%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141029011330+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141029011330+00'00') /Title (The Warsaw Ghetto) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2791 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Warsaw Ghetto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(398)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunner Paulsson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30009546)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michal Grynberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1186207660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(504pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janusz Korczak)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300097425X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6887 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the popular imagination, the geographical complexity of the Holocaust has been reduced to two Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, Oswiecim and Warsaw. The death camp sited in the former has emerged as not only the definitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death camp and representative of the state-sponsored factory-like mass killings of the Holocaust, but also as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a synonym for evil. In contrast, the latter has emerged as both the definitive ghetto and site of heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance, which in Israeli narratives of the Holocaust in particular, offers a degree of redemption from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrible past. However, as the three books under review suggest, the historical complexity of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the Warsaw ghetto is not easily reducible to resistance alone. In Paulsson?s ground-breaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study )] TJ ET BT 63.020 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secret City)] TJ ET BT 116.012 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is evasion rather than resistance that takes centre-stage. In Janusz Korczak?s )] TJ ET BT 501.572 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ghetto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diary)] TJ ET BT 62.012 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? published in paperback for the first time ? the reflections of the paediatrician are on his own personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and future, as well as the present day-to-day concerns of running an orphanage relocated into the ghetto. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Michal Grynberg?s edited collection of diary and memoir accounts, newly translated into English by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Boehm, the breadth of Jewish experiences, ranging from collaboration through resistance, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed. Taken together, the three books uncover something of the variety of Jewish experiences of living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Nazi occupied Warsaw, over the course of six years of changing Nazi actions and Jewish responses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rapidly shifting chronology of the wartime years forms the rough framework for Paulsson?s carefully-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched study, which examines Jewish responses to the setting up of the Warsaw ghetto in 1940, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commencement of mass deportations in 1942, the Warsaw ghetto uprising in 1943 and the city-wide Warsaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uprising in 1944. Whilst the main story in Warsaw during this period is one of mass destruction ? 98 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city?s Jewish population and 25 per cent of the city?s non-Jewish Polish population were killed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War Two ? Paulsson?s important contribution is to draw our attention to a less well-known story, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jewish concealment on the Aryan side. Although the numbers in hiding were relatively small in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to those deported from the city to the death camp at Treblinka, Paulsson?s estimate of 28,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warsaw Jews in hiding at one point or another during the war represents a sizeable minority. Certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers who decided to escape to the Aryan side \(in particular in 1942 and 1943\) were far greater than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who chose the route of armed uprising in April 1943, and Paulsson suggests that there was a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high success rate. Of the 28,000 Jews who went into hiding, he estimates that some 11,500 survived the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading Paulsson to conclude that, ?of all the options that seemed to be available to the Jews, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed resistance, flight unquestionably offered in practice the best chance of survival, and, contrary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing belief, it did take place on a massive scale?.\(p. 13\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The significance of Paulsson?s book is not simply that it is the first full-length study of the nature and extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jewish hiding on the Aryan side in wartime Warsaw, but also that it offers a model of studying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively neglected topic of evasion during the Holocaust. Drawing on diary and memoir accounts, Paulsson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points to the use of pre-existing networks with non-Jewish friends and colleagues, as well as the multitude of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways across the porous ghetto wall. Escapes took place over, under and through the wall itself, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the ghetto gates, which could be breached in vehicles, with passes and through a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bribing and distracting the guards. Not only were Jewish and Polish policemen stationed there open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bribery, but so were a number of \(ordinary\) German gendarmes. Once outside the ghetto, Jews were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable to blackmail and extortion, but they were also helped by a network of Poles, a factor that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions monolithic accounts of pre-war Polish antisemitism. The scale not only of the dangers facing Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living in hiding, but also the help offered to Jews can be seen in Paulsson?s conclusion, drawn from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the longer memoirs, that the average Warsaw Jew hid in over seven different hiding places on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Cole)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aryan side. Whilst the 28,000 Jews in hiding faced the threat of some 3000-4000 extortionists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blackmailers, Paulsson estimates that they received help from 70,000-90,000 Poles \(one twelfth of the city?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population\). All of these individuals made up what Paulsson claims amounted to a ?secret city? within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied Warsaw.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the numerical estimates referred to above suggest, Paulsson attempts not simply a qualitative, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative, study of this secret city. It is the quantitative analysis, which, for Paulsson, ?is the backbone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study, or rather the skeleton, which though cold and hard and lifeless nonetheless serves to set the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportions?.\(p. 19\) In a few places, numerical statistics appear a little overly-derived and not absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary. For example, Paulsson?s attempts to assess the size of pre-war secondary networks includes too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much conjecture. The use of a quantitative approach here seems rather unnecessary, given the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualitative evidence offered through the case study of the networks utilized when Janina Lewinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bauman\) went into hiding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere, however, Paulsson?s emphasis upon quantifying evasion is much more firmly grounded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing. In part he draws upon lists of the several thousand Jews in hiding who received aid from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of Jewish organisations, as well as lists of Polish Jewish survivors. But he also draws upon diary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoir accounts as the basis for quantitative analysis, extrapolating from the numerical data found in these. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His estimations of the numbers hiding and surviving are drawn from both quantitative and qualitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, and point to the usefulness of asking quantitative questions of memoir accounts when other, partial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerical data survives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general, Paulsson?s use of survivor testimony and memoirs shows careful awareness of these equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable and problematic sources. He is conscious of the tendency in memoir literature for the extraordinary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the ordinary, to warrant reference, with \(for example\) survivors remembering only the extremes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of altruistic or dishonest landlords. His decision to pay particular attention to references to third persons, ?so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as not to bias the sample in favour of survivors? \(p. 20\), makes good sense. However, Paulsson?s decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw examples from memoir and testimonial accounts ?without worrying too much about whether they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative?, on the grounds that the statistical framework to the study provides ?the proper proportions? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 19\) is problematic. Whilst the statistical framework to the study is immensely helpful, I would be much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more cautious about then doing away with the generally accepted practice of working with qualitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources in a way which gives fair account to how representative they are. The danger of Paulsson?s approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that he offers what he admits to be exceptional escapes \(for example those which were entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spontaneous or involved encounters with decent German gendarmes\), and asks on the back of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whether many lives might not have been saved if more people had been prepared to ?give it a go?? \(p. 92\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than being overly concerned with the prerequisites of money, contacts on the Aryan side and ?Aryan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks? which dominate many of the ghetto narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although, as Paulsson demonstrates, a large minority did ?give it a go? and go into hiding, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1942-43, the majority did not, and his account could pay more attention to why this was not the case. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly those reasons are more complex than Paulsson?s conclusion that, in the closing days of the ghetto, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the belief that escape was nearly impossible was in many cases a bigger obstacle than any reality to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have corresponded?.\(p. 84\) German policing of escapes deserves more consideration, as does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendering of evasion. Although Paulsson does mention male escapees? concerns about circumcision, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important theme remains underdeveloped. Was the marking of Jewish males critical in explaining why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish peasant Antopolski ?was able to rescue a number of Jewish children, especially girls? \(p. 89\) and why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marek Adelman chose Blady-Szwajger with her ?good looks? \(p. 90\) to work for the Bund on the Aryan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side? Was the reason why close to 60 per cent of those in hiding were women because most escapes took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place after the first deportations had occurred in which a majority of women were deported, or because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were less able to find opportunities to work in the ghetto, or was it because of perceptions of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability as a result of circumcision? Gender, along with the intersections of age, class and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments, warrants much fuller consideration in histories of Holocaust evasion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as the example of Janusz Korczak shows, the reasons for choosing not to escape to the Aryan side were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6177 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal as well as social. Reading his )] TJ ET BT 221.324 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ghetto Diary)] TJ ET BT 284.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has some parallels with reading Anne Frank?s )] TJ ET BT 512.276 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diary of a Young Girl)] TJ ET BT 140.024 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in that our knowledge of the end of the story shapes our reading of these diarists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words. In the case of Korczak, we read his words written in the early summer of 1942 in the light of Adolf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berman?s description of the deportation of the orphanage that he ran at the beginning of August 1942. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few terse sentences, Berman records ? words reproduced in )] TJ ET BT 321.920 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Words to Outlive Us)] TJ ET BT 420.248 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the first orphanages to be evacuated was Dr Korczak?s Orphans? Home. The entire staff )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? with Janusz Korczak and Stefania Wilczynska in the lead, allowed themselves to be deported )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the children, despite the fact that the directors were offered their freedom even at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umschlagplatz itself?.\(pp. 117-18\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is this act, which has been taken as both heroic and an act of supreme sacrifice, which has led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korczak?s name being attached to everything from streets and schools to an entire year and an asteroid.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korczak was a remarkable man. A paediatrician and writer, he established the first progressive orphanage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warsaw, complete with its own parliament, court of peers and newspaper. Something of his wit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creativity comes across in a diary that ranges widely from fragmented memories of his personal past to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreams for the future. The wartime events are somewhat peripheral, although Korczak does mention the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monotony and macabre absurdity of ghetto life, as well as the thankless task of securing the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money and food to keep the orphanage going. In the midst of this all, his wit remained, with occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of gallows humour:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 455.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An amusing reminiscence:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 441.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Five decagrams of so-called smoked sausage now costs 1 zloty 20. It used to cost only 80 grosze )] TJ ET BT 64.016 427.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and bread a bit more\).)] TJ ET BT 64.016 412.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I said to a saleswoman:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 398.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Tell me, dear lady, isn?t that sausage by chance made from human flesh? It?s rather too cheap )] TJ ET BT 64.016 384.034 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for horsemeat.?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And she replied:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?How should I know. I wasn?t there when it was being made.?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No sign of annoyance, no friendly smile for a witty customer, no shrug to denounce the joke as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nightmarish, macabre. Nothing. She merely stopped slicing, waiting for me to make up my )] TJ ET BT 64.016 312.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. A sorry customer, a sorry joke or implication, not worth talking about.\(p. 44\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reading the diary, it seems that this is the place where Korczak came to escape from the present realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ghetto life rather than faithfully to record those realities. Although historians reading Korczak?s diary might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find frustration at the lack of answers to the kinds of questions about ghetto life that they are asking, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source that points to the heightened role that writing played within the ghetto. That writing could be a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of escapism, catharsis, survival or even an act of resistance can be clearly seen in a number of the 29 diaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and testimonies from the Warsaw Jewish Historical Institute, which are thematically and chronologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited together by Michal Grynberg. These accounts are fascinating, not simply for what their authors tell us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about their experience of ghetto life, the Jewish council and Jewish police, deportations, escape, hiding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation, but also when they reflect upon the act of writing itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some, writing was a means not only to occupy their own time, but also to occupy the time of those with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 119.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom they were hiding. David Fogelman, who complained, ?the worst thing is we have nothing to do?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote a poem about life in the shelter: ?my companions were delighted by it, so the next day I went on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing?.\(p. 416\) Writing for an audience of fellow-escapees can also be seen in two copies of the satirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Bunker Weekly? from November 1944, written by Helena Midler. In a newspaper characterized by a hefty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dose of black humour, Midler offered ?Young Housewives? advice on how to respond to ?our citizens? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5959 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing tendency to put on weight? in the form of a weekly meal planner:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday - 2 wheat pancakes with coffee; barley soup)] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday - barley soup; 2 wheat pancakes with coffee)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday - 2 wheat pancakes with coffee; barley soup)] TJ ET BT 64.016 714.898 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday - barley soup; 2 wheat pancakes with coffee)] TJ ET BT 64.016 700.498 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday - 2 wheat pancakes with coffee; barley soup)] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday - barley soup; 2 wheat pancakes with coffee)] TJ ET BT 64.016 671.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday - 2 wheat pancakes with coffee; barley soup.\(p. 387\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But authors self-consciously wrote not only for themselves or those hiding with them, but also for posterity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Jewish policeman Calel Perechodnick?s remarkable memoir ? the only extract from Grynberg?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection already published in English ? he sees what he writes to be a second child ?born in the pain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death? who will survive when his first child and wife did not.\(p. 374\) For Stefan Ernest, the fragility of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own life in hiding contrasted with his own hopes that his words might survive:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 538.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am hiding in a pit, lingering on without fresh air, without steady nourishment, without )] TJ ET BT 64.016 524.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient plumbing, without any prospect of change, and every passing hour is worth its weight )] TJ ET BT 64.016 509.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in gold. I can feel my strength fading away, feel myself suffocating for want of air. The struggle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 495.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for my personal survival is becoming hopeless. Here, on this side of the wall ? but that doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, because I will finish my account, and I have faith that in the proper time it will see the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 466.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of day and people will know how it was. And they will ask if this is the truth. I will answer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in advance: No, this is not the truth, it is only a small part, a tiny fraction of the truth. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential truth, the real truth, cannot be described even with the most powerful pen.\(p. 334\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernest?s self-conscious dilemma over telling the truth about this past, whilst also being well aware of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to adequately do just that, is one that a number of survivors have reflected on. How to tell the truth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about this particular past and just what that truth is, are questions that have been asked with particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poignancy and urgency in the case of the Holocaust. Reading Paulsson?s study, it is clear that the statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth of the Holocaust is a matter of some concern. In the course of discussing the Warsaw ghetto, Paulsson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates a population density of around three persons per room in the Warsaw ghetto, under half that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normally cited in the literature \(including by Boehm in his introduction to )] TJ ET BT 391.340 314.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Words to Outlive Us)] TJ ET BT 489.668 314.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) of over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven persons per room. This more generally cited yet inflated figure is evidence of a wider problem that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paulsson terms ?the martyrological tendency that exists in the Holocaust literature and the distortions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blindspots to which it gives rise.\(p. 117\) Yet, for Paulsson, ?the reality of the Warsaw ghetto was awful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough; there is no need to exaggerate?.\(ibid.\) His book is a passionate call for historical engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surviving traces ? whether they are quantitative or qualitative sources ? to capture something of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet some would question whether historians are the best people to uncover the realities of life in the ghetto. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am reminded of the American journalist D D Guttenplan, who bemoaned the decision not to bring Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors to the witness box in the Lipstadt-Irving trial, but instead to rely upon the expert evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. He was quick to admit that,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Witnesses are always partial. Memory is by definition selective. And testimony ? not the sworn )] TJ ET BT 64.016 107.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses of expert witnesses, but the still-vivid responses of people whose history is lived, not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied ? can be treacherous. Yet without witnesses, without human voices to put flesh on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts, we have something that, while it may pass muster as history, can never tell the truth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.960 79.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.960 77.715 m 511.952 77.715 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.9597 78.0295 511.9517 89.9095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5864 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guttenplan?s words echo popular sentiments that afford survivors a greater authority than historians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting to the truth about this particular past. Something of that preference can be seen in Philip Boehm?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to )] TJ ET BT 108.020 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Words to Outlive Us)] TJ ET BT 206.348 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when he suggests that ?beyond their value as factual sources, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents confront the reader with personal and emotional realities often lost in scholarly presentations?.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12\) In short, the voices of those who survived, and those who did not, are seen to have an emotional truth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There certainly is an emotional power to many of the accounts collected together by Grynberg. Stefania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Staszewska?s account of surviving the selection at the Umschlagplatz but being separated from her mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is deported, is harrowing, as is Natan Zelichower?s description of discovering that his wife and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter have been taken away. He is handed a note, which had been hastily written by his daughter: ?Dear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papa! Save yourself! It looks like we are lost. I will do what I can to keep up Mother?s spirits; maybe fate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will bring us back together. Your Stella?.\(p. 238\) Something of the dilemmas facing Jews in hiding is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured in Franciszka Grnberg?s tense description of the days when her family tried to decide whether to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave hiding for the Hotel Polski, from where it was claimed that Jews would be allowed to emigrate \(claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that proved, as Paulsson shows, unfounded\). And in the remarkable diary written by Helena Midler, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penned the satirical ?Bunker Weekly?, the tensions and monotony of hiding in a bunker in late 1944, willing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war to end are brilliantly captured. Midler is one of those estimated 28,000 who evaded deportation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warsaw, although she was not one of those estimated 11,500 who survived until liberation. Knowing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes her words all the more poignant:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since we refuse to delude ourselves with hope, there?s nothing else to do except lie wrapped up )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under our bedding in the morning and listen to the noise of the fighting that is sowing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction and death all around, while \(oh, paradox!\) bringing us ? who knows ? maybe )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life?.\(p. 379\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 357.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. D. Guttenplan, )] TJ ET BT 152.672 357.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust on Trial. History, Justice and the David Irving Libel Case)] TJ ET BT 504.332 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granta Books, 2001\), pp. 307-308.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.332 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.332 341.667 m 285.320 341.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 288.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 286.899 m 240.992 286.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 288.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jul/13/historybooks.features)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 258.387 m 360.008 258.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.008 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 229.875 m 210.320 229.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.320 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 226.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 208.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 208.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/398)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 207.369 m 322.316 207.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 182.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2177)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2178)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8353)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jul/13/historybooks.features)] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300097429)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.3317 341.9815 285.3197 353.8615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 287.2135 240.9917 299.0935 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=8353) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 258.7015 360.0077 270.5815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/jul/13/historybooks.features) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 230.1895 210.3197 242.0695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://yalepress.yale.edu/reviews.asp?isbn=9780300097429) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 207.6835 322.3157 219.5635 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/398) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000003459 00000 n 0000003568 00000 n 0000003678 00000 n 0000003787 00000 n 0000007348 00000 n 0000007476 00000 n 0000007560 00000 n 0000007625 00000 n 0000014565 00000 n 0000014630 00000 n 0000021800 00000 n 0000021865 00000 n 0000028095 00000 n 0000028179 00000 n 0000034191 00000 n 0000034221 00000 n 0000034347 00000 n 0000034383 00000 n 0000034495 00000 n 0000040412 00000 n 0000040540 00000 n 0000040595 00000 n 0000040722 00000 n 0000040822 00000 n 0000040949 00000 n 0000041066 00000 n 0000041193 00000 n 0000041301 00000 n 0000041429 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41524 %%EOF