%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416173825+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416173825+01'00') /Title (Puritan Iconoclasm in the English Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3295 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Puritan Iconoclasm in the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, laments the excesses of Puritan iconoclasm in her poem 'An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antient Cross', first published in 1656 in )] TJ ET BT 228.848 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natures Pictures)] TJ ET BT 309.848 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An antient Cross liv'd in our Fathers time,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With as much Fame, as did the Worthyes nine;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No harm it did, nor injury to none,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.240 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But dwelt in peace, and quietly alone;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(. . .\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet peacefull Nature, nor yet humble Minde,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shall not avoyd rude Ignorance that's blinde,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That superstitiously beats down all things)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.240 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Which smell but of Antiquity, or springs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From Noble Deeds, nor love, nor take delight,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Laws, or Justice, hating Truth and Right;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Innovations love, for that seems fine,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(401)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Spraggon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85115895)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=11227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas McDowell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype 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endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7148 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And what is new, adore they as divine;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(. . . \))] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so this Cross, poor Cross, all in a rage)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They pull'd down quite, the fault was onely Age.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.148 753.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.148 751.875 m 282.140 751.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavendish's poem points us towards some of the issues raised by Julie Spraggon in her analysis of the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 712.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and development of iconoclasm during the Civil War. The cross in question may be the famous Cheapside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross, finally demolished on 2 May 1643 after becoming the focus of bitter controversy in press and pulpit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cheapside Cross had been attacked several times in 1642-3, causing a riot in February 1642, when a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 669.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of apprentices intent on bringing the cross down was met by another group who had come to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 655.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erected to commemorate Queen Eleanor at the end of the thirteenth century, this 'poor Cross' and others like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it had assumed a much greater symbolic significance than Cavendish is willing to admit in her poem. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheapside Cross had niches containing statues of saints, apostles, kings, bishops and a Virgin and child, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become widely regarded by Puritans as an idolatrous relic of the old religion. In his )] TJ ET BT 457.616 586.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Articles of High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Treason Exhibited against Cheap-Side Crosse)] TJ ET BT 256.016 572.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1642\) the future Leveller leader Richard Overton ascribed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cross itself a demonic agency: it had 'occasioned tumultuous political and national disturbances' by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seducing English Protestants to the Catholic faith. When the cross was finally brought down, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Presbyterian John Vicars, 'Bands of Souldiers' reacted by 'Sounding their Trumpets, and shooting off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their peeces, as well as shouting-out with their voices, and ecchoing out their joyfull acclamations at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happie downfall of Antichrist in England'.\(Spraggon, quoted on p. 159\) The fall of Cheapside Cross was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted by these Puritans as a sign of the apocalyptic destruction of the false idols of popery, a category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in 1643 included the bishops and their Laudian 'innovations' and by 1649 had come to encompass, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some at least, the Stuart monarchy. Margaret Cavendish had also read the signs: she had fled for Paris as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early as 1644 as maid of honour to Henrietta Maria, the real Catholic presence at the heart of the Caroline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Overton liked a joke \(he quickly became the enemy of the Presbyterians\) and may have only been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-serious when he accused Cheapside Cross of having literally caused the Civil War; but the cross had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed become the focus of a debate on religious images which rapidly widened in scope between 1641 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1644 as the war itself developed. Parliament's order of 1641 for the removal and abolition of idolatrous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images had been limited to the interior of places of public worship, and crosses had not been cited as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offending objects. In August 1643 - three months after Cheapside Cross had been pulled down - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons ordered that plain crosses were to be demolished in 'any open place', whether religious or non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious sites \(see Spraggon, pp. 42-6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the ordinance followed, rather than authorized, the action taken against the most famous cross in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England illustrates one of the central arguments of Spraggon's book: the iconoclastic activity of godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups or individuals on the ground both enforced and drove forward the increasingly radical legislation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 1640s. The relationship between official Parliamentary and unofficial Puritan iconoclasm seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been reciprocal. Spraggon links the eventual demolition of Cheapside Cross to Parliament's creation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1643 of the Orwellian-sounding Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Idolatry. The Committee, under the chairmanship of the Presbyterian Sir Robert Harley, was charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating and demolishing idolatrous monuments in London. Harley was apparently a man who took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride in his work. One story tells of how Harley threw down a piece of painted glass removed from the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel at Westminster and jumped up and down on it, saying he was 'dancing a jig to Laud' \(quoted on p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This story sounds, as Spraggon points out, 'like a classic piece of royalist propaganda'.\(p. 85, n. 65\) A good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.517 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal of what we know, or what we think we know, about Puritan iconoclasm derives from royalist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican sources, whether contemporary or scholarly. The close association of Puritanism with a violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.005 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconoclasm is at the heart of the partisan myth that the 1640-1660 period belongs to the history of politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.749 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religion, not culture. 'And never was Rebel to Arts a friend': from Dryden's declaration in )] TJ ET BT 485.744 51.749 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Absalom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.493 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Achitophel)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.1477 752.1895 282.1397 764.0695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1679, through Matthew Arnold's opposition of 'Anglican Culture' to 'Puritan Anarchy', to T. S. )] TJ ET BT 503.132 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eliot's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once-influential notion of the 'dissociation of sensibility' which afflicted English literature in the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century and from which it has never fully recovered, influential literary and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators, often with explicitly royalist sympathies, have disseminated images of revolutionary England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a grim cultural wasteland - a dark 'interregnum' in the history of the nation's cultural achievement which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marks the end of the Renaissance golden age. After all, the prime sites of pre-war cultural activity were in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of ruin: the court was abolished, the theatres were closed, and scholars were expelled from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities on the grounds of their religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Dryden, Arnold and Eliot were continuing a polemical strategy established by contemporary royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers in projecting an image of Stuart culture left in ruins by Puritan iconoclasm. Thanks to scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last decade we now know that the theatre did not vanish for eighteen years but assumed new forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in play pamphlets and closet drama; we know that an English republican culture developed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century shaped by classical education and scholarship; we know that the Cromwellian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government continued to patronize literature, music and the visual arts, and we know that a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecturally significant buildings were erected under Commonwealth and Protectorate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.932 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.932 583.491 m 476.924 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.924 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So the time is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ripe for Spraggon's new assessment of Puritan iconoclasm, which makes limited use of polemical printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and provides instead a thorough analysis of the surviving records of iconoclastic activity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localities, London parishes, cathedral churches and the universities - each given a chapter - and places them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of Parliamentary legislation and the progress of the Civil War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavendish's 'An antient Cross' participates in the writing of the royalist / Anglican myth of revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarism. Cavendish accuses the Puritan iconoclasts of 'beat[ing] down all things / Which smell but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antiquity' out of a perverse desire for 'innovation' and 'what is new'. Her characterization invokes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perdurable stereotype of the 'Stage Puritan', portrayed most memorably by Ben Jonson in the form of Zeal-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-land Busy in )] TJ ET BT 116.348 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew Fair)] TJ ET BT 205.352 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1614\). Busy is a former baker from Banbury - where local people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famously pulled down a market cross in 1602 - who has given up his occupation because 'those cakes he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made were served to bride-ales, maypoles, morrises, and such profane feasts and meetings'. Zeal, we are told,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is of a most lunatic conscience and spleen, and affects the violence of singularity in all that he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does . he will ever be i' the state of innocence, though, and childhood; derides all antiquity; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defies any other learning than inspiration; and what discretion soever years should afford him, it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is all prevented in his original ignorance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.324 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.324 333.651 m 274.316 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The representation of Busy's iconoclastic zeal reaches its absurd climax in his dispute with a puppet in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair, which he describes as a 'heathenish idol' and addresses as Dagon, the Philistine idol that fell in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of the Ark of the Covenant \(1 Samuel 5\). The satirical power of Jonson's representation lies in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of real Puritan arguments in a setting which itself is realistic but which nonetheless renders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those arguments ridiculous through the incongruity of situating the apocalypse in a puppet show. In 1641 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baptist Samuel Loveday compared Cheapside Cross to Dagon, but it is doubtful the contemporary listener or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader found anything comic in his words: 'now we have great cause to hope that our Arke is coming home . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Philistins have so long kept from us, and therefor good reason dumb idols should fall before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him'.\(quoted on p. 44\) As the melancholy tone of Cavendish's poem indicates, the apocalyptic language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Puritan iconoclasm was no longer so amusingly excessive in the context of the real-life performance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavendish, like Jonson, associates Puritan iconoclasm with ignorance of history and the desire to eradicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('antiquity'. By accusing Puritan iconoclasts of adoring 'innovation' Cavendish in fact reverses the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced by the iconoclasts of the early sixteen-forties for the need to reform English churches and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotional practice. Loveday welcomed the fall of Cheapside Cross as a proper consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestation Oath, which the Commons decreed in 1641 must be taken by all males over eighteen and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included an undertaking to defend the 'true reformed Protestant religion as expressed in the doctrine of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9317 583.8055 476.9237 595.6855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.3237 333.9655 274.3157 345.8455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England, against all Popery and Popish innovations'.\(quoted on p. 44\) Far from regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as in favour of 'innovation' in religious matters, Puritan iconoclasts believed that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring the Church to its primitive purity by getting rid of the Laudian 'innovations' of the sixteen-thirties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spraggon's narrative of the development of Puritan iconoclasm broadly confirms the now conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical position that there was widespread consensus in the Stuart church until the Laudian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the 'beauty of holiness' and devotional ceremony rapidly alienated the godly. The first phase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconoclasm in 1641-3 encompassed not only images but communion rails, painted glass and rich furnishings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were 'lumped together . as "innovations" which threatened to bring the English church into line with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome'. This iconoclasm was obviously distinct from that of the Reformation 'in that its targets were within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Protestant church, a church which was already supposed to have been reformed of such things.'\(p. 30\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The enemy, as Spraggon puts it, was now within. The reaction against Laudian innovation, officially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctioned by Parliament in the Protestation Oath and the order of 1641 for the removal and abolition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idolatrous images from religious places, seems to have commanded broad popular support, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spraggon emphasizes that the paucity of evidence for the enforcement of iconoclastic legislation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localities forces her to speculate on this issue.\(p. 130\) However as Parliament passed more radical legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against images, including an ordinance of 1644 against symbolic images such as lambs, lions and triangles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the task of enforcement was increasingly assumed by the 'enthusiastically godly' who 'pushed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation beyond the point at which it might have expected to command a certain broad support', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending their iconoclasm to include items which had previously been the concern of separatists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarians, such as vestments, organs and the Book of Common Prayer.\(p. 131\) To some extent, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spraggon's narrative is also compatible with John Morrill's insistence on the survival of popular attachment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Anglicanism: once the Laudian 'innovations' had been removed, it was only the zealous few who sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to go beyond the Elizabethan church settlement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.980 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.980 469.443 m 278.972 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most enthusiastically godly individual in Spraggon's book, alongside Robert Harley, is William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowsing, the Parliamentary commander who was given by the Earl of Manchester the brief of enforcing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1643 ordinance against images in the Eastern counties. Dowsing's journal, which has recently been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertly edited, records a campaign of iconoclastic reformation on a scale that does not appear to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken anywhere else in the country, including London.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.964 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.964 386.163 m 336.956 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.956 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Parliamentary troopers brought down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheapside Cross; the Dowsing campaign similarly illustrates the role of the military in the administration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconoclasm. During Dowsing's activities in the chapels of Cambridge he was challenged by one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fellows of Pembroke about the legality of his commission from Manchester. Technically the Fellow was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right but there was little time for legal technicalities in a time of war, and the academics were hardly in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to prevent the army taking matters into their own hands. The notorious assaults on cathedrals during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sixteen-forties by Parliamentary soldiers can, Spraggon argues, be variously interpreted: 'as mindless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vandalism and the inevitable plunder and pillage of war; as an almost ritualistic destruction of symbols )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of the enemy; or even as the Puritan theology-in-action of a godly and reforming army.'\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(201\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ritualistic aspect of more radical forms of iconoclasm is evident in the stipulation of the August 1643 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinance that offending religious images were not only to be removed but defaced: as Spraggon points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was not enough 'merely to remove from sights the objects which defined [the traditional] ideology, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they must also be )] TJ ET BT 120.680 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seen to be destroyed)] TJ ET BT 218.324 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.' \(p. 81\) Spraggon makes some interesting comparisons with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official anti-Stuart iconoclasm that occurred after 1649. The new republican government could hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretend that it was not that dreaded thing, an 'innovation'; but it immediately sought to assert its power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanence by ordering that Stuart symbols be treated in the same way as Laudian and popish idols: they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were to be defaced. Thus a statue of Charles at the Royal Exchange was beheaded and the legend inscribed: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Exit tyrannus Regum ultimus, anno primo restitutoe libertatis Angliae 1648'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extension of the Parliamentary order concerning the defacing of idols from religious to royal symbols )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued the polemical strategy of identifying the Stuart monarchy with popery that had driven the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the civil war. Just as the iconoclastic agenda had widened to include objects and images previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted as part of the Protestant church, so the conflict had widened to include the very existence of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9797 469.7575 278.9717 481.6375 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.9637 386.4775 336.9557 398.3575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy. Yet Spraggon's book makes clear that Puritan iconoclasm was 'largely a phenomenon of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s'.\(p. 83\) Indeed widespread iconoclasm seems to have characterized only the first Civil War. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry disappears from view at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of 1646. In reaction to the arguments of figures such as the Leveller Samuel Chidley and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarian groups such as the Quakers, Parliament made it clear that churches were not in themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idolatrous and an ordinance was passed in 1648, which required church buildings to be kept in a state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good repair. Both the Commonwealth and Cromwellian governments seem to have taken a less zealous line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the issue of images. An interesting example cited by Spraggon is the treatment of the royal art collection. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Duke of Buckingham's art had been sold off in 1645, those pictures that depicted the Trinity or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary were removed and destroyed. However the list of former royal paintings assigned to Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Whitehall and Hampton Court included depictions of religious subjects, while Colonel John Hutchinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchased paintings that had belonged to the king which featured Mary, Christ and St. Mark.\(p. 82\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed much of the interest of Puritan Iconoclasm in the English Civil War lies in its unearthing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating details and individuals, such as the glass painter Baptista Sutton, who worked on installing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudian 'innovations' in the 1630s such as the east windows in Peterhouse chapel and the New Chapel at St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret's Westminster. Sutton reluctantly appeared as a witness at Laud's trial to give evidence concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the restoration of 'idolatrous' windows on Laud's orders; he then went on to work for the London authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early sixteen-forties removing and destroying stained glass, some of which was probably his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. By the sixteen-fifties he was making windows containing Commonwealth arms\(pp. 151-2\). Spraggon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provides a real sense of the impact of historical process on the material fabric of English churches. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1641 Sutton was paid to assess the work required to 'reform' the east window in St. Lawrence Jewry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. In 1641-2 the most offensive aspects of the window were removed. However three weeks after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Robert Harley's committee in 1643, it was decided at a vestry meeting to remove all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coloured glass and replace it with clear glass - 'Protestant glass', as it was described by the Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsbook )] TJ ET BT 85.676 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mercurius Britannicus)] TJ ET BT 194.672 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\(quoted on p. 98\) The king's arms were, however, erected in the new plain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(window. It would not be long before this image was itself regarded as another false idol.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Davidson, ed., )] TJ ET BT 164.000 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetry and Revolution: An Anthology of British and Irish Verse 1625-1660)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998\), pp. 450-1, lines 1-4, 9-16, 19-20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.304 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.304 346.899 m 478.292 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, respectively, Nigel Smith, )] TJ ET BT 215.672 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literature and Revolution in England, 1640-1660)] TJ ET BT 454.340 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven: Yale )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1994\); Susan Wiseman, )] TJ ET BT 266.336 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drama and Politics in the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 480.680 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, 1998\); David Norbrook, )] TJ ET BT 324.656 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Politics, 1627-1660)] TJ ET BT 179.684 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999\); Laura Lunger Knoppers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constructing Cromwell: Ceremony, Portrait and Print, 1645-1661)] TJ ET BT 384.692 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2000\); Timothy Mowl and Brian Earnshaw, A)] TJ ET BT 371.324 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rchitecture Without Kings: the Rise of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Puritan Classicism under Cromwell)] TJ ET BT 237.032 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995\). I explore the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of literary patronage in the 1650s in )] TJ ET BT 271.976 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cavalier Afterlives: Patronage, Politics and the Literary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture of the British Republic, 1646-1660)] TJ ET BT 270.020 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.984 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.984 218.595 m 560.972 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the Stage Puritan, see Patrick Collinson, 'Bartholomew Fair: The Theatre Constructs Puritanism', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in David L. Smith, Richard Strier and David Bevington , eds, )] TJ ET BT 361.004 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Theatrical City: Culture, Theatre )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Politics in London, 1576-1649)] TJ ET BT 231.692 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995\), pp. 157-69; Ben )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonson, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew Fair)] TJ ET BT 192.356 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Suzanne Gossett \(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000\), I. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. 121-2, 136-45.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.008 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.008 147.315 m 200.996 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill, 'The Church in England, 1642-49', in idem, )] TJ ET BT 341.324 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of the English Revolution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harlow: Longman, 1993\), pp. 148-75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.324 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.324 118.803 m 305.312 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Cooper, ed., )] TJ ET BT 161.324 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of William Dowsing)] TJ ET BT 318.668 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.980 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.980 104.547 m 556.976 104.547 l S BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 90.291 m 78.008 90.291 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.3037 347.2135 478.2917 359.0935 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.9837 218.9095 560.9717 230.7895 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.0077 147.6295 200.9957 159.5095 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3237 119.1175 305.3117 130.9975 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 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