%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150426110700+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150426110700+01'00') /Title (1798: A Bicentenary Perspective) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4042 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1798: A Bicentenary Perspective)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1990s in Ireland witnessed intense popular and academic interest in the events of two centuries before, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating with the bicentennial commemorations of the United Irish Rebellion of 1798. Television and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radio programmes were produced, battles recreated complete with pikemen, centres opened to interpret the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion, and many local conferences and summer schools held, a programme of commemoration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebration sponsored by the Irish government and many local councils north and south. This collection is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the product of the five-day conference held in Belfast and Dublin that was the centrepiece of the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme for 1998. It contains 32 of the 36 papers given at that conference plus an additional one, linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a series of introductory essays. The papers are grouped into eight sections dealing with the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century intellectual background, the rebellion in the south, Ulster, protestant and loyalist responses to 1798, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government action, the memory of 1798, the international context, and Irish politics in America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. The breadth of material covered and the addition of a 65-page bibliography of material published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the 1790s between 1900-2002 mean that the editors believe the collection is ?definitive and self-critical?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as providing a ?baseline for the next generation of research?.\(p. ix\) Given the scope of the volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any review can only examine a small number of the essays in detail while commenting on what the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(392)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Bartlett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Dickson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dire Keogh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Whelan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1851824308)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(768pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultn Gillen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction of the historiography might be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breandn Buachalla?s examination of the political mindset of the popular classes as revealed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic poetry is one of the most welcome contributions. He is the leading scholar of seventeenth- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Gaelic poetry but his masterwork, )] TJ ET BT 292.964 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aisling Ghar)] TJ ET BT 360.632 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is available only in Irish and ends in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1788 with the death of the Stuart Pretender, just before the French Revolution radically altered the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any potential French invasion of Ireland. This essay covers the 1790s and translates cited poetry into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. He argues for the continued vitality of Jacobite rhetoric in expressing the views and discontents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gaelic masses in the second half of the eighteenth century, and its importance for determining how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite radical message of the 1790s was reinterpreted further down the social scale. As Buachalla puts it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite rhetoric was ?the primary medium through which large sections of the community were made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically conscious? and it adapted to changing circumstances, ?both locally and nationally?.\(p. 77\) During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century it functioned as ?a corrosive radical idiom which undermined the legitimacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(status quo)] TJ ET BT 83.024 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and which foretold its eventual demise? via foreign aid for the Gael.\(p. 78\) Thus the United Irish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French alliance fit perfectly into pre-existing patterns of thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Buachalla demonstrates the blend of modern revolutionary ideas and traditional grievances and prejudices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by citing a poem that rejoiced in the end of kingly slavery in France and throughout Europe but went on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predict that the native Irish would ?trounce the offspring of Luther?. \(cited on p. 83\) He also finds this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?powerful binary distinction between two mutually exclusive groups in Ireland? in the work of Mchal g )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Longin, a United Irish organiser in Cork and Gaelic poet.\(p. 87\) However, at the same time Longin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poems called for confessional unity to free Ireland ? ?if he?s a Protestant or a Quaker, do not envy or hate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him but let ye all rise up together as they smite the enemy?.\(cited on p. 90\) Thus Buachalla illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nicely the sometimes contradictory nature of United Irish propaganda which tried to gain support by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilising traditional grievances, but which could easily foster sectarianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This contribution is an important step forward in the historiography of the 1790s, shedding much-needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on Gaelic sources. His argument that Gaelic poetry provides an insight into the social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontents is unquestionable but his belief that Jacobitism ?provided a counter-hegemonic discourse, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed a focused collective consciousness, it furnished a sustaining cultural poetics for a dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people? \(p. 77\) will be less readily accepted for the late eighteenth century. It could be that Jacobite rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered the lower orders a language of voicing discontent produced by the dislocating effects of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social change that their political vocabulary had not yet adjusted to, a process which was only completed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1790s and early nineteenth century. Regardless, Breandn Buachalla?s essay will further stimulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing use of Gaelic sources by historians of eighteenth-century Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great mysteries about 1798 is the failure of certain areas to rise. Discussion of this topic has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated on Ulster, but the question applies equally to Munster, and is the subject of David Dickson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution. Munstermen were prominent in the United Irish leadership and information flowed into Dublin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castle about United activity there in the years before the Rebellion, yet no significant Munster turn-out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. Dickson situates his discussion of radical fortunes throughout the 1790s within the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional, social, economic and political circumstances of the period, giving his work added depth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. His analysis of the contribution of economic difficulties to violence and their relative importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the spread of disaffection in autumn/winter 1797 in particular is exemplary, and demonstrates how greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of the period would be enhanced by more detailed exploration of the material conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the political and sometimes sectarian struggle was played out.\(pp. 160-2\) The mix of anti-sectarian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French-inspired republicanism with traditional fears and hostilities visible throughout Ireland is found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munster. The conclusion drawn by Dickson is that the United organisation was widespread, its propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully penetrating beyond the Anglophone towns, but that its effectiveness, as elsewhere, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shattered by strong government and military action before the outbreak of rebellion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection contains a large number of excellent local studies, detailing the development of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irishmen in Dublin and events in north and south Leinster, the French invasion of Connacht, and various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of Ulster ? all of which help form a clearer picture of what happened in 1798, and the importance of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local circumstances in determining the regional forms of a national, even international, struggle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breandn Mac Suibhne?s examination of north-west and south-west Ulster in the last quarter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century is one of the most innovative contributions, both in methodology and conclusions. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly examines the public sphere in the area from the 1770s to demonstrate that the growth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Irishmen locally was rooted in ?a protracted and regionally-specific process of politicisation in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the critical period was the late 1770s and early 1780s? which meant that the organisation there ?grew out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing beliefs, structures and networks and was not externally imposed.? This argument challenges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dominant analysis? that the strength of the United movement in rural areas was dictated by their distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from urban centres of radical organisation and propaganda.\(p. 246\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mac Suibhne contrasts the economic, linguistic and sectarian differences between north-west and south-west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster and shows how they produced contrasting political cultures in both areas. In the north-west, centred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Derry city, the exclusion of the Presbyterian and the increasingly Anglicised and wealthy Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie, added to the presence of the associational, physical and print aspects of the public sphere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed for the development of a non-confessional patriotism which challenged the status quo. This identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived the collapse of the national reform movement in the early 1780s, expressing itself in schemes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic improvement, before radicalism was reinvigorated by the commemoration of the centenary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siege of Derry \(attended by the local Catholic priest\) and further boosted by the impact of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, signified by the Derry cheap edition of )] TJ ET BT 282.320 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rights of Man)] TJ ET BT 371.324 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: the first produced in the north and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly the only Irish edition to include interpolations on how the arguments applied to Ireland. Local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals continued to rely primarily on their own printed propaganda rather than on imported material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although radicalism was present, a United Irish organisation emerged only in 1796. Reflecting the pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Irish organisation in east Ulster, revolutionaries were strongest where Volunteering had been at its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most radical. Loyalism quickly asserted itself, producing counter-propaganda and attacking radicals opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the war when it broke out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the south-west, on the other hand, Mac Suibhne finds that ?a lower degree of social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation within both denominational blocs? ensured that political culture was more traditional, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?general ideological paralysis? being demonstrated by the strength of Jacobitism.\(p. 252\) Lower economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development meant that the region?s first newspaper was the )] TJ ET BT 329.624 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enniskillen Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 434.624 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1808, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversely affected the development of the new politics. It was 1797 before the United movement spread to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south-west Ulster. Again, prompt government action precipitated the decline of the United movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west Ulster before the actual rising, and as a result there was no major turn-out. But perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographically important part of this paper comes in the final sentence, where Mac Suibhne points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that future examination will need to focus more on government interference in the public sphere through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerted campaign against press freedom from the mid-1780s. Looked at from this standpoint, the forces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction were violating the constitution and repressing the expression of public opinion long before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Militia, Convention and Gunpowder Acts of 1793, just as liberals and radicals claimed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian McBride?s essay on Ulster Presbyterian remembrance and forgetting of 1798 is another contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressing concerns prominent in other countries, and is part of a growing area of Irish history. McBride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that the ?political rhetoric, public ritual and iconography of Ulster Unionism has descended from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ? counter-revolutionary tradition of the 1790s embodied in the Orange Order?.\(p. 479\) Or, in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, a collective denial of the separatist, anti-sectarian, democratic republicanism of 1790s Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism. While examining how this came about through the growth of evangelism and the deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a unionist story of the Rebellion, McBride, by carefully reading the evidence, describes how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United movement left a deeper impression than is commonly supposed, through the families of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought and died, spawning a rich oral tradition, and an Ulster Liberalism that lasted at least until the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Rule crisis of 1886, and found echoes in twentieth-century radicals like the poet John Hewitt. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle analysis demonstrates the potential contribution studying memory can make to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of modern Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David W. Miller, following Clifford Geertz, describes the eighteenth-century Irish polity as a theatre state, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7516 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and argues that the forms of political action can only be understood within the limits set by such a state. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that in east Ulster, the main actors were not agents of the government, but collective bodies practising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?politically salient rituals? ? secret societies such as the Oakboys, the Volunteers, Masonic lodges, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covenant-based Presbyterian sects. Their popularity, he believes, demonstrates the ?increasingly evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dysfunctions? that brought about the collapse of the Irish state in the 1790s.\(p. 197\) Taking a longer view, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects the widely-held belief that the United Irishmen founded modern Irish nationalism ? a phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he says arose in response to the failings of a state not yet formed ? and instead insists they should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as participants in the struggle as they understood it, rather than the harbingers of a future unknown to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miller divides political ritual into four types ? patriotic, illuminist, communitarian, and theocratic ? and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the position of each in relation to whether it was public or secret, and whether it reinforced or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined the existing social and political structure. He goes on to examine how the United Irishmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted and mixed these differing types at various times. He argues that it is possible the United Irishmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were seeking to unite their patriotic/illuminist model with the communitarian practices of Defenderism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then describes how loyalists adopted similar tactics with the Orange lodges. The clash of arms between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two in 1798 dramatised the failure of the existing political system, provoking Britain to seek a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework, the Union. This drove a wedge between Presbyterians and Catholics, by granting Presbyterians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beginnings of the political reform that had been at the heart of their demands, while withholding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emancipation so important to Catholic activists. Miller?s model and conclusions will be contested, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent an imaginative attempt to place Ulster, and by implication, Irish political practices in a fresh light.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brendan Simms? provocative contribution asks whether the bases of United Irish support mean it is better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as equivalent to European revolution or counter-revolution, before examining what a French-backed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Republic might have been like. Accepting that Louis Cullen, Jim Smyth and Kevin Whelan have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved the political nature of the rebellion in Wexford, Simms puts forward the controversial argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the politicisation of Wexford ? indeed of much of the whole island ? was more )] TJ ET BT 419.612 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(counter)] TJ ET BT 456.272 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-revolutionary than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary in character?, in that the aim of the Catholic ?underground gentry? was to overturn the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and land settlements of the seventeenth century. Therefore, he continues, the difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vendean and Wexford Catholic leaderships was ?chronological rather than fundamental? ? both were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bent on reclaiming what they had been dispossessed of, and he cites sectarian outrages in Wexford and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various Defender oaths as proof.\(p. 587\) At the same time, he argues that the United Irish leadership were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?purer? bourgeois revolutionaries than their Continental counterparts, coming more from the middle ranks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and committed to the secularist programme central to the French Revolution. Thus the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irishmen were both revolutionaries and counter-revolutionaries in Simms? view. In an attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant theme of recent 1790s historiography, he denies that events in Ireland formed part of a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international revolutionary struggle and states ?What the repoliticization of 1798 gains in ?inclusiveness?, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risks losing in explanatory power?.\(p. 589\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Simms, Ireland in the 1790s was a sideshow in the century-long Anglo-French struggle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony. This struggle produced many strange bedfellows throughout Europe, with Republican France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battling Catholic peasants at home while supporting them in Ireland, just as Britain played the Orange card )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Ireland while supporting Catholic counter-revolution on the continent. From here, he moves on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?informed speculation? about what a French-backed United Irish Republic might have been like. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that a massacre of Protestants was likely, followed by the creation of a ?murderous bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular satellite state, subservient to the needs of French foreign policy?, on the basis of events in Wexford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the attitude and behaviour of French troops in other European countries.\(p. 592\) The bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership would have been dependent on French arms to suppress sectarian violence and forestall the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of an Irish sans-culottism. In his view, the result would have been a ?protracted conflict? with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic majority, as the faithful fell in behind a counter-revolutionary clergy threatened by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularism.\(p. 593\) Just as many French revolutionaries of 1789 became counter-revolutionary, so too would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been the case in Ireland. Simms claims the hostility of the majority of the old Catholic gentry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church hierarchy was precisely because they knew what was happening in Europe, and that by remaining )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7184 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal they sought to avoid a new and ferocious attack on their way of life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is cogently argued and plausible. However, Simms fails to examine in significant depth other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible outcomes. Perhaps the most important is the question of whether Pitt?s government could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived the loss of Ireland, and whether any British government would have sued for peace faced with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very real possibility of invasion. The United Irish movement clearly had much more popular support than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European equivalents, and may have proven less easy for the French to dominate once in power. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate to question whether the comparison with French-occupied Europe is comparing like with like. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the social question, there is good reason for thinking that United leaders played down their radicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Rebellion, while others were avowed social radicals. Wolfe Tone?s ?men of no property? may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to wealthy non-landowners, as many argue, but equally, in a world where the French Constituent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly, and then the Constitution of 1795 had defined property in terms of taxes paid, it seems just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible that Tone meant the lower orders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Whelan?s eight introductions make his the largest single voice, comprising 72 of the 657 pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. Whelan is one of the key figures in the reinterpretation of the 1790s over the last fifteen years or so who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has stressed popular politicisation, and is perhaps the scholar most identified with the commemorations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public mind, partly because of his role as advisor to the Irish Government for the commemorations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his personal attendance at scores of events throughout the country, and his introductions form ?an extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal review as to where [17]98 studies stand after the bicentennial dust has settled?.\(p. ix\) They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledgeable, wide-ranging, entertaining and sometimes pugnacious. However, they might have benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the citation of evidence for their more controversial claims, such as the idea that Daniel O?Connell, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yeoman in 1798 who denounced United Irish ideology and violence during his political career in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, was himself a United Irishman who succeeded in covering his revolutionary tracks.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(606\) The decision to include them was a bold move, and works well, adding a level of cohesion while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing an accessible extended discussion of the historiography, past, present and where it might go in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future. They make the volume much easier to handle and more useful for both students and the more casual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unavoidably this review has had to miss out many important essays, including \(but not only\) Tom Bartlett?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailing of government?s intelligence failures as well as successes; Marianne Elliott?s reassertion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality and importance of sectarianism, and the possibility of a favourable reception for a French invasion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late as 1811; Jim Livesey on the changing nature of eighteenth-century republicanism, Luke Gibbons on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Irish attitudes to Gaelic culture within an Enlightenment context, and Geraldine Sheridan on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of French Enlightenment thought in Irish magazines, which all remind us that Ireland must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed in a wider context, as do Maurice J Bric, and David Wilson, who separately demonstrate the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish people in defining American radical and conservative political culture; Allan Blackstock, James Kelly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and James Wilson on loyalism help address a long-standing imbalance in the literature, as does Dire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh?s examination of the neglect of women in the 1790s. This gives an indication of the quality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, which is an achievement of which the publishers can be proud.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, some essays are better than others, and the delay in publication means that some of the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have appeared elsewhere. The aim of being definitive seems impossible to meet, particularly given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of some of the papers delivered in 1998 and of major 1798 scholars like Louis Cullen, Nancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curtin, Jim Smyth and A T Q Stewart, as well as some of the critics of the overall tone of the 1798 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorations, like Tom Dunne, although one cannot hold the editors responsible for this. The aim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a baseline for future research has been magnificently accomplished, both via the bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(inevitably imperfect\) and C J Woods? analysis and synopsis of R R Madden?s life and work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So whither 1798 studies? Particularly necessary is research on conservatism, which has not received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything like its due \(although Allan Blackstock?s forthcoming work on popular loyalism will make a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution\), and a modern general narrative is lacking. The economic background to the entire 1790s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains imperfectly understood at best, but given the collapse of economic history in general this vital area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is likely to remain shrouded. The boom in 1798 studies was stimulated to a great degree by the bicentenary, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the next 20 years see the centenary of the controversial events that created modern Ireland, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely many scholars will be drawn instead in this direction. Regardless, the quality of this collection means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is unlikely to be replaced before the commemorations of 2048.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/392)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 322.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2165)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 322.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/392) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004724 00000 n 0000004833 00000 n 0000004943 00000 n 0000005052 00000 n 0000008613 00000 n 0000008741 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008890 00000 n 0000016392 00000 n 0000016457 00000 n 0000023915 00000 n 0000023980 00000 n 0000031549 00000 n 0000031614 00000 n 0000038851 00000 n 0000038935 00000 n 0000040123 00000 n 0000040251 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40346 %%EOF