%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730104805+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730104805+01'00') /Title (The Origins of the English Gentry) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4302 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of the English Gentry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Coss has written a splendid analysis of the changing aristocracy of the two hundred years after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1150 that will be required reading for the next century or so. What he has also attempted is even more bold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and original, nothing more nor less than to explain the evolution of the English gentry. From the Dark Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the nineteenth century and beyond all European countries have possessed a noble elite. England differed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its neighbours, each with a single broad )] TJ ET BT 253.652 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(noblesse)] TJ ET BT 294.980 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, because its aristocracy were divided between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerically restricted, titled nobility, who sat in the House of Lords, and the gentry, who were merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genteel and eligible for election to the Commons. The gentry were thus 'a kind of lesser nobility' whom, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. B. McFarlane long ago suggested, were what remained when the parliamentary baronage were defined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fourteenth century. Professor Nigel Saul has traced the emergence of ranks within the gentry. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present reviewer discerned changes in nomenclature rather than in numbers and in composition between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnates, barons, and knights of the Norman era and the parliamentary peerage, knights, esquires and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlemen of the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. To argue that the English gentry were 'formed between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-thirteenth and the mid-fourteenth century' \(abstract, p. iii\), as Coss does, is therefore controversial. If his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important book is indeed 'the first sustained attempt to explore the origins of the gentry and to account for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contours and peculiarities as a social formation' \(abstract, p. iii\), it is not likely to enjoy universal acceptance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coss is especially well equipped for such an ambitious project. His own research on thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(402)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Coss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521862673X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(341pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Hicks)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7444 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warwickshire stimulated his hypothesis of 'a crisis of the knightly class' and generated both a massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition of early records of Coventry and a monograph on aristocratic society 1180-1280. He has written both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the medieval knight and lady and piloted his current thesis in the journal )] TJ ET BT 399.320 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 481.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.316 766.563 m 498.308 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warwickshire often features in his examples and footnotes and so too do his early papers, on the knightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis itself, on contemporary terminology, bastard feudalism, and the diffusion of ideas, on occasion adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or restated in the face of valid criticisms. He ranges across five centuries, expounds convincingly on topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as varied as Anglo-Saxon honour, exemptions from office, knightly seals, and the emergence of heraldry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deploys as appropriate \(and critically\) the most up-to-date academic literature. His discussions of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography are especially clear and illuminating. Coss the innovator, hypothesiser, and controversialist is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned by Coss the meticulous researcher, analyst, and open-minded searcher for truth in what is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways an exemplary and undoubtedly far-reaching scholarly monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The term gentry as commonly used by historians, so Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition nevertheless remains desirable, even if Coss rejects as unsatisfactory several devised by previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Contemporary usage, of 'gentilesse' )] TJ ET BT 259.976 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(circa)] TJ ET BT 284.636 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1240 and 'gentleman' in 1413, respectively postdate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antedate the phenomenon itself. 'It seems certain that gentility was widely felt and articulated within society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long before legislation was in place to tell us so'.\(p. 4\) To define the gentry as lesser landowners is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory, both because the qualifying income of 20 was too restrictive and because Rosemary Horrox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long ago pushed Alan Everitt's pseudo- or urban gentry back into the central middle ages. The mere holding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of crown office is also too vague to be useful. Neither the three medieval estates, nor heraldry, nor even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of an aristocracy that encompasses both nobility and gentry are useful touchstones. Instead Coss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers four criteria, all of which must be satisfied before the gentry can be said to have emerged: his book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really a commentary on these criteria and demonstrates how and when they were achieved. 'If the meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gentry is obvious', he tartly writes, 'it is certainly not obvious from our sources'.\(p. 7\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What distinguishes the gentry are four facets of its 'collective territoriality': 'collective identity'; status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradations; public office-holding; and collective authority over the people. The gentry, Coss asserts, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always expressed themselves collectively through national and/ or local organs. It was crucial that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranked themselves in horizontal bands rather than vertically by ties of lordship. 'There can be no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective responsibility for the administration of justice is an important facet of the gentry' and that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their way of exercising 'social power'.\(pp. 10-11\) Coss conceives of the gentry therefore as a type of lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility, based on landholding, but accommodating townsmen and professionals. It was a territorial elite that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised public authority in the locality and that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to exercise collective social control over the populace on a territorial basis, reinforcing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual status and power . It has a collective identity, and collective interests which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessitate the existence of some forum, or interlocking fora, for their articulation[.] \(p. 11\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angevin legal reforms and the 'regular petitioning' to parliament of late thirteenth-century county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities were important preconditions, but it was the explosion of commissions around 1300 that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('in large measure' the cause of the gentry. 'The first half of the fourteenth century was crucial in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of collective control over the populace'.\(p. 16\) Judicial authority was the crucial source 'of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social control without which income and status, that is to say lordship, could not be assured'.\(ibid.\) It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also at this time that county sentiment and territoriality in all its aspects were consolidated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter sets out Coss' argument that the gentry emerged around 1300. The second chapter, 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roots of the Gentry', discredits alternative hypotheses that the gentry originated earlier, before the Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest or alongside the legal reforms of Henry II. Both these periods witnessed some of the distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics of the gentry and established some of the foundations for the gentry, yet, so Coss argues, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry had yet emerged. Thus the code of honour, gradations of rank, endogamous marriage, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial system that Blair and Gillingham identified in Anglo-Saxon England did indeed contribute to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.3157 766.8775 498.3077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of 'a broad seigneurial class' \(p. 29\), that was already characterised by hall-house and proprietary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church. But Anglo-Saxon 'society was dominated by vertical lines of association'\(p. 31\), and Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was a state of the weak Carolingian type that lacked the widespread public offices and powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assemblies of the thirteenth-century gentry. Neither the local public office nor powerful assemblies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century yet existed. Anglo-Saxon county courts were not representative and were dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops and magnates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('There can be no doubt whatsoever that the concept of nobility was widening and deepening in twelfth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England' \(p. 35\), Coss emphatically asserts. It was under Henry II that Hugh Thomas has identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many features familiar later, such as bastard feudalism, bastard feudal perversions of justice, county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity, and service to the crown. To these Coss adds heritability of land and primogeniture, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of toponymic surnames, hereditary heraldry, chivalry, the restriction of the title dominus to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights and the formal dubbing of knights, and the proliferation of seals amongst even the petty knights \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(milituli)] TJ ET BT 68.696 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). An exclusive knighthood was being born. Horizontal ties become more visible. 'Heraldry belongs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a highly aristocratic world', he writes. 'A fully chivalric knighthood was born'.\(p. 37\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this stage Coss seems to have proved the case for a twelfth-century gentry. And yet it is not enough for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. 'The power of lordship remained extremely strong', he laments.\(p. 40\) 'The most significant form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political organisation in England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was', he approvingly quotes Crouch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"a form of power focused on a discrete region and a dominant personality who sought to control it"'. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizontal ties have been elevated above being an accompaniment or alternative to lordship, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development from lordship and a succession to it that are essential prerequisites for Coss' definition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry. Such an argument appears both perverse and anachronistic. Also, of course, twelfth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocrats had not yet fulfilled the thirteenth-century criteria that Coss feels essential to the gentry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirty years ago Coss postulated a crisis of the knightly class in the thirteenth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.976 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.976 445.443 m 462.968 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.968 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His case for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic crisis is untenable, he now concedes, but the 'knightly class' was nevertheless transformed. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of knights fell during the thirteenth century, from perhaps 5000 to a quarter of that number, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service declined and the costs of knighthood both in time and money increased. Most families of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(milituli)] TJ ET BT 68.696 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gave up being knighted. They thereby resigned themselves to reduced status - presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly, since knighthood carried a social cachet and 'few people relish downward mobility'.\(p. 95\) Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who still opted to become knights became an exclusive elite of those with coats of arms, fully conversant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with 'the panoply of ideas surrounding chivalry' that they shared with the magnates, with whom they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated most memorably at the 1306 Feast of the Swans. 'In sum, there is abundant evidence to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the exclusivity and the binding force of knighthood in and around the time of Edward I'.\(p. 146\) This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('realisation of a more exclusive knightly class' was a fundamental change, of 'momentous importance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of gentility', a crisis of a different kind, and 'an important stage in the development of the lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility and a significant step towards the formation of the English gentry'.\(pp. 70, 108\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Angevin legal reforms that had placed almost all knights on juries, which however took up little of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, had nevertheless converted very few into trusted agents of the state. A. B. White's notion of 'self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government at the king's command' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.320 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.320 219.603 m 221.312 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.312 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been pushed too far back in time and is applied anachronistically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the thirteenth century: 'The result is that an embryo has been mistaken for a mature organism, that is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say the gentry'.\(p. 44\) Not yet a cohesive class capable of pressing their interests nationally, rather ranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under \(and perhaps represented\) by their lords, early-thirteenth-century knights seldom attended county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts, which were certainly not forums of debate, and sought not to influence the crown but to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves negatively against royal intervention. It was the wars of Edward I that created more tasks to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed, that caused an 'explosion of commissions' of array, subsidy, and the peace, and that brought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shires under the rule of 'amateur landlord-magistrates' that endured until 1889 and beyond. By 1307 most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights held such 'major local office'. As partners in county government, they had royal authority to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their tenants; and as county communities they petitioned together to parliament. The percolation down to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esquires and eventually to mere gentlemen of their knightly culture and its symbolism, such as heraldic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seals, crystallised the gentry into an elite group clearly demarcated from peerage and peasantry alike.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.9757 445.7575 462.9677 457.6375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.3197 219.9175 221.3117 231.7975 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This lengthy survey undoubtedly fails to represent adequately the subtlety, tenacity, and virtuosity of Coss' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. He successfully substantiates most of the developments he reveals. It can be no surprise that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coss is at his most magnificent and most convincing for the era within which he is an acknowledged master. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appropriately demanding to read, his highly academic book deserves to be re-read and re-read, as this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer has done, new insights emerging on each occasion from both text and footnotes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is much less certain however is whether his findings deserve the significance he attaches to them. Coss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts his own arguments and dismisses those of others more readily than the evidence permits. He appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to locate many decisive changes much earlier in time than would the historians of later eras: the gentry rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the localities, effective county communities, and the substitution of intra-class relations for feudal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastard feudal lordship are obvious examples. The explosion of commissions was surely ephemeral, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of particular war-time generations, even if never fully reversed. Edward I's commissioners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly had less to do than their more numerous fifteenth-century counterparts, still less the Tudor JPs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administering stacks of statutes in week-long quarter sessions and almost full-time out of court. If only then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the inactive drones weeded out, in office for prestige rather than service, if many fifteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissions and most commissioners were inoperational, what evidence has Coss that appointments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equated to actual activity around 1300? Was it yet necessary for local standing and material security to hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal office? Two centuries later Richmond's John Hopton famously did not. If representation had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed through county institutions, such expressions need not indicate county sentiment. It is telling here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how little evidence of active representation even Derek Hirst could find under the early Stuarts and how self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested and negative were the motives Conrad Russell has attributed to them as officeholders. There were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably more horizontal than vertical ties in all periods and the former did ultimately supersede the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter, but surely long after 1350. Even for the fifteenth century, few historians accept Christine Carpenter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that witnessing deeds was as potent a tie as retaining. All of Coss' knights were lords, all his gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were masters, employers, and heads of households, and all commanded men, as did their successors into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century and beyond. Lordship over the gentry and by the gentry had centuries yet to run.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Coss' definition of the gentry and criteria for the gentry, which were designed to fit what he perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the mature model of his own period, it is not surprising that he has successfully traced and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes explained the emergence of these criteria by that date. Whether his definition and criteria are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right ones, however, is a very different matter. He makes only the most superficial of comparisions with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what follows. At one level, Coss is highly prescriptive. All his chosen criteria have to be fulfilled for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry class to exist: late in the thirteenth century, when most but not quite all are, he prefers to write of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proto-gentry. There is surely much to be said for the definition of the gentry more broadly as a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy that existed at any time between the late Saxon and Victorian eras and yet underwent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable evolution and development in between. The continuities that Coss himself reveals from the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest and Angevin eras look more significant than any differences. Since rank and status at all times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on command of manpower and wealth, which derived principally from land, surely aristocrats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1250 could remark the differences in local standing that resulted just as decisively as did their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts in 1565, Peter Laslett's early modern villagers, or Richard Gough at Myddle in 1698? Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of exclusive knighthood may not have been such a profound change. There were certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more gentry families circa 1500 than knights circa 1200. Many families worth 20 a year chose to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrained rather than accept promotion. If their assessment of the pros and cons - an assessment shared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of their peers - placed material prosperity and survival ahead of status, as Coss indicates, it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that knighthood was not worth much pain. Most heirs of )] TJ ET BT 373.328 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(milituli)] TJ ET BT 408.008 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( surely retained such other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic attributes as leisure, hospitality, and ideology as Chaucer's Franklin evidently did. A generation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later he would have counted as a gentleman. Some who paid fines to avoid knighthood accepted it when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really honourable, on the field of battle or at royal hands: witness all those northerners who had paid their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fines and yet accepted knighthood on the Scottish campaigns of 1481-2. Furthermore Coss' 'knightly class' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own construct: it was not a class at all, but rather an intermediate \(albeit significant rung\) within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader English aristocracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At another level, the choice of criteria is contentious. Is it true that 'magnates were always trying to make )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6911 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their power truly territorial'?\(p. 41\) The evidence often suggests not. Did the gentry really seek \(or need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seek or feel the need to seek\) to control the populace territorially? Here, as elsewhere, Coss asserts what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears a somewhat tendentious Marxism. It certainly is not demonstrable that via control over their tenants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial authority gave the gentry the material wealth without which they were nothing, nor that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly bastard feudal or undesirable. For almost any later historian the gentry was especially a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary caste. Early modernists would surely assert that a gentleman does not work with his hands. Trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ignoble, it was often declared into the eighteenth century. The One-Class Society - an undivided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy - and the essentially rural values that Laslett identified in a England that contained pseudo-gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem as valid for Coss' era as the seventeenth century that he was writing about. An aristocratic lifestyle was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential both for Sir Thomas Smyth and K. B. McFarlane. Coss' argument does not appear to allow for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous barons \(however insignificant\) whose heirs did not become fourteenth-century peers, nor for what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened to those families that abandoned knighthood without sinking into the peasantry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In rebuffing those un-named historians \(including the present reviewer\) who stand for long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities, Coss has argued for momentous changes. 'Admittedly, there are many continuities; but equally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is hardly any area of life in which the fifteenth-century world, for example, was not radically different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some respects from that of the eleventh and twelfth'.\(p. 8\) Historians of course always believe that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes that they perceive in their specific period were fundamental. They are justified insofar as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries also felt that what they were experiencing was novel, important, and moreover the results of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own actions. Hindsight however does have a place in history. How many generations of fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and momentous change are compatible with a ruling class \(the aristocracy\) that persisted for over a thousand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years? There is a proprietary air to Coss' work, a desire to locate the crucial changes within his particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patch and to see off any rivals that is familiar to all historians. There is also a certain Whiggish determinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in focussing on what existed at a particular moment. On his larger canvas, therefore, as he intended, Coss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has written not 'a history of the gentry per se, but . a contribution to that history'.\(p. xi\) It is however the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant such contribution to date.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lady in Medieval England, 1000-1500)] TJ ET BT 270.668 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud: Sutton, 1998\); 'The formation of the English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry', )] TJ ET BT 102.836 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 176.168 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 147 \(1995\), 38-64; )] TJ ET BT 275.492 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The knight in medieval England, 1000-1400)] TJ ET BT 486.812 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton, 1993\); )] TJ ET BT 135.692 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lordship, Knighthood and Locality: a Study in English Society c.1180-c.1280 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1991\); idem and Trevor John, eds,. )] TJ ET BT 439.976 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Early Records of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Coventry, with the Hundred Rolls of 1280)] TJ ET BT 312.668 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Records of Social and Economic History, ns 11 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.008 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.008 304.131 m 152.996 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Sir Geoffrey de Langley and the crisis of the knightly class in thirteenth-century England', )] TJ ET BT 501.932 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Present)] TJ ET BT 100.676 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 68 \(1975\), 3-37.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.664 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.664 275.619 m 238.652 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. B. White, )] TJ ET BT 128.012 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Self-Government at the King's Command: a Study in the Beginnings of English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy)] TJ ET BT 119.324 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1933\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.308 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.308 247.107 m 429.296 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 222.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 203.263 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 185.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 185.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/402)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 184.089 m 322.316 184.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 159.112 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2045)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0077 304.4455 152.9957 316.3255 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6637 275.9335 238.6517 287.8135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3077 247.4215 429.2957 259.3015 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 184.4035 322.3157 196.2835 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/402) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000004979 00000 n 0000005088 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000005307 00000 n 0000008868 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009080 00000 n 0000009164 00000 n 0000016661 00000 n 0000016691 00000 n 0000016819 00000 n 0000016855 00000 n 0000016946 00000 n 0000024843 00000 n 0000024873 00000 n 0000025001 00000 n 0000025037 00000 n 0000025067 00000 n 0000025195 00000 n 0000025231 00000 n 0000025296 00000 n 0000032976 00000 n 0000033081 00000 n 0000040045 00000 n 0000040172 00000 n 0000040227 00000 n 0000040355 00000 n 0000040410 00000 n 0000040538 00000 n 0000040593 00000 n 0000040721 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40816 %%EOF