%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721205121+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721205121+01'00') /Title (Propaganda and the Tudor State: Political Culture in the Westcountry) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3941 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Propaganda and the Tudor State: Political Culture in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Westcountry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book addresses a number of live issues in early modern historiography: the ?New British History?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising those nations and regions beyond the English heartlands; post-Eltonian revisionism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions the thesis of a centralising revolution in Tudor government; and the new cultural history, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses a wide range of cultural artefacts ? ?texts? ? to explore political ideas. In this it enjoys varying success, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but taken as a whole it is undoubtedly a work of considerable value in all these fields.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Westcountry? is defined as Devon and Cornwall: this might come as something of a shock to those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us living in or working on Somerset, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, and ?the Southwest? might have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less misleading choice of words for the title. While on the subject of presentation, the designer of the dust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jacket has chosen, mystifyingly, to use an extract from a mid-fifteenth century Latin text from the diocese of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln: was there not an image available from the region and period actually discussed in the book?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, as described in the 'Introduction', ?maps the responses of Devon and Cornwall to the intensifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the administrative centre, represented by crown and parliament, and the provinces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth-century England? \(p. 2\); this is a carefully-chosen form of words which avoids locating this study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a simple ?Eltonian? centre/periphery model. Chapter 1, accordingly, aims to examine the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(396)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. P. D. Cooper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199263876X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(295pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Fleming)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of royal propaganda through such evidence as churchwardens? accounts, ecclesiastical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic architecture and sculptural representations. Significantly, this chapter is called ?Allegiance?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might almost be the leitmotiv for much that is to follow. Chapter 2, ?Rebellion?, forms a counterpoint to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor, but both are still very much in harmony: this chapter seeks to present the revolts of 1497 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1549 as in no way exemplifying south-western society and political attitudes as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 continues this process on another front, concentrating on the intriguing Cornish-language saint?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play, )] TJ ET BT 60.680 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beunans Meriasek)] TJ ET BT 149.660 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The Life of Meriasek\). Performed, if not composed, in the immediate aftermath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1497 risings, it features a tyrannical king called Teudar: surely, one might think, undeniable evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular disaffection from the Tudor regime! But no, according to Cooper, who points out that Teudar, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character in Cornish drama, predates the coming of Henry Tudor as king of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Succeeding chapters deal with the evidence for popular and elite resistance to the Henrician Reformation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Marian regime, as well as to enclosure and other related issues. Again, the picture is largely one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus and conservatism: popular disturbances usually took the form of attempts to protect traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local customs, and elite conspiracies originated outside of the Southwest and/or had only limited support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the region. In this respect, Cooper?s treatment of the ?Exeter? and Wyatt-Carew conspiracies of 1538 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1553-4 is impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having dealt thus with the evidence for a rebellious and lawless regional society and politics, the final two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters build up a picture of obedience. Chapter 7?s treatment of the two institutions that have been taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to characterise Cornwall, the Duchy and the Stannaries, stresses how their close royal connections, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate involvement with the lives of a broad swathe of local society, helped forge a bond between people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and crown that was rare in early modern England and Wales. Far from being unusually rebellious, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told that Cornwall was in fact unusually loyal to the monarch, a loyalty that would be tested in blood during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Civil Wars. Finally, Chapter Eight expands the focus from regional to national in its discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?theology of obedience?: that is, the use that the Tudor state made of the Church ? as an institution and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of beliefs and practices ? to deliver its propaganda messages. This chapter is by its nature more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on other secondary works than the rest of the book, but revisiting this material in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper?s regional case study is nonetheless illuminating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, the theme running through this work is that, contrary to common stereotype, this region was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predisposed to rebellion, particularly lawless, nor disinclined to accept reform. Given this stance, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins bravely, with the dyspeptic verdict of the evangelical Simon Heynes on his new posting as Dean of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter in 1537, which supports the very impression Cooper is seeking to dispel.\(p. 1\) By the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, it is not entirely clear that Heynes was wrong, particularly when it comes to the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?backwardness? of the inhabitants; the very conservatism that discouraged widespread support for the Wyatt-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carew rebellion may also have encouraged resistance to the reformist policies of Henry, Edward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author takes issue with what might be called \(if not, perhaps, caricatured as\) the ?Cornish nationalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school of historiography, most notably represented by A. L. Rowse, and more recently ? and in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably more sophisticated and nuanced fashion ? by Mark Stoyle. For the author of a book of a Ph.D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, Cooper?s willingness to take on established opinion is commendable, and his case against seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall as a homogeneously ?celtic? region, its resentful inhabitants steadfastly resisting engulfing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicisation, is generally convincing. Cooper returns to the question of Cornwall?s celtic identity in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postscript, which is interesting in its own right, but which conclusions might have been more effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as an integral part of his final discussion of political culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather less satisfying, however, is his conception and application of the term ?popular? in relation to culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics. In the Introduction and elsewhere Cooper claims to be shifting the focus away from the landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy towards those below gentry rank. At the beginning of Chapter 1 he points out that most students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Tudor royal propaganda have rarely looked beyond the court and its immediate milieu, and that as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deployment of propaganda in the provinces has been under-explored. There is some truth in this, and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7402 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book does a good job of surveying the means by which the political elite sought to influence opinion at local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level; but there is less here than is claimed on the genuinely popular reception of these efforts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question here relates to control over the means of expression and representation at the local level. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols of Tudor legitimacy carved into both the houses of gentlemen and merchants on the one hand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into parish churches on the other were surely like expressions of elite, rather than popular, sentiment: how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probable is it that such manifestations in parish churches were the product of the widespread and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spontaneous enthusiasm of parishioners? Likewise, the evidence adduced from churchwardens? accounts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing conformity to the religious policy of the moment, could in many cases be proof of nothing more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than pragmatic survival strategies. Again, the care taken by churchwardens in recording royal titles, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as another aspect of local loyalism \(pp. 47-8\), may have been simply pragmatic, since these titles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to be used correctly in communications with the Crown. Cooper asserts unproblematically that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wardens were themselves local people, elected from among the poorer householders as well as the better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heeled?, citing the democratic election practices at Morebath \(p. 51\); but even assuming that Morebath was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical, it should not always be taken for granted that the churchwardens actually ran the parish. As the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Clive Burgess on pre-Reformation parishes in London and Bristol is showing, behind the faade of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wardens? accounts, real power lay in the hands of a small number of ?masters?, the heads of the wealthiest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, against whom it is difficult to imagine the poorer, on occasion female, churchwardens prevailing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reading these accounts as more or less direct reflections of real mass opinion becomes even more difficult in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-century, with the comings and goings of ecclesiastical equipment, furniture and decoration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While none would doubt the genuine enthusiasm which attended, for example, Elizabeth?s Accession Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations, the degree to which these can be described as ?spontaneous? must be questioned, and so too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must the assumption that they necessarily represent widespread devotion to the monarch, as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome relief from the daily grind and an excuse for revelry. Cooper?s description of the careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orchestration of celebrations, ?tryumphes? and thanksgivings for victories and of events designed to soften )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up public opinion in the midst of controversial revenue-raising expedients actually makes this point.\(pp. 31-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also, perhaps, a tendency to assume that phenomena apparent under the Tudors were of more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin than is actually the case. Thus, Henry VII, rather than Edward IV, is credited with injecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burgundian styles into English court culture.\(p. 12\) The discussion of prayer provision for members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal family by parishioners and fraternity members \(p. 17\) rather underplays the degree to which this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only normal practice in the later middle ages, but also probably an unstated yet necessary requirement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the granting of royal licences for chantry foundations, fraternities and the like. To suggest that the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a ?national patriotic culture? can be traced back no further than celebrations for the victories at Boulogne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pinkie \(p. 50\) ignores similar expressions of national pride and thanksgiving after Agincourt and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief of Calais in the fifteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surveying the popular rebellions of 1497 and 1549, Cooper reiterates that most of the rebels stressed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to the king, saw themselves as petitioners rather than traitors, were essentially conservative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?truly believed right to be on their side?.\(p. 68\) All of this is highly likely, but hardly exceptional, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not add much to the case for the essential loyalism of the Southwest. Such beliefs are surely of general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application, and comparison with earlier revolts ? that of Cade in 1450, or the great revolt of 1381 ? would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal similar notions. Indeed, in both of these earlier revolts, as in 1549, the traditional rebels? protestation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their quarrel was with evil ministers rather than the king was made considerably more credible by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the king was either under age or incapable. When he comes to the treason laws of the 1530s, Cooper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions Elton?s contention that treason by words was not a Tudor innovation, drawing heavily upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Duggan?s work on Tudor King?s Bench indictments to support his case, but once one goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond 1485 it becomes clear that satire at the king?s expense could be fatal under Henry VI and Richard III.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his fascinating and perceptive discussion of )] TJ ET BT 258.980 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beunans Meriasek)] TJ ET BT 347.960 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cooper points out that the King Teudar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character was but one of a type, the tyrannical pagan king, and cites churchwardens? accounts to suggest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequency with which Herod, its greatest exemplar, appeared in English parish drama.\(pp. 81-2\) This point, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the contextualisation of Teudar within this genre, could be further developed with reference to the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts and their accompanying critical literature.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.636 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.636 780.819 m 274.628 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.628 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, the value of )] TJ ET BT 387.956 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beunans Meriasek)] TJ ET BT 476.936 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?confirmation that miracle plays were still being composed during the half-century before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation?\(p. 83\) might be somewhat qualified by reflecting on the late date of composition of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extant English ?miracle? and ?mystery? plays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper?s illuminating reading of the play text is often matched by his analysis of court records. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly good example is the case of a Star Chamber defendant, the radical Axminster shoemaker Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gammon, whose alleged heresy and treason are shown to have been the inventions of personal enemies out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ruin him.\(pp. 99-103\) However, Cooper?s discussion of the frequency with which Devon and Cornwall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases appear before Star Chamber is not entirely convincing. Given that one of the aims of the book is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct the region?s reputation for lawlessness, the statistic that these two counties provided ?a higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of cases brought before Star Chamber than any other part of the kingdom? is potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassing.\(p. 135\) Cooper?s suggestion that this shows how the counties? special relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown allowed their inhabitants privileged access to conciliar justice needs more support than he gives it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his claim that the similarly far-flung North and the Welsh marches would have been more strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented had they not had their own councils and courts, while undoubtedly correct, does not explain why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties closer to Westminster failed to match the Southwest?s impressive tally of Star Chamber cases. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with King?s Bench cases, initiated before local justices, might be enlightening here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With more particular reference to Cornwall, Cooper identifies the Stannaries, the Duchy and the county?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic importance for coastal defence as three factors which led to its people enjoying a closer than usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the Crown, and he produces some thought-provoking evidence in support of this idea. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is instructive to compare his conclusions with those of Hannes Kleineke in his study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawlessness in fifteenth-century Cornwall.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.648 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.648 457.443 m 250.640 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 250.640 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cooper?s three factors ? two institutional and the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic ? are seen in a rather different light by Kleineke.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Stannaries of course regulated the tin industry, the potentially enormous rewards of which Kleineke sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as producing immense temptations to lawlessness, and the operation of which provided the burly miners who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were one of the means by which spectacular acts of lawlessness could be perpetrated. Similarly, the region?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of ports gave it a large population of equally volatile sailors, as well as chronic problems with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piracy and, increasingly, smuggling. Within the Duchy ? which, as Cooper is at pains to point out, covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only about 17 per cent of the county?s territory ? the fact that the paramount lord was, in the absence of adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male heirs to the sixteenth-century throne, effectively the king, usually present only in symbols and through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than incorruptible local officials, might have led to a local power vacuum. Despite the now rather dated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of ?bastard feudalism? with its overmighty lords and undermighty kings, it seems clear from both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies that in the absence of a dominant local magnate ? as when the Courtenays were eclipsed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political miscalculation or simple bad luck ? the royal administration was not up to the task of maintaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order on the ground. We would seem to be presented with the apparently paradoxical situation whereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more direct contact with the crown ? which might be equated with greater loyalism ? results in greater local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder: the king?s persona might be respected, but his peace seldom was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing the relationship between central and local political power Cooper makes a very useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between ?centralisation?, in the old Eltonian mould, and ?state intensification?, whereby central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control is enhanced by working through existing local institutions with due attention paid to local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities. Propaganda was crucial to this effort, and Cooper demonstrates the importance of the Church in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing the medium through which royal messages could be transmitted to the populace. He is convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it comes to the effort that the various elites, from the court to the parishes, put into this propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, but less so in demonstrating if and how they succeeded. In other words, there is much here of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value about the mechanisms of transmission, but not enough about the popular reception of these ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s desire to rescue his region from its reputation as a place disordered and rebellious might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticised, in the manner of critics of revisionist approaches to the Civil Wars, as seeking to demonstrate why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cornish rebellions never actually took place. That said, this is still an imaginative and original work, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.6357 781.1335 274.6277 793.0135 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6477 457.7575 250.6397 469.6375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which argues convincingly for a new approach towards both propaganda and political theory in Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Herod?s close analogue is explored in A. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 380.300 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Characterization of Pilate in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Towneley Plays)] TJ ET BT 139.676 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(East Lansing, MI: Michigan State College Press, 1950\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.656 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.656 701.043 m 468.644 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannes Kleineke, ?Why the West was wild: law and disorder in fifteenth-century Cornwall and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devon?, in Linda Clark, ed., )] TJ ET BT 203.660 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fifteenth Century III: Authority and Subversion)] TJ ET BT 454.304 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell, 2003\), pp. 75-93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.012 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.012 658.275 m 245.000 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 614.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 596.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 596.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/396)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 595.257 m 322.316 595.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6557 701.3575 468.6437 713.2375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.0117 658.5895 244.9997 670.4695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 595.5715 322.3157 607.4515 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/396) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004653 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000008542 00000 n 0000008670 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008819 00000 n 0000015986 00000 n 0000016051 00000 n 0000023506 00000 n 0000023597 00000 n 0000031445 00000 n 0000031475 00000 n 0000031603 00000 n 0000031639 00000 n 0000031669 00000 n 0000031797 00000 n 0000031833 00000 n 0000031931 00000 n 0000034174 00000 n 0000034302 00000 n 0000034357 00000 n 0000034485 00000 n 0000034540 00000 n 0000034668 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34763 %%EOF