%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 54 0 R 88 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902070118+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902070118+01'00') /Title (The Destruction of the European Jews) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4890 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewing the first, 1961 edition of Raul Hilberg?s )] TJ ET BT 283.664 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 467.984 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: W H )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen\) in 1962 Andreas Dorpalen predicted that it would ?long remain a basic source of information on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragic subject?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.660 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.660 257.673 m 116.660 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.660 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 133.652 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) With hindsight, Dorpalen rather underestimated the impact that Hilberg?s thesis would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have on future scholarship. )] TJ ET BT 166.988 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 351.308 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shaped academic perspectives and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of what we now call the Holocaust, even though Hilberg avoids the term. It established the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contours and the framework of academic discourse, posing questions about the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology and structure in the prosecution of the ?Final Solution?, which still preoccupy historians now. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without Raul Hilberg we may not have witnessed, and certainly not in the same way, debates about when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?Final Solution? was designed, about what the essential conditions for genocide were, about the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of criminality and complicity within the organised German community, about the responses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bystanders, or notoriously about the reaction of the Nazis? Jewish victims. To this day historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust invariably salute )] TJ ET BT 168.332 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 352.652 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a ?masterly analysis? and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unsurpassed landmark?, agreeing that amongst Holocaust historians ?none [is] more influential than? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg in having set the agenda for Holocaust research.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.276 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.276 100.857 m 314.276 100.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.276 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 331.268 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most importantly Hilberg established, through the various editions of his masterpiece, the narrative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?destruction process? at the heart of the Nazi genocide. Hilberg argues that the Nazi campaign proceeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(394)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raul Hilberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300095856X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Lawson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.6597 257.9875 116.6597 269.8675 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#1) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.2757 101.1715 314.2757 113.0515 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#2) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from legislative discrimination against Jews in Germany after 1933, through aryanisation and liquidation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish businesses and assets from the mid nineteen-thirties and then the physical and temporal ghettoisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Jewish populations in Nazi-occupied Europe from 1939, to their murder and annihilation after 1941. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians may have ritually contested the relationship between these stages of destruction, but the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself remained a matter of historical and historiographical orthodoxy. There would be very little dissent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the idea that each stage was in itself a radicalisation in policy. Equally historians would largely agree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the stages were not clearly demarcated, but bled into one another. Each radicalisation was made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, and perhaps even caused by, the extension of possibilities revealed in the cruelties that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceded it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg?s essential thesis is that the ?Final Solution? was a bureaucratic process ? and that it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy of the Nazi state that drove forward, with ever more lethal radicalism, the policies inflicted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe?s Jews. The Holocaust was therefore, according to Hilberg, a systematically implemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme that proceeded ?step-by-step ? to the annihilation of 5 million victims?.\(p. 46\) The ?destruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process? was perfected by a variety of agencies in the expanding boundaries of the Reich between 1933 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939, a model which was then applied and further perfected throughout occupied Europe after war began. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essential unity of purpose, as well as the competition between the agencies of the expanded German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, drove Nazi antisemitism to fulfil its ultimately genocidal potential. As Hilberg?s thesis is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchanged here in the third edition ? although it is even further expanded with new empirical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical detail ? this review will attempt to consider how the path-finding )] TJ ET BT 432.644 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Jews)] TJ ET BT 107.672 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be read in the light of the insights of contemporary Holocaust historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite being primarily concerned with the perpetration and perpetrators of genocide, Hilberg?s original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis was perhaps most controversial when dealing with the Jewish victims. In the preface to the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition Hilberg had declared that his book was not about the Jews, but this did not prevent him offering a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial interpretation of Jewish behaviour, an interpretation that remains unchanged in the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition. Hilberg?s double-pronged analysis rests on the observation that in the main Jews displayed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingrained passivity in their response to Nazism and that the Jewish leadership, in the shape of the )] TJ ET BT 503.288 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrte)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Jewish Councils\), was an essential part of the German bureaucracy of destruction contributing to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficacy of the ?Final Solution?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be wrong to argue that Hilberg takes no account of the fundamental ambiguity of Jewish leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who ?both saved and destroyed its people?.\(p. 216\) The social and cultural capacities of the )] TJ ET BT 476.924 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrte)] TJ ET BT 524.912 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout Nazi-occupied Europe provided what might be described as social and cultural services for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated victims, are acknowledged. But much greater emphasis is given to the Jewish Councils )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived role in the German bureaucracy and therefore the ?destruction process? itself. Thus the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Hilberg?s account of the Jewish Councils, which were identified at length by Isaiah Trunk as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirty years ago, remain.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.988 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.988 274.371 m 160.988 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 163.988 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 177.980 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) In his effort to discern the ?destruction process? as a singular monolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack on the Jews, Hilberg continues to generalise about the Judenrte, despite their being established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways, at different times, for different purposes and having locally determined relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their wider Jewish populations. The social and cultural diversity of that populace also remains unexplored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg, whose insistence that leadership is simply located within the German-imposed administrative elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fails to bring to life the ?complexity, variety and ambiguity? of the Jewish ghettos as communities.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.312 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.312 203.091 m 518.312 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 521.312 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 535.304 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg ignores what has been described as the cultural miracle of the ghettos in which richly diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, political and religious activities were pursued.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.976 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.976 174.579 m 307.976 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 310.976 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 324.968 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The argument that this is not a book about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews does not really justify this disdain for consideration of the Holocaust as Jewish rather than German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I have said, Hilberg?s generalisations about Jewish leadership stem from his desire to see the entirety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singularity of the ?Final Solution?: something which also points us to a potential problem with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the Holocaust as German history. The Jewish Councils were co-opted as part of a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy of concentration and murder ? used to provide Jewish labour, to pacify the victim populations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then to administrate their transfer to killing centres. The local diversity of approaches to this central task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are ultimately seen as irrelevant in comparison with their net contribution to the ?destruction process? as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.9877 274.6855 160.9877 286.5655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#3) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.3117 203.4055 518.3117 215.2855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#4) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.9757 174.8935 307.9757 186.7735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#5) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole. Their other activities, while acknowledged, are not seen as historically significant by Hilberg because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have little impact on the destructive ends of Nazi policy. Similarly, armed Jewish resistance \(most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famously in the Warsaw ghetto\) is dealt with perfunctorily, precisely because it did nothing to alter the fate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Poland?s Jews. Again this is an interpretation and a narrative that is justified by the view that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust history must flow through the filter of the ?Final Solution?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However it could be argued that in continuing to regard and represent the ?Final Solution? as a single \(if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily unified\) process, Hilberg is out of step with the historiography that has emerged since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the 1990s. Written by a generation of German historians, this historiography, based largely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival sources uncovered in the former Soviet Union, suggests the priority of local determinants in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of mass murder as systematic policy throughout Nazi-occupied Europe, especially in the East. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such an emphasis on the local points to the sheer complexity of the Holocaust and its irreducibility to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singular explanatory notions such as Hilberg?s bureaucratic ?machinery of destruction?. The idea that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were identifiable stages in a step-by-step process, which was essentially similar throughout Nazi-occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, becomes less tenable. Instead of being determined by a policy filtered through central decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers ? either as the result of a maniacal ideological fixity or the ceaseless dynamic of a self-propelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy ? this new historiography points to the local utilitarianism of the ?Final Solution? as a policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dieter Pohl has for example demonstrated that the impetus for the emergence of a mass murder policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Government came not from central decision-making but from the logistical problems of occupation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly Thomas Sandkhler?s investigation of the genesis of genocide in Galicia has argued that murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a product of local policies of occupation and subjugation: the result of road-building programmes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food shortages, with Jews murdered as ?useless eaters?, using the logic of the euthanasia programme. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional patterns of radicalisation have been discerned by Christian Gerlach in Byelorussia, Christoph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dieckmann in Lithuania and Sybille Steinbacher in Upper Silesia.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.980 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.980 457.443 m 360.980 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.980 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 377.972 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collective impact of this new historiography has been to break down the idea of the singular narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Final Solution? first established by Hilberg. As such his arguments that link all of the extermination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities in occupied Poland ? when they appear to have been designed and operated as part of at least three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrete murder operations ? appear outdated. This is not to say that Hilberg refuses to acknowledge local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in genocidal policy, either in terms of its prosecution, or the way in which it was rationalised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perpetrators. He specifically designates the murder of Jews in the Reich-incorporated Wharteland as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and self-contained process instigated by Artur Greiser and local officials.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.592 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.592 345.651 m 421.592 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.592 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 438.584 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Equally Hilberg?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of genocide in Serbia recognises, in a way that the work of Christopher Browning and Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manoschek complements and fleshes out, the participation of the army in murdering Jews there; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial role that the threat to German security posed by partisan actions in the region played in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a genocidal reprisal policy.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.952 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.952 288.627 m 241.952 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.952 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 258.944 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But none of these individual narratives is allowed to stand alone in Hilberg?s all-encompassing approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All are apparently linked by a monolithic sense of the ?Final Solution? implicitly controlled by Himmler?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fanatic[al] functional centralisation? and reducible to the prescribed and even deterministic ?destruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process?.\(p. 216\) But this centralisation runs alongside an account of bureaucracy that is decentralised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses the entire organised community: a bureaucracy that is, according to Hilberg, driven as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the bottom up as it is from the top down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is therefore only at first glance that )] TJ ET BT 215.312 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 399.632 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appears out of step with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recent historiography, which emphasises that the ?Final Solution? was made up of fragments. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, although Hilberg sees the ?Final Solution? as a single process, he refuses to give a singular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative account of its development as a policy. As he did in the second \(1985\) edition, Hilberg sidesteps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ever-growing mountain of historiography concerned to locate a decision amongst the Nazi leadership to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceed with a programme of genocide, to launch the ?Final Solution? as we now understand it. Indeed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, which appears so fundamental to some historians, warrants only a single comment buried in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnote for Hilberg: ?chronology and circumstances point to a Hitler decision before the summer ended?.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(419, n.31\) \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.008 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.008 50.787 m 96.008 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.008 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 119.000 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The lack of priority that Hilberg ascribes to the central decision-makers reflects his belief )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.9797 457.7575 360.9797 469.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#6) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.5917 345.9655 421.5917 357.8455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#7) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.9517 288.9415 241.9517 300.8215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#8) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.0077 51.1015 96.0077 62.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#9) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7347 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is much more important to locate when the German bureaucracy as a whole ? the organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community ? came to a collective sense \(rather than a decision\) that a genocidal ?Final Solution? to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual ?Jewish Questions? was necessary. So,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the middle of 1941, the dividing line had been reached, and beyond it lay a field of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented actions unhindered by the limits of the past. More and more of the participants )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were on the verge of realizing the nature of what could happen now. \(p. 418\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg?s ?destruction process? then, is not monolithic. He acknowledges that only those at the centre had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full knowledge or realisation of the destruction process \(as he himself has discerned it\), but this is not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same as arguing that such a policy emerged from the centre. His descriptions of Heydrich?s pivotal role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attempted centralisation of Jewish policy after the summer of 1941 may attempt to locate the meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Final Solution? for Nazi decision-makers, and the innate competitiveness of the Nazi system, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not imply that such events are all important. There do remain some awkward generalisations within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg?s narrative ? for example his refusal to discuss Aktion Reinhard and the murder of the Jews in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Government as a separate bureaucratic and administrative mass murder, seeing it only as an exercise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in expropriation. Yet, as a whole, Hilberg?s conception of the destruction process does allow for localised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation and radicalism as well as centralisation. Occupied Poland, Hilberg argues, was ?an area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimentation [where] the machinery of destruction ? outdid the bureaucracy in Berlin?.\(p. 188\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from being contradicted, Hilberg?s work somewhat prefigures that of a new generation of historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise that genocide as a policy emerged for different reasons and at different times in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations, not driven by a centralised decision-making process. But, where does this leave our understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Holocaust as a whole? Have we reached a position where to put these policies together is nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a narrative construction, the post-hoc rationalisations of historians, removed from the Nazi reality?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Actually )] TJ ET BT 78.344 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 262.664 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggests not, and performs a valuable service in providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the context for the fragmented narrative emerging from new historiography ? usefully helping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent the breakdown of the concept the Holocaust. Hilberg?s massive text, with its mastery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and relationships that organised genocide on a continent-wide scale, remind us first of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical extent of the ?destruction process?. That sense of scale also aids our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall context within which individuals and bureaucracies, spread throughout the continent of Europe, took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderous decisions. Indeed it could be argued that it acts as a framework within which the new and ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more detailed Holocaust historiography may be understood, helping to restore or remind us of the usefulness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a single \(but not necessarily unified\) framework within which to understand the phenomenologically-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifiable Nazi attack on the Jews of Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg makes the comparatively simple point at the beginning of his work that no single centre of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy existed in the Third Reich. There was no single ministry or institution that dealt with Jewish affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although Heydrich?s SD \()] TJ ET BT 162.992 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sicherheitsdienst)] TJ ET BT 244.988 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) may have regarded itself as the centre of genocidal policy after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1941, this was not actually the case\). The implications of such an observation are manifold, and should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply be seen as the result of the ?polycratic? and decentred organisation of the Nazi state. As Hilberg also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, almost every institution or administrative grouping in the machinery of government inside and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the Reich did have officials and groups responsible for the management of Jewish matters. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense ?Jewish policy? actually lay outside the sphere of what we might understand as politics. It was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential element of the regime, underpinning a great variety of assumptions and initiatives, impacting on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every administrative structure. Indeed, the ?Jewish Question? could be argued to have been the driving force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of politics itself in the Third Reich.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This observation of the centrality of what, for the sake of convenience, can be called antisemitism, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi )] TJ ET BT 59.672 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung )] TJ ET BT 142.664 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not new: it was of course at the centre of intentionalist readings of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. But Hilberg does not allow the absurd simplicities of the argument that antisemitism equals the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide of the Jews to stand. Nor does he give any credence to the contention that the idea of antisemitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as traditionally understood is enough to encapsulate Nazi attitudes towards the Jews. Hilberg?s homage to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of Gtz Aly is an implicit acknowledgement that antisemitism was for many cast in the context of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much wider racial vision in the Third Reich. Original deportations from the Reich, and inside occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland, were one element of a vision of a racially-restructured Europe, personified in Himmler?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment as the Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of Ethnic Germandom.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.980 752.307 m 462.980 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 465.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 485.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Gtz Aly?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider contribution to historiography is to demonstrate that antisemitism could function as a part of diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political purposes in the Nazi era, as elsewhere he and Susanne Heim have demonstrated how lower level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic planners, their so-called Architects of Annihilation, envisaged the murder of Europe?s Jews as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of an economic modernisation of Eastern Europe.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.956 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.956 695.283 m 309.956 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.956 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 332.948 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Hilberg provides us with a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework within which we can locate these diverse purposes of antisemitism, which were put to diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was, argues Hilberg, the ?shared comprehension? of the rectitude of pursuing antisemitic policy that drove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German bureaucracy forward towards the ?Final Solution?. In emphasising the ideational underpinnings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that bureaucracy, Hilberg reminds us that the officials which made up the Nazi institutions were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply the banal practitioners of a faceless murder process, but the enthusiastic implementers of a social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political vision: if you like, their intention was not removed from their function. It is common now to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the heat of the intentionalist / functionalist debate which defined approaches to the Holocaust for so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been cooled. But it is clear from re-reading Hilberg, that his deft analysis of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology and structure actually offered us a way out the fog much earlier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilberg presents the bureaucracy of genocide on such a scale that it becomes clear that it in fact encapsulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cross-section of German society under the Nazis. By doing so he provides a framework which both helps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to understand, and contributes to, what has been described as the ?emerging consensus? around attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain the behaviour of the perpetrators of the ?Final Solution?.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.968 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.968 471.699 m 372.968 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.968 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 395.960 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) This consensus unites the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological pathfinders of the RSHA \()] TJ ET BT 216.992 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichssicherheitshauptamt)] TJ ET BT 346.316 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the SS Security Main Office\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(WVHA \()] TJ ET BT 78.332 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wirtschafts und Verwaltungshauptamt)] TJ ET BT 263.012 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office\) with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?ordinary men? of the Order Police, the shared assumptions of racial policing on the home front, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the extension of complicity revealed in new analyses of popular involvement in aryanisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expropriation. All are rendered explicable with reference to the triumph of a new moral and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere throughout the institutions of the Third Reich. In their own way institutions and individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became progressively radicalised, as the horizon of possibilities was expanded by each new policy, action, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theft or killing.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 357.651 m 122.348 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.348 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 145.340 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Michael Thad Allen?s masterly investigation of the bureaucrats concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Business of Genocide in the WVHA is a useful example. His detailed exposition of the individuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual administrative groupings within this section demonstrates how individuals contributed to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were shaped by, the ?shared comprehension? of the different elements of the SS. Thad Allen is keen to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that his study of the minutiae complements Hilberg?s ?macro? sense of the bureaucracy. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.576 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.576 300.627 m 503.576 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.576 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 526.568 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of ?shared comprehension? also allows us to solve some of the self-imposed problems of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography too ? for example the tension regarding the role of Jewish slave labour within a framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide. If we raise antisemitism from the level of simple politics, then we can perhaps explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent contradictions of policy by discerning their relationship to the same, new and dominant value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. The different uses and abuses of Jews throughout Europe, in line with local circumstances and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions, become complementary rather than contradictory.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.936 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.936 203.091 m 350.936 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.936 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 373.928 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Within the framework that Hilberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides, debates about decision-making and the precise moment that the Nazi leadership crossed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubicon to imagining a policy of wholesale genocide can also continue to be fruitful. While new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives on the contested months from the summer of 1941 may challenge Hilberg?s throwaway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion regarding Hitler?s mindset, and will impact upon our precise understanding of the Nazi psyche, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they should not be allowed to unseat Hilberg?s unique perspectives on the continent-wide scale of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of annihilation. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.684 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.684 117.555 m 164.684 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.684 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 187.676 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raul Hilberg?s )] TJ ET BT 109.340 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 272.660 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( certainly remains a vital source of information on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragic subject. While the simplicities of his condemnation of the Jewish Councils are unfortunate, his insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does aid our understanding of the Judenrte as an element of the German bureaucracy. Most of all Hilberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to give us a sense of the overall framework within which this bureaucracy functioned, and as such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.9797 752.6215 462.9797 764.5015 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#10) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9557 695.5975 309.9557 707.4775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#11) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.9677 472.0135 372.9677 483.8935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#12) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.3477 357.9655 122.3477 369.8455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#13) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.5757 300.9415 503.5757 312.8215 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#14) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.9357 203.4055 350.9357 215.2855 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#15) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.6837 117.8695 164.6837 129.7495 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#16) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 10245 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sense of the wider significance of what may well have been localised genocides. If nothing else, Hilberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us why that bureaucracy produced the Holocaust, in a manner that avoids the simplicities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations indicting either antisemitism or simply the depersonalised structures of government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Germans killed 5 million Jews. The onslaught did not come from the void; it was brought )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into being because it had meaning for the perpetrators. 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Andreas Dorpalen review of Raul Hilberg, )] TJ ET BT 253.628 566.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 416.948 566.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 422.948 566.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 552.608 566.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34:2 \(1962\), 226-27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 537.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 536.595 m 40.016 536.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 537.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 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Browning, )] TJ ET BT 480.680 495.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordinary Men: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.850 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland)] TJ ET BT 335.012 480.850 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pbk edn \(London: Penguin, 2001\), p. xix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 466.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 465.171 m 40.016 465.171 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 466.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Isaiah Trunk, )] TJ ET BT 113.000 466.565 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrat: Jewish councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation)] TJ ET BT 444.308 466.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pbk edn \(Lincoln: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Nebraska Press, 1996\), this is a new version, the original being published in 1972 \(London: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collier Macmillan\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 423.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 422.259 m 40.016 422.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 423.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Gustavo Corni, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 423.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Ghettos: Voices from a Beleaguered Society, 1939-44)] TJ ET BT 422.972 423.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. Nicola Rudge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iannelli \(London: Arnold, 2002\), p. 332.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 394.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 393.603 m 40.016 393.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 394.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( . Tim Cole, ?Ghettoization?, in Dan Stone, ed., )] TJ ET BT 271.664 394.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historiography of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 449.000 394.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave, 2004\), pp. 65-87. This is an excellent collection surveying the development of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and offers some interesting new perspectives.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 350.691 m 40.016 350.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 352.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. All of these scholars have published monographs on these subjects in Germany. For English language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summaries of this cutting-edge research see Ulrich Herbert, ed., )] TJ ET BT 343.268 337.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Socialist Extermination Policies: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.458 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary German Perspectives and Controversies)] TJ ET BT 301.316 323.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 309.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 307.779 m 40.016 307.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 309.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For a very useful summary of the emergence of genocide in the Wharteland, see Ian Kershaw, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Improvised Genocide? 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See Manoschek in Herbert, )] TJ ET BT 179.648 266.261 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Socialist Extermination Policies)] TJ ET BT 379.328 266.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 163-85; and Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.005 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Browning, ?Wehrmacht reprisal policy and the murder of the Jews in Serbia?, in idem., )] TJ ET BT 456.608 252.005 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fateful Months: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.634 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution)] TJ ET BT 258.332 237.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985\), pp. 39-56.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 223.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 221.955 m 40.016 221.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 223.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See Christopher R. Browning, ?The decision-making process?, in Stone, ed. )] TJ ET BT 414.308 223.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiography)] TJ ET BT 488.312 223.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.173-96, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an analysis of Hilberg?s interventions in the debate over decision-making; Browning also notes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.722 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase that I have highlighted here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 180.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 179.043 m 46.016 179.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 46.016 180.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Gtz Aly, )] TJ ET BT 102.344 180.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Final Solution: Nazi Population Policy and the Murder of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 475.340 180.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. Belinda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper and Allison Brown \(London: Arnold, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 151.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 150.387 m 46.016 150.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 46.016 151.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Gtz Aly and Susanne Heim, )] TJ ET BT 195.332 151.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction)] TJ ET BT 516.008 151.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, transl. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. G. Blunden \(London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2003\) [editor?s note: for a review of this book on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.340 123.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(click here)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.340 121.760 m 114.320 121.760 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.320 123.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19])] TJ ET BT 137.312 123.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(]. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 108.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 107.475 m 46.016 107.475 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 46.016 108.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. George C. Browder, ?Perpetrator character and motivation: an emerging consensus?, )] TJ ET BT 462.248 108.869 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.498 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genocide Studies)] TJ ET BT 117.668 94.498 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17: 3 \(2003\), 480-97.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 80.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 78.819 m 46.016 78.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 46.016 80.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Michael Thad Allen, )] TJ ET BT 154.664 80.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps)] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 51.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 50.163 m 46.016 50.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 49.016 51.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 69.008 51.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See for example Ulrich Herbert, ?Labour and extermination: economic interest and the primacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 565.5655 40.0157 577.4455 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 536.9095 40.0157 548.7895 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.2957 522.6535 350.2757 534.5335 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../articles/klierJ.html) >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 465.4855 40.0157 477.3655 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 422.5735 40.0157 434.4535 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 393.9175 40.0157 405.7975 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.0055 40.0157 362.8855 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 308.0935 40.0157 319.9735 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 265.1815 40.0157 277.0615 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 222.2695 40.0157 234.1495 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 179.3575 46.0157 191.2375 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 150.7015 46.0157 162.5815 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.3397 122.0743 114.3197 133.9543 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../paper/noakesJ.html) >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 107.7895 46.0157 119.6695 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 79.1335 46.0157 91.0135 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 50.4775 46.0157 62.3575 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/reapp/lawsonT.html#15t) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R ] /Contents 89 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Length 5085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in National Socialism?, )] TJ ET BT 149.348 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 231.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 138 \(1993\), 144-95; and Donald Bloxham, )] TJ ET BT 445.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Extermination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Through Work?: Jewish Slave Labour under the Third Reich)] TJ ET BT 326.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Holocaust Educational Trust Research Papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1:1 \(London: Holocaust Educational Trust, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 753.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.163 m 46.016 752.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 49.016 753.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21])] TJ ET BT 69.008 753.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See Browning, ?The decision-making process? for a summary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hilberg greatly appreciates the time and labour Dr Lawson has devoted to his fine discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 218.336 713.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 658.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/1985/08/11/books/managing-the-death-machine.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 656.883 m 412.340 656.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.340 658.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22])] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 629.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 628.371 m 210.320 628.371 l S 0.000 0.000 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