways. It questioned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive definition of what it was proper to admit into public exhibitions of art, by allowing into its walls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kinds of work that might be designated under the umbrella 'novelty'. It also supplied a focus for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painters who, whatever their merits, had not been thought fit to invite to become Academicians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As these included Joseph Wright and John Hamilton Mortimer this does invite one to inquire more closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the politics that surrounded the founding of the Royal Academy and the selection of the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academicians. Gainsborough, based in Bath, considered his invitation sufficiently momentous to snub his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old and close friend Joshua Kirby, for example. And, by 1768 Wright enjoyed a European reputation, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fame spread by the fine mezzotints that he caused to have scraped after the lamp- and moonlit scenes that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone was painting. The level of that reputation is to be gauged from the encomia on his works that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly carried by the newspapers. And, in )] TJ ET BT 250.292 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Painting for Money)] TJ ET BT 344.288 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, David Solkin has tellingly associated such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works as )] TJ ET BT 79.340 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Academy by Lamplight)] TJ ET BT 206.324 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale Center for British Art\) painted in 1769 with a critique of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions of the Academy, founded, of course, in the previous year.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.940 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.940 176.835 m 381.932 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.932 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The politics of this deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion invite enquiry, for at the very least it points to a real anxiety about the project getting potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blown off course by works that could not be accommodated within the superficially traditional academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical superstructure that was being incrementally erected by Reynolds through his )] TJ ET BT 458.276 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourses)] TJ ET BT 511.604 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The barring of George Stubbs ought to be noticed, too. On the face of it the simple explanation would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, as a painter of mere animals, he hardly qualified for inclusion in an institution such as the RA was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purporting to be. Yet, in his series of scenes of various episodes in the encounters between a lion and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horse, he was extemporising on a theme first established in antique sculpture, and, therefore, of impeccable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provenance. And the RA would subsequently show no aversion to admitting animal painters to its ranks. So )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.9397 177.1495 381.9317 189.0295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case of Stubbs invites some investigation, as does that of John Hamilton Mortimer, who stayed loyal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Society of Artists through the early 1770s \(before he, like others, succumbed to the inevitable\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortimer was a history painter: that is, precisely the kind of artist one would have thought the RA would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have welcomed. This is particularly interesting because one of the founding Academicians had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angelica Kauffmann, who was what one might think of as a living oxymoron, a female history painter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To have introduced such subjects might have detracted from the main thrust of the book, but they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(germane, as are other omissions. There is little sustained discussion of newspaper or periodical art criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, though what there is, is to the point and of the high standard of the rest of the volume. Yet this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material must, if treated with care and scepticism, yield a great deal which bears on some of the themes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been outlined elsewhere in this review. At the very least, the order in which paintings were discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a newspaper review might, given the political orientation of that paper, have allowed for a more accurate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of such things as the politics of exhibition hangs; even whether those hangs were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicating their intended messages with any efficacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, finally, surprising that the connoisseurs of the British Institution get such short shrift. Dr Hoock is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely right to emphasise the stresses that were threatening to tear the RA apart in the early 1800s. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding the British Institution, and inaugurating their own annual exhibitions \(an opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academicians had no scruple in exploiting when it came to showing unsold but previously exhibited work\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were evidently setting themselves up as rivals, if not alternatives. The nature of that rivalry was spelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in 1813, when the Institution had what might be termed the temerity to mount a Reynolds retrospective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds had been the Academy personified. The inference was that without him it had failed its ideals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be, it would seem, if not marginalised, then at least to be joined on the cultural field by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant players. Two years later, irritated by the carping of such as Sir George Beaumont against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('white' painters, principally Turner, but also Augustus Wall Callcott, the artists hit back through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous )] TJ ET BT 92.348 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catalogue Raisonn )] TJ ET BT 193.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; in which prominent connoisseurs were ridiculed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Academicians were no longer the principal arbiters of taste; in other words, that practitioners could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now be challenged when it came to judging the fine arts, is a fascinating development, and perhaps greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgement of it might have underpinned that later section of the book that deals with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academicians' thwarted attempts to take unto themselves control over the commissioning of memorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sculpture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But to criticise a text for what it chooses not to deal with is not to detract from its very real virtues. )] TJ ET BT 510.968 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King's Artists)] TJ ET BT 98.936 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will, as the convention has it, be a valuable addition to any library. Apart from supplying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best account that we have of the institutional history of the RA, and of its impact and consequences, it raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hosts of compelling issues, and cannot but stimulate a desire to develop and expand some of those strands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which I have been able only briefly to outline in this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Fawcett, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of English Provincial Art: Artists, Patrons, and Institutions outside London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1800-1830)] TJ ET BT 116.012 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974\); Sidney C Hutchison, )] TJ ET BT 385.328 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the Royal Academy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1768-1968)] TJ ET BT 116.012 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edn \(London: Robert Royce, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.324 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.324 182.595 m 368.312 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David H Solkin, ed., )] TJ ET BT 165.680 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art on the Line: the Royal Academy Exhibitions at Somerset House, 1780-1836)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London/ New Haven: published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtauld Institute Gallery by Yale University Press, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.988 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.988 139.827 m 406.976 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Solkin, )] TJ ET BT 133.688 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Painting for Money: the Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England )] TJ ET BT 107.684 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London/New Haven: published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 97.059 m 233.996 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 53.215 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.3237 182.9095 368.3117 194.7895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.9877 140.1415 406.9757 152.0215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.0077 97.3735 233.9957 109.2535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/391)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 322.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2163)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 322.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/391) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000697 00000 n 0000005593 00000 n 0000005702 00000 n 0000005812 00000 n 0000005921 00000 n 0000009482 00000 n 0000009610 00000 n 0000009694 00000 n 0000009723 00000 n 0000009851 00000 n 0000009887 00000 n 0000009916 00000 n 0000010044 00000 n 0000010080 00000 n 0000010145 00000 n 0000017734 00000 n 0000017818 00000 n 0000025842 00000 n 0000025872 00000 n 0000026000 00000 n 0000026036 00000 n 0000026134 00000 n 0000033648 00000 n 0000033776 00000 n 0000033831 00000 n 0000033959 00000 n 0000034014 00000 n 0000034141 00000 n 0000034196 00000 n 0000034280 00000 n 0000034883 00000 n 0000035011 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35106 %%EOF