%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818095706+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818095706+01'00') /Title (Fashioning Masculinity. National identity and language in the eighteenth century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4179 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fashioning Masculinity. National identity and language in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(eighteenth century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Growing out of recent work on gender, scholars are now turning their attention to the history of masculinity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key aspect of this subject is how masculinity is constructed, since, in the words of Michael Roper and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tosh, 'masculinity is never fully possessed, but must perpetually be achieved, asserted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renegotiated'. The eighteenth century, a period frequently seen as pivotal in shaping modern gender roles for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, is providing fertile ground for historians of masculinity as well. In this clearly written and carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued book, Michle Cohen investigates the role played by the French language and conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherness in shaping ideas about the education and self-fashioning of gentlemen in eighteenth and nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England. Her initial concern was to explain how French came to be perceived as a 'female' language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it is by school children today, but her research led her to investigate changes in gentlemanly ideals over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period from the late-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book starts in France, with an examination of the French concepts of )] TJ ET BT 387.956 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politesse)] TJ ET BT 429.956 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 470.948 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(honnte homme)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the seventeenth century, in which gentlemen were expected to perfect their social skills through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation with women in the )] TJ ET BT 191.000 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salons)] TJ ET BT 221.672 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: not only would men learn from the refined and delicate discourse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michle Cohen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978041510735X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Fashioning-Masculinity-isbn9780415107365)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert B. Shoemaker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, but their own conversation would be improved by their efforts to please their female audience. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late seventeenth century a similar, but not identical, code of conduct became influential in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politeness, which also viewed the ability to converse in French, the universal language of European courts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time, as an important skill. Once again women were expected to play a crucial role, but concerns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now expressed that overexposure to female conversation would make men effeminate, and this concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to the influence mothers exerted over their sons. One of the advantages of the Grand Tour, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became fashionable as a means of completing the education of young gentleman around the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, was that it removed boys from their mothers. But there were worries that such travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could corrupt, and that by encouraging men to develop ornamental accomplishments for public display, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand Tour also rendered men effeminate. By the late eighteenth century, men were expected to spend less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time honing skills for public display and were expected instead to develop their mental faculties and acquire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtue of sincerity. Taciturnity, which had once been seen as typical fault of English gentlemen, now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became 'the emblem of his self-discipline, and his strength ? in other words, of his manliness' \(p. 105\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a consequence, learning French was now seen in a new light. Men were no longer expected to cultivate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their tongues by learning foreign languages through conversation, and the attention shifted to studying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grammar as a means of developing analytical skills. But French grammar was seen as too simple, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign language education of boys \(now taking place in public schools rather than on the Grand Tour\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned to Latin. Correspondingly, the teaching of French came to be associated predominantly with girls, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where it was seen as an essential female accomplishment, but one which, due to the alleged simplicity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, was not seen as threatening male intellectual superiority. The English gentleman abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, with its associations with seductive and trifling feminine conversation, and returned to his own less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowery, 'monosyllabic' language, which was more suited for men with deep thoughts but little need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express them in conversation. From the point of view of men, women's conversation became superfluous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This 'derogation of the tongue', according to Cohen, thus reinforced both gender and national differences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is cleverly developed argument, which solves Cohen's original problem and, by bringing together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse evidence, clearly demonstrates the important and changing role played by language acquisition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about the proper education of English gentlemen \(and ladies\). In doing so, Cohen demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for historians of masculinity of examining the social and cultural processes \(notably informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociability and formal education\) by which masculine identities have been shaped, and the importance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of women of the interrelationship between ideas about masculinity and ideas about femininity. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a very short book \(150 pages of text and notes\), and this reader would have liked to learn more, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly about )] TJ ET BT 122.000 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 141.332 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( these conceptions of masculinity changed in this way at this time. If masculinity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the quote from Roper and Tosh quoted earlier \(and cited by Cohen\), has to be perpetually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renegotiated, why did its redefinition in this period take the particular form that it did? Implicitly, Cohen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the crucial causes were intellectual: the coming together of the discourses of civic humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politeness in the late seventeenth century, and their subsequent replacement by new ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and gender difference from writers such as David Fordyce and Hannah More in the mid to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. But the forces which shaped ideas about proper gentlemanly behaviour, gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference, and national identity in the eighteenth century were surely far more complex, involving in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition important changes in society, culture and politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A gentleman is a man with power, power over his social inferiors as well as over women, and it is important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consider how the changing social and economic position of such men influenced their strategies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain their social position. At the start of this period, the definition of a gentlemen was rapidly changing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from one based on birth to one based on wealth and lifestyle. As the Swiss writer Guy Mige commented in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1703, 'anyone that, without a Coat of Arms, has either a liberal or genteel education, that looks gentleman-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like \(whether he be so or not\) and has the wherewithal to live freely and handsomely, is by the courtesy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England usually called a gentlemen.' In order to incorporate the growing number of merchants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals who were wealthier than traditionally-defined gentlemen, and to allow for the possibility that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gentry could exchange status for wealth with the upper-middle class through marriage, definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentility changed at this time, placing more emphasis on the display of status and wealth and less on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7072 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry. This helps explain why there was such an emphasis on display in the self-fashioning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentleman at this time. Later in the eighteenth century the middle and upper classes saw less of a need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermingling, as a separate middle class identity, critical of the alleged luxury and effeminacy of the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes, began to form. As Kathleen Wilson has shown, such critiques were fuelled by middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaints concerning alleged corruption and the unrepresentative nature of aristocratic government, as 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic state was identified with "French influence"'. From the point of view of gentlemen and nobles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to preserve their social position, it is not surprising in this context that public display and the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language became less central to their ideals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The privatisation of gentlemanly self-fashioning can also, however, be related to the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation between public and private life which occurred at this time, as domestic virtues and behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more sharply differentiated from life outside the home. Such broad cultural changes explain why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period witnessed the 'derogation of the tongue'. This change affected all social classes, as demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the sharp decline over this period in the number of books and pamphlets not associated with foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages that were published with the word 'tongue' in the title. Moreover, it affected both men )] TJ ET BT 498.932 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women: in this sense the changes documented in this book did not always work to accentuate gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences. As Cohen shows, by the late eighteenth century both sexes were expected to pay more attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grammar and reading when studying foreign languages at the expense of oral skills, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation. Thus, for both ladies and gentlemen public display became less important. Although Cohen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly overemphasises the novelty of the emergence in the latter half of the eighteenth century of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('domestic sphere' as the proper locus of female virtue in prescriptions for women, the moral importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed on domestic life for women echoed the growing distrust of male 'accomplishments' which depended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on public display.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in explaining why increasing attention was focused on difference in conceptions of gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity in this period, factors in addition to the self-fashioning strategies of gentlemen need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered. A number of other developments clearly reinforced gender differences in this period, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new forms of literature \(especially the novel\) and the Evangelical Revival. And as Linda Colley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Wilson have shown, political developments at home and the frequent European wars during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period \(in which France was by far the most threatening enemy\) were crucial elements in the forging of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British \(or English\) national identity, which was frequently conceptualised in opposition to the effeminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('other' of the French, with their perceived propensity to licentiousness, tyrannical government, and 'popish' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. Cohen explicitly rejects Colley's argument that the Napoleonic wars caused a reevaluation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits of speaking French, since 'the fashion for learning French actually increased after the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.' \(p. 99\) Yet Cohen's own evidence demonstrates that in many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects the period of the Napoleonic Wars was clearly formative in changing English attitudes towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role played by language in gentlemanly self-fashioning. Ladies and gentlemen may have continued to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, but Cohen argues that this was the period when learning French came to be seen as 'an insipid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation' for men and 'came to be associated predominantly with females' \(pp. 62, 83\). Since France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French were often conceptualised in female terms, it certainly seems likely that war with France, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential element in the formation of British national identity, played an important role shaping attitudes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French language was unsuitable for gentlemen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, the cultural phenomenon documented in this book is associated with broader changes, which put the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English upper classes on the defensive, rendered public life a less acceptable venue for character formation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and encouraged hostility to foreign \(especially French\) influences: all these developments contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('derogation of the tongue'. The connection between attitudes towards language study and the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and national identities thus provides a good illustration of how definitions of masculinity \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(femininity\) are intimately interconnected with wider social, cultural and political forces, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions of influence work both ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 59.455 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/40)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 316.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/326)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 316.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/40) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004896 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008997 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000016725 00000 n 0000016790 00000 n 0000023915 00000 n 0000023999 00000 n 0000024600 00000 n 0000024728 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24822 %%EOF