%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141030084621+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141030084621+00'00') /Title (Representations of William Morris) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3217 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Representations of William Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Never before has such a comprehensive study on Morris been published, and ... it will stand as the standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on Morris long after the exhibition it commemorates is over.' The book/catalogue that accompanies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition at the Victoria and Albert M useum marking the centenary of Morris's death makes a large claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for itself. So too does the exhibition, the largest display of Morris's work ever mounted. I had looked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward to that exhibition for some time. I went to it, a week after it opened, for m y birthday treat. I was ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed; and then surprised that I expected anything else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 July, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Parry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Wilson/V&A)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiona MacCarthy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(780pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber and Faber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Palmer Thompson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(780pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merlin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Levitas)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6680 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exhibition provides an unparalleled opportunity to revel in Morrisian artefacts. It includes massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces of painted furniture and huge carpets and tapestries, as well as the architectural plans for Red House, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of course a range of textile, ti le and wallpaper designs. Among the smaller delights are Rossetti's hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartoons of Morris. The exquisitely illuminated, tiny volume of the Rubaiyat lies open at the right quatrain:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ah Love! could thou and I with Fate conspire)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To grasp this sorry scheme of things entire,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Would we not shatter it to bits and then)] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remould it nearer to the heart's desire?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this, in the exhibition as a whole, Morris's social and political thought hardly gets a look in. There is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be sure, a section labelled politics, complete with an audio tape of snippets of lectures and chants for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialists, the latter sung in dulcet tones befitting the drawing room rather than the political demonstration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is a very tiny corner of a very large exhibition - and moreover so placed that it would be easy to miss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. As you leave the exhibition, there are four small panel s noting that Morris's legacy includes his socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ecological vision, and that there are some people who think this the most important aspect of his work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Am I among those? Well, yes, but ... for me, the whole point about Morris has always been the integration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his mature socialist vision, of art and politics. So the disappointment was not just at the marginalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics, not that they should have had a bigger bit of the exhibition, but that there was no synthesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these elements. T hose who visit the exhibition will come away knowing Morris's merits as a designer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craftsman, and poet. They will also \(probably\) notice that he was a socialist. They will not, I think, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought even to a curiosity about, let alone an understanding of, the integrity of Morris's vision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what of the accompanying book? It suffers, I think, from the same problem. A series of eighteen essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by recognised experts accompanies the catalogue entries on aspects of Morris's work. They include pieces by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Parry on domestic decoration an d on textiles, Fiona MacCarthy on Morris as designer, Peter Faulkner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Morris's writing, Ray Watkinson on Morris as a painter, Charles Harvey and Jon Press on the firm, Chris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miele on the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. They are useful p ieces, informed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informative, and easy to read; and accompanied by illustrations of the exhibits. Politics gets a slightly higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile here than in the exhibition, with an essay by Nicholas Salmon - who, in editing Morris's contributions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Justice and Commonweal for the Thoemmes Press William Morris Library, has done so much to make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism and political writing available. But even this is primarily an account of Morris's political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities, not of his political ideas. Three essays - by No rman Kelvin, editor of the collected letters, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Wainwright, and Paul Greenhalgh, both from the V&A's research department - address the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these, Kelvin's essay is the most interesting. Because it is not required to convey information about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular body of material, it is able to be reflective, in a way that the other essays cannot. It touches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indirectly on one problem for the exh ibition, perhaps for any Morris exhibition, which is that in addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facets of Morris's work, the whole, that which is more than the sum of the parts, is lost. But what are we to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make of the claim that 'In the late 1990's, it is Post-Modernism that exp resses Morris's commitment' because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Post-Modernism begins from desire and pleasure, as Morris did? It is an attempt to establish Morris's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance for an age defined by Kelvin as 'post-Marxist'. In so doing, it becomes necessary to distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris from M arxism: by qualifying Morris's own commitment to Marxism as 'non-ideological', whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that may mean; by describing his vision as anarchist; by, indeed, radically misrepresenting Marxism. Kelvin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells us that 'For Morris, work is essential; but what is a lso essential is that it be carried on under social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions that allow the natural pleasure in work to be experienced'. Quite so. But this is not an 'idea which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intuitively broke with Marxism and its vision of labour abolished'; it is an intuitive and indeed cognitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp of the difference between alienated labour and unalienated, self-actualising work - a difference which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.517 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is at the core of Marxism as it is of Morris.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This misunderstanding of Marxism is reflected in other writers. Greenhalgh similarly tries to separate Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Marxism: 'Whilst many thinkers - not least Karl Marx - believed work to be the key site of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle, Morris separated himself from other left-wing thinkers by postulating creative work as the end, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the means to an end'. Fiona MacCarthy posits Morris's goal as 'integration', with Morris 'working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passionately for an end to class divisions'; while Linda Parry notes that Morris was ' not able to provide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short hours and increased pay that he advocated for workers'. No-one can read Morris's political lectures or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his journalism without noticing that Morris believed the whole system of capitalism must go, so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unalienated work migh t be possible, and so that art might be genuinely and generally possible. The failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to insist on the relationship between Morris's analysis of capitalism and his understanding of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes creative human work allows Morris's views to be rendered acceptable and unchallenging to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(design-conscious middle classes of contemporary Britain. It also makes possible the breathtaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacency of the Sponsor's preface at the beginning of this volume. Michael Blakenham, Chairman of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson plc, notes th at it is Morris's preoccupation with the nature and quality of work in an industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society which is of greatest contemporary significance: 'That freedom is easier to grasp today and we at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson pride ourselves on nurturing the talent and originality o f all the people who work within a group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose success ultimately depends on its continuing creativity'. Morris, whose avowed aim was to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humbug out of the world, would, I think, have had little time for such cant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I started reading Fiona MacCarthy's biography of Morris on the day of publication. I was riveted by it, found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it hard to put down, was sorry when I finished it. MacCarthy clearly shares Morris's strong sense of place; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and she writes about places passionately and evocatively, conveying their importance to Morris. To produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a book, packed with information about the details of Morris's life, is a huge undertaking; it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungenerous indeed not to salute the achievement, and welcome this notable addition to scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris. Indeed, I enjoyed the book so much tha t I was almost inclined to forgive the fact that the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Morris's politics is relatively weak; for a project of such scale is bound to be better on some matters than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on others. \(It is bound too to contain mistakes; it is to be hoped that a subsequent edition will sort out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar muddle of dates surrounding Morris's death.\) Morris's polymathic skills and interests present a rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to a biographer. Nevertheless, in the present political climate, and taken together with general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of Morris, it is significant that the main weakness of this book, which looks set to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most widely-read book on Morris for a long time, is a political weakness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On a second reading \(also enjoyable\), for this review, those reservations were accompanied by more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered questions about the nature of the book. There are different kinds of biography: so the question is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what kind is this? What aspects of Morris doe s it reveal, and what does it not reveal? In the introduction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacCarthy observes that people tend to take particular views of Morris, and to appropriate him to their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. 'The layers of theory have obscured his 'whole' personality' \(viii\). Her i ntention is to 'unwrap' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris from this theorising, to present him whole. It is an intention both welcome and naive. Welcome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it goes beyond the process of looking at facets of his work, and potentially enables the relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between these to beco me clear. Naive, because it does not acknowledge that any narrative of any life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether biography or autobiography, contains an implicit theory - not necessarily an overt political position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which the subject/object is assimilated, but a theory of what it is to recount a life, to write a biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subtitle of the book is apt:)] TJ ET BT 180.680 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( A Life for Our Time.)] TJ ET BT 282.020 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The ambiguity is, of course, deliberate: is Morris's life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant to our time, or is this an account for our time? This is indeed very much a bio graphy for the 1990s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is intensely personal, focused on the detail of where Morris was and what he was doing, and especially on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his personal relationships and what can be gleaned or constructed of his feelings. Narratives of this kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on emotions , responses, motivations. They involve inference, even at times speculation. Above all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they rest on an assumption that interior narratives are somehow more authentic than exterior ones, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and private life is a better measure of the 'real' person than the public or political life. The strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such accounts is that they can offer a real insight into the driving forces in an individual's life. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential weaknesses are many: too much gossip, which makes for a fascinating read, but in the end adds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to a real understanding; the temptation to make inferences and extrapolations beyond the evidence; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptation to indulge in amateur psychoanalysis, and even to intrude too far upon the privacy of a subject )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who cannot protest but un doubtedly would if they could; and, most importantly, a tendency to displace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public persona, to focus so much on the subconscious life that the conscious one is marginalised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Morris MacCarthy offers us is a sensitive Morris: bullied by Rossetti; dependent on a male camaraderie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite being cast in the role of buffoon; a man deeply sexually insecure; a 'semi-feminist' in his expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas on women's emancipation and in his actual behaviour towards his wife; a devoted father to Jenny, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epileptic daughter. The detail of this is fascinating, though variously convincing. Rossetti comes across as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly obnoxious, although references to his 'southern melancholy' \(219\) , 'southern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(callousness' \(128\), and being 'southern European in temperament and looks' \(114\) add little. Morris's sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecurity, though plausibly argued, is necessarily an inference. In relation to Jenny, MacCarthy is carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away by her own image of Morris: on his death, she says, Jenny lost 'not just her father but her main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companion and in a sense her last real link with the outside world' \(678\). But Morris's affection for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter is partly known because of the frequent letters he wro te her - precisely because he was not with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her; the brunt of caring for Jenny fell on others. This does not detract from the importance of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both of them, but it flies beyond - indeed in the face of - the evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Differences of interpretation are inevitable in any biography, and particularly so in those that seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re/create a whole persona. But part of this whole was Morris's politics, and here I think there are serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems with MacCarthy's book. Morris's p olitical activities are given their due place. There is no attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suppress, nor to pretend that Morris changed his mind about socialism in later life. Indeed, at the outset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacCarthy remarks on the need to beware those 'anxious to play down - or even up - his revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialism' \(x\). However, in various ways MacCarthy seeks to distance Morris from Marxism, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating the reader to a supposedly consensual position. She says that 'we can feel quite certain that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world collapse of Marxis m would have overjoyed him' \(xix\); and 'perhaps in the light of our own mellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-modern eclecticism we can accept Morris more readily as the conservative radical he really was' \(605\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She stresses Morris's closeness to intellectual anarchism, arguing n ot from Morris's political writing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his friendships with prominent anarchists, notably Stepniak and Kropotkin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is missing is a real grasp of the political thought, and the connection Morris saw between this and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to skill, craftsmanship and human work; and it is missing, I think, because MacCarthy has no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental grasp of the critique of capita lism embodied in socialism, including \(but also pre-dating\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism. This underlies the repeated return to the question of Morris's supposed inconsistency, the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between his theory and his practice, between his image of a factory as it might be, and how his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workshops actually were, notwithstanding the fact that he was a 'good employer'. But the whole point of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist analysis of alienated labour is that it cannot be overcome voluntarily by individuals, only by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the relations of production. Indeed, Ruth Kinna has argued that it is precisely on this point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of voluntarism that Morris parted company with anarchism. And Morris himself made the point on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous occasions: socialism required social transformation, collectively wrought, not individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy. Morris's concerns about art, skill and work led him to a fundamental critique of capitalism - a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique which is as relevant now as then. To say this is not to 'claim' Morris for Marxism, but to claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he cannot be under stood without a fundamental, felt grasp of an essentially Marxist critique of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But MacCarthy's book is not, after all, an intellectual biography, but a personal one. It is notable that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes: 'In these years of his conversion Morris changed his personality, withdrawing from his old haunts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his old friendships. It is to some extent a hidden period' \(480\). Since there is ample information about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Morris was doing and thinking - after all, there is a mass of lecture material and journalism, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters, on which MacCarthy draws - this can only arise from an assumption that the political is not personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough. The only account of Morris to deal primarily and thoroughly with Morris's socialist years and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his political thought remains Edward Thompson's )] TJ ET BT 275.504 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary, )] TJ ET BT 492.164 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first publishe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d in 1955, and revised in 1977. How does Thompson's account seem in the late 1990s? Is this a 'life for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time'?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Thompson's book is sometimes referred to as a biography, it isn't. It isn't even an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography in a conventional sense of a chronological account of the development of an individual's thinking. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Returning to it, I was struck by how lit tle of Morris's personal or artistic life appears in this account. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very specific account, with two main aims which govern the selection of material. Firstly, to show Morris's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement from an essentially romantic rejection of industrial society to a revolutionary socialist position; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to show how in this shift, Morris created a novel synthesis, characterised by what Thompson calls 'moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realism'. Secondly, to provide an account of Morris's political years which is not focused simply on Morris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but on his place in the emergent and evolving socialist movement of the 1880s and 1890s. Morris's political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought is read against the actual issues and conflicts which he was confronting. It becomes impossible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted with what Morris says about his own position, to suggest that he was more of an anarchist than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist. But Thompson makes two points which are of crucial significance here. One is that while it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indisputable that Morris read and was influenced by Marx \(and indeed recommended Marx' s work to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others\), there is a certain anachronism in simply dubbing Morris's own analysis of capitalism as Marxist. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideas about the fundamentally exploitative nature of capitalism were in the early 1880s common to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling themselves socialists. \(Ind eed a reading of the Owenite journal )] TJ ET BT 377.288 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pioneer )] TJ ET BT 439.280 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1830s would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate how central this economic analysis was to pre-Marxist socialism\). Secondly, however, Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was always seeking for points of unity. Thompson's account emphasises Morr is's attempts to avoid sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squabbles as far as possible - attempts which did not always succeed, but which contributed to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect in which he was held by the socialist movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Thompson observes in the postscript written for this second edition, he has been read as attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim Morris for Marxism, when this was not his intention. \(Or if it was his intention in 1955, it was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer so in 1977.\) Thompson's postscript i s one of the most powerful pieces of writing about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between utopianism and Marxism in general, and in particular between utopianism and Marxism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Morris's socialism. Thompson insists that Morris is both a utopian and a Marxist, without 'e ither a hyphen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a sense of contradiction ... between the two terms', and that 'Morris may be assimilated to Marxism only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the course of a re-ordering of Marxism itself' - a re-ordering away from economism towards precisely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral realism which Mor ris represents \(806-7\). And even then, assimilation is not possible, since utopia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism represent different operative principles, of desire and knowledge, which need to be held in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one another, but can never be reduced to each other. Morr is's particular contribution was to sustain this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis; and socialism - and the world - are poorer without it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This statement has, however, to be read in the light of Thompson's own changing political affiliations, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the inadequacy of the label Marxist. For what Thompson is trying to do is to distance himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Stalinism, from economism and from A lthusserianism, while holding on - like Morris - to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially Marxist analysis of capitalism. It is not theoretically necessary to place the moral/utopian strand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in socialist thought outside Marxism: Ernst Bloch places it inside, the 'warm stream' o f Marxism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must always be dialectically related to the 'cold stream' of analysis. But it was politically necessary for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson. And in the case of Morris, it emphasises the fact that this element came from the romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique, to be integrated wit h the economic analysis of revolutionary socialism into a very particular, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly compelling political vision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson's book remains essential reading for anyone who would understand Morris's politics. But it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial account, and it omits elements which are of particular interest today. There is almost no discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ecological element in Morris's tho ught, and the relationship of this to his analysis of capitalism. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is, surprisingly, not very much discussion of Morris's ideas about work, skill, craftsmanship and art. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is certainly room for a new study of Morris's social and political the ory. But such a book can only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactorily written, I think, by someone who has an intuitive as well as cognitive grasp of Morris's far-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching critique of capitalism and its consequences - for human relationships, for work, for art, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environ ment. It may be hard for a committed socialist to summon up the cheek to follow Thompson; but we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too need a 'life for our time'.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 102.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 84.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 84.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/3a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 83.049 m 315.644 83.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 58.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 83.3635 315.6437 95.2435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/3a) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4360)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4361)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4362)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000003901 00000 n 0000004010 00000 n 0000004120 00000 n 0000004229 00000 n 0000007790 00000 n 0000007918 00000 n 0000008002 00000 n 0000008067 00000 n 0000014800 00000 n 0000014865 00000 n 0000022609 00000 n 0000022674 00000 n 0000030156 00000 n 0000030240 00000 n 0000037573 00000 n 0000037699 00000 n 0000037793 00000 n 0000037858 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38245 %%EOF