%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930235840+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930235840+01'00') /Title (Witches and Neighbours: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3978 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Witches and Neighbours: The Social and Cultural Context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(European Witchcraft)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Much nonsense has been written on this subject', wrote Keith Thomas in a famous and influential footnote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his own pioneering chapter on English witchcraft in Religion and the Decline of Magic \(1971\). In similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vein, Robin Briggs remarks near the st art of this magnificent new survey that 'common assumptions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject tend to have one very marked feature in common, which is that they are hopelessly wrong' \(p. 9\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of witchcraft is notoriously slippery; scholarly research over the past quarter-century has barely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed the received ideas of most people. Some of what reputable and intelligent scholars have contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the subject has proved at best untypical of the wider witchcraft phenomenon, at worst seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading. Robin Briggs has devoted many years to meticulous examination of a large body of trial records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of witchcraft cases from the Duchy of Lorraine in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has brought the insights from that research to a synt hesis and survey of the social context of all early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern witchcraft cases in western Europe and New England. The resulting book will have a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrosive effect on all sorts of traditional wisdom about the subject of witchcraft and society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The astringent and critical quality of Robin Briggs's work may come as all the more of a shock, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 September, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Briggs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631233251)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(93.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0631233253.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euan Cameron)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7515 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever nonsense may have been written about witches before 1971 \(and since\) there has also been a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good sense written about them as well. A number of excellent studies carried out in the 1970s cleared much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ground in witchcraft history. Their view acquired general assent, at least among historians, until it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distilled into several modest-sized and accessible textbooks in the mid-1 980s, and became the bread-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(butter fare of undergraduate courses. Norman Cohn's Europe's Inner Demons and Richard Kieckhefer's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Witch Trials, though written independently, reached complementary conclusions about the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the continental E uropean witch hunt. The stereotypic, mythical 'witch' appeared as the result of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amalgamation, in the minds of inquisitors and specialist judges, of various components drawn from folk-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief: night-flight, spells, charms, and weather-magic. These elemen ts were fused together with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual glue of 'demonic pact', which was turned into an explicit act of adoration of Satan by the witch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than an unconscious use of evil spirits by the superstitious. 'Witches' were then assumed, like heretics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be fore them, to meet in secret nocturnal assemblies, to carry out disgusting inversions of Christian worship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to engage in promiscuous orgiastic group sex. This imaginary fusion of disparate folkloric, theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legal elements received official sa nction from the papacy, and literary notoriety in the Malleus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maleficarum, in the mid-1480s. The adoption of inquisitorial procedures by lay courts as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical in the sixteenth century, and the diffusion of the ideas of the Malleus, led to t he mass witch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunting of the later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The use of torture to extract confessions, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation imposed on penitents to name their imaginary accomplices at the 'sabbat', elicited closely similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessions of group d iabolism from a wide range of otherwise unconnected victims, and perpetuated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of a hidden, secret, malevolent society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At around the same time, work on England established a quite different pattern for its witchcraft. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent dichotomy between England and western Europe, in theory, legal procedure, and social experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became another commonplace of the subject. In England demonic pact never acquired the status of a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept which it held on the continent; neither did the assumption that witchcraft was a collective rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an individual crime. English courts tried individuals, because they were believed to have hurt or killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals or people in rural communities. Members of the elite were cautious, rather than credulous. Legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedure did not allow torture, and was essentially adversarial rather than investigative; the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions to commit and t o convict were taken by juries of laymen rather than specialist investigators. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, therefore, shifted in English cases to the social context, to the relationships in village communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provoked the fear and reputation for hostile magic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This overall picture of the subject, albeit qualified by an increasing number of helpful studies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, Germany, and by the continuing scholarly industry on New England, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed neat, attractive, defensible, and probably abo ut right. It is a tribute to Robin Briggs's originality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his meticulous, detailed, thoughtful survey will leave nearly every part of this convenient academic synthesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very badly shaken, if not actually demolished. He approaches the continental trial material in a disarmingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious, yet novel fashion. He looks at the social conditions in village communities before an accusation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft was made, as attested by the earliest stages of a trial record, the depositions of witnesses and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first re sponses or confessions of the accused. It was always understood that someone had to fear evil magic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at work in the community, before the terrible machinery of witch-prosecution could be set in motion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Witches were taken to court by their neighbours; most were not sought out randomly by fanatical 'witch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunters'. However, this first stage in a cycle of trials has usually been regarded by European historians as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prologue to the main event; as the unspectacular stuff of folk-belief, rather than the sensat ional evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diabolism. Robin has taken this preliminary evidence as the core of a study of the witchcraft phenomenon, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see how far a satisfactory explanation can be advanced from village fears and tensions studied for their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sake. He draws very heavily on the data from Lorraine throughout the book; but forestalling the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of whether Lorraine was typical, he has also examined an impressive range of evidence from other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corners of Europe to compare with and reinforce his own conclusi ons. Cases as far apart as Sweden, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland, the Pyrenees and Salem Village are dissected in detail from printed sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is organized thematically. The first chapter explores, indeed disposes of, the composite of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('perfect witch' found in many full trials: it identifies more inconsistencies in the evidence than the traditional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7510 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture usually allows. Chapters II-IV explore the phenomena of hostile magic: the death, illness, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misfortunes of people or animals, the 'techniques' attributed to witches and the 'healers' who tried to reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their spells, and the underlying ill-will in close-knit communities which fostered the fear of evil magic in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first place. Chapter V, juxtaposing some surprising elements, describes the 'diagnosing' of witchcraft, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether by cunning folk, semi-professional witch-finders, the state, the clergy, the medical profession, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(th e unprofessional servants of justice. In chapters VI-IX we are led through the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft and a range of other major themes in social history: the family, gender and patriarchy, economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, and power relationships within societ y. In the final chapter of the analysis Robin moves into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area of psychology and pure ideas, contrasting the idea of witchcraft as a cultural construct with its roots in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective psychology, 'the standardized nightmares of society' \(p. 383\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Briggs's focus on the social context involves some significant omissions, most of which are quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate and avowed. He does not discuss the literature of witch-hunting at any length at all, partly because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this will shortly receive a full-dre ss coverage from Stuart Clark, but also because it is relatively unhelpful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his explanations. This selectivity ensures that discussion of the 'demonic' elements found in the trials is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively brief and scattered \(see pp. 15ff, 25ff, 104ff, 228f, 390f \). Slightly more worrying is the absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a systematic exploration of judicial procedure. Some important distinctions are signposted, for instance that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the relatively uniform English system with its multiple lay juries, and the confused pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping jurisdictions on the continent. Nevertheless, the trial evidence is usually presented apart from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legal context in which it was extracted. In keeping with the overall argument that witch-prosecutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose 'from below', the specialist wi tch-hunters are marginalized. Such figures as Matthew Hopkins \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(191f\) Daniel Hauff of Esslingen \(pp. 336ff\) or Peter Binsfeld of Trier \(pp. 347ff\) are treated succinctly; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are clearly, for Robin, superficial outgrowths on the main topic. It is still surprising that Nicolas Remy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procureur-general for Lorraine and one of the most celebrated writers on the subject, earns only four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references in the index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of highly stimulating and provocative arguments emerge from Robin Briggs's exposition. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how conventional images of the 'typical witch' do not correspond to the majority of cases, even if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few such examples may be found. Witches were n ot universally, nor even overwhelmingly female. Men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(averaged 25% of those convicted across Europe, but the ratio could rise to between 40% and 50% within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction of the Parlement of Paris, quite apart from Iceland or Estonia where \(as the Bengt A nkarloo / )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gustav Henningsen symposium showed\) men formed a majority of the accused \(pp. 257-61\). Witches were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ancient hags; allowing for the decade or two which often passed between rumour and trial, they were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle life when they first acquired t heir reputations \(pp. 20ff, 263f\). Despite the gruesome fantasies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kraemer and Sprenger, they were unlikely to be midwives \(pp. 77f, 277-81\). Robin also casts doubt, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not entirely consistently, on the involvement of cunning-folk or magical healers as 'typical' witches \(here it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be noted that some witch-writers, like the Danish Lutheran Niels Hemmingsen, saw witchcraft almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely in terms of magical healing\). At one point Robin claims that cunning folk were rarely accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being witche s, and distinguished from the latter \(p. 122\); eleven pages later he agrees that witches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cunning folk 'were indissoluble parts of the same belief system' \(p. 133\); a later discussion renders the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moot, since it is pointed out that few of those wh o used magical healing were full-time practitioners anyway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 171-3; cf 261\). This discussion entails the only seriously misleading comment found, when the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that 'such keen observers as [Reginald] Scot distinguished sharply between the witche s and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cunning folk and failed to discern any marked tendency for them to merge' \(p. 123\). It is hard to reconcile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that verdict with Scot's comment on the Margaret Simons case of 1581, where the vicar John Ferrall 'found, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partlie through his owne judge ment, and partlie \(as he himselfe told me\) by the relation of other witches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his said sonne was by [Margaret Simons] bewitched. Yea, he also told me, that his sonne \(being as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were past all cure\) received perfect health at the hands of another witc h.' Scot used the term 'witch' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchangeably of malevolent spell-casters and folk-healers, even at one point claiming that the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signified the two things indifferently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Witches & Neighbours focuses on the social context rather than the demonic fantasies with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental trials commonly ended, its presentation of European witchcraft shows startling similarities with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7347 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conventional picture of English wit ches. The hard-and-fast distinction between England and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent now looks remarkably shaky, and Robin loses no opportunity to undermine it further. Village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions were crucial in all regions. English JPs could act as investigators, like continenta l judges \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(187ff\). It is even suggested that the English peculiarity of the zoomorphic spirit 'familiar' corresponds to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonic pact, though there is arguably a real difference between trading with a demonic cat or ferret for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favours, and worshippi ng an enthroned devil at a sabbat \(pp. 29ff\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of other historians' explanations of witchcraft resonates with scepticism: they are mercilessly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted as untypical, far-fetched, or ill-supported. Robin is particularly severe on the idea that witchcraft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an alien idea imposed on p assive, bewildered peasants by a persecuting central authority in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergent modern state. As he convincingly points out, the strongest and most modern states played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negligible role in hunting witches, and often restrained those who did; s mall fragmented ecclesiastical states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the worst culprits \(pp. 190ff, 321ff\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One important problem raised by the book, which becomes something of a refrain as an explanation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon is sought, is that witch-hunting was in fact relatively rare and small-scale. 40,000 victims over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a century across a continent is not only less than the toll from religious strife or ordinary warfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is less than most monocausal explanations would seem to require, if they were true. The conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professes honest perplexity as to why there were not more witch-trials than ac tually took place \(p. 399\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Robin's insistence on the complexity of the causes and the need for 'multiple explanations' \(p. 397\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not entirely do his own argument justice. There runs through Witches & Neighbours a very fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulated and closely argued thesis abou t popular witch-beliefs. It runs more or less as follows. Human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings in pre-industrial society had \(or have\) a biologically conditioned fear of malevolent evil magic. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could detect ill-will in their neighbours, or believed that they could do so. Fac ed with incomprehensible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncontrollable misfortune, in the form of disease, loss of crops or animals, impoverishment, or marital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disharmony, they 'projected' the evil in their community on to an individual or individuals who represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ill-adjust ed, the envious, or the somehow hostile. Such people were accused of 'bewitching' their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours, and by being cast in this role may, perforce, have come to believe it of themselves. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred remedy, within the closed society of the village, was to confront the suspect and ask for the spell to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be removed, or by some sympathetic magic to reverse its effects. Only when legal redress was offered, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then only with reluctance and hesitation, did villagers bring their fears before legal systems which t hey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not control. Where they could control the justice system, they were excessively zealous against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft, as in the rare case of the 'village committees' of the Saarland \(pp. 340-6\). Any brief summary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a carefully constructed thesis as this must entail some travesty; but the above synopsis is not, I hope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too far removed from Robin's intention. Certain sections of the book carefully deal with objections to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central argument, for example the refutation of structuralist theories that all collective psychology is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally conditioned \(pp. 371ff\) and the wider critique of the idea that witchcraft was an idea simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('imposed' from above \(e.g. p. 262\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Robin Briggs, then, previous historians of continental witchcraft have looked at the subject the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong way round: they have concentrated on the intellectual and judicial outgrowths rather than the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bed-rock where those beliefs persis ted, which alone would make villagers accuse their neighbours. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bold statement which calls for careful evaluation. It does contain some internal problems. One could object )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the circularity involved in selecting the 'social' data out of the tria ls, then positing these as essential. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps more fairly, Robin's argument may be open to just the objection he makes against others: if the mass-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological fear of witchcraft was so universal, then the very patchy spread of prosecutions across space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and time - not just their overall 'rarity' - needs explaining. Robin shows an awareness of this problem at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points \(see pp. 146-8, 305-6, 350-1\). At one point he floats the idea that accusations of arson may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered an alternative to accusations of ma leficium \(p. 319\), but the possibility is not developed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One may, with some hesitancy, query whether the psychological mind-set which Robin Briggs has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postulated for pre-modern European people can really be proved to have existed. His argument assumes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-industrial people not only feared their neighbou rs' envy, and believed in magical power; but that they )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then combined the two, suspecting fellow-mortals of having the power and the will to harm them by magic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fear of what one might call 'neighbour-witches', therefore, supposedly existed from time im memorial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The puzzle is that medieval literature on popular belief \(ecclesiastical in origin no doubt, but the only source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have\) does not really attest such fear. Evil - or mischief - was explained in terms of spirit-creatures who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not seem to have b een human at all, from the striges of antiquity to the brujas driven away by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midsummer fires in Spain, or the creatures whom the benandanti fought in the sky, down to the little fairies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or house-ghosts \('ladies of the house', 'ladies from outside' or the German 'Wichtelin'\). Some of these names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were later transferred to \(human\) witches, but they seem originally to have designated non-human spirits. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, it was theological high culture which levelled them all down to the rank of demons, insisting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they meant nothing but harm Finally, while belief in healing magic was everywhere, its association with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonic powers was not universal. The latter was on the contrary a rhetorical device used by ecclesiastics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to persuade a thoroughly sceptical people that this 'useful' spiritual power was really illicit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is it not possible that people may have been taught to fear 'witches', in this specific sense of real human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings who were out to harm them magically? Robin Briggs, keen to do justice to the autonomy of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief, seems unwilling to accept this p ossibility. Yet Alonso de Salazar, the sceptical judge of the Navarre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witch-hunts, famously asserted that 'there were neither witches nor bewitched until they were spoken about'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The possibility that fear of neighbour-witches, in the particular form in wh ich it surfaced in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century, was an 'acquired' cast of mind ought not to be excluded a priori. If it were so, then part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin's problem, the patchiness of witch-hunts, need not be so serious a problem after all, since 'acquired' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habit s of thought may easily differ from place to place. It may be significant that when teams of inquisitors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned some Alpine villages inside out searching for heresy in the 1480s, they found no mention of evil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic, but one obscure threat of arson, which they duly recorded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that villagers were entirely passive. The form which their witch-fears took may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an authentically popular creation, a mediation or re-working of the wider fear of 'demonic' power which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastics had been trying for centu ries to instil. 'Neighbour-witches' may owe little or nothing to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image found in the Malleus Maleficarum. Yet it may be too much to assert that, at the opposite extreme, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been feared since prehistory. When we look at a 'natural' European landsc ape of fields and trees, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we see is actually the result of centuries of gentle cultivation. The sixteenth-century popular mind may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat similar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no small achievement for an author writing on such a fashionable theme, to have opened the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject up such that it will never look quite the same again. No historian can read Witches & Neighbours, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and afterwards teach the subject in the sam e way as before. I shall certainly not do so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 273.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 255.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 255.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/4)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 254.121 m 310.316 254.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 229.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/126)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 254.4355 310.3157 266.3155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/4) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000004700 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000004919 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000008589 00000 n 0000008717 00000 n 0000008801 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000016434 00000 n 0000016499 00000 n 0000024062 00000 n 0000024127 00000 n 0000031527 00000 n 0000031611 00000 n 0000037097 00000 n 0000037225 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37318 %%EOF