%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 9 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721003317+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721003317+01'00') /Title (Rethinking the Age of Reform: Britain 1780-1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4553 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rethinking the Age of Reform: Britain 1780-1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It is time to effect a revolution in female manners? declared the )] TJ ET BT 346.604 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vindication of the Rights of Woman)] TJ ET BT 518.276 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1792 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?? time to restore to them their lost dignity ? and make them, as a part of the human species, labour by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforming themselves to reform the world?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.308 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.308 243.417 m 257.300 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.300 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mary Wollstonecraft?s legacy, which had such important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ramifications for the ways in which the female reformer would be represented, is curiously absent from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking the Age of Reform)] TJ ET BT 176.000 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, yet her efforts to define reform and how it might be achieved speak to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central concerns: why and how did ?reform? become a key term in political life and what aspirations did it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal: the reformation and renewal of corrupt institutions and practices by the restoration of abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures and traditions; or, innovation, transformation, revolution?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume explores reform as )] TJ ET BT 186.980 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aspiration)] TJ ET BT 236.324 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from the seventeen-eighties onwards rather than its )] TJ ET BT 487.604 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(achievements)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as Arthur Burns and Joanna Innes are careful to state, concentrates more on its origins than its legacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their introduction reconsiders the age of reform in the light of the new historiography of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century that shows the extent of governmental and institutional reforms, the vitality of ?pressure from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without? and the emergence of social criticism in the period caricatured by nineteenth-century reformers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Old Corruption?.\(pp. 6-7\) Nonetheless, the years 1780-82 saw the first use of ?reform? as a noun, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Wyvil made parliamentary reform the central demand of the Association Movement. This novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(403)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 May, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Burns)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Innes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521823943X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(359pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Rogers)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3077 243.7315 257.2997 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?shift in vocabulary? can be seen as marking the inauguration of the ?age of reform?, although ?[a]ttitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practices changed less than the ways in which those attitudes and practices were expressed.?\(p. 7\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henceforward, as Innes charts in her chapter tracing ?the fortunes of a word?, reform became a slogan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though much contested. Lately, the language of radicalism has been a major historical preoccupation but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus has been on popular movements and culture and ?pressure from without?. This book extends this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography by examining ?pressure from within? and ?above?, illuminating the deployment of reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric in government institutions, professional bodies and elite culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The verb ?reform? and the nouns ?reformer? and ?reformation?, deployed in political and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy for several centuries, increased in currency from the mid-eighteenth century. To ?reform? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely implied reformation ? the return to a former, less corrupted order, or the revival and regeneration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manners and habits. While even Cromwell saw reformation in terms of restoration, the association of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reform? with puritanism and the Commonwealth and hence innovation and rebellion, tainted the word and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests Innes, encouraged the development of ?improvement? as an alternative from the mid-seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, especially in relation to the cultivation of learning and manners. ?Patriots? rather than ?reformers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a preferred term of those who advocated a ?spirit of reformation? in the early eighteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the evangelical awakening of the seventeen-thirties revived older Protestant associations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation, preparing the way for the ?reformation of manners? that would be seen as central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purification of institutions as well as individuals. Under the influence of Enlightenment thinking and its calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for legal and financial reform, the principle that institutional reform was a necessary precursor of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation began to be established.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before 1830, to be a reformer meant principally to support parliamentary reform and other campaigns used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different terms to define their objectives; Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts; Catholic )] TJ ET BT 477.284 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emancipation)] TJ ET BT 544.616 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abolition)] TJ ET BT 96.356 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of slavery.\(p. 85\) The avoidance of ?reform? is explained by its association with the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and hence violence, fervour and excess: ?The very word fell into disrepute?.\(p. 13\) While Burke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged the need for reform, its English application would be pragmatic: concerned with adjustment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than change, empiricism rather than speculation. Reform emerged as an alternative to revolution: as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress and improvement rather than dangerous innovation. These distinctive approaches were reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the parliamentary reform movement with the widespread adoption of the qualifiers ?moderate? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radical? \(and the capitalization of ?Reform? and ?Reformer? to distinguish the latter\) especially after 1810. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1819, radical reform was identified with outside agitation among the popular classes who frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted ?reformers? as hypocrites and backsliders. Paradoxically, their willingness to adopt the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radicalism? freed up the term reform for moderates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While parliamentary reformers focused on institutional reform, the promotion of a reformation of manners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the seventeen-nineties onwards, explicitly in reaction to revolution, offered an alternative lineage for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, aiding its rehabilitation and sanitisation. The evangelical project and secularised versions of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued into the eighteen-twenties with the proliferation of societies and agencies for moral and rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement, frequently contested by radicals who developed their own versions of useful knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions of society. Within the freethinking, communitarian and Chartist movements the relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between environment and character and individual and collective improvement were the subject of intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate. While some conservatives \(a label in currency from the early 1830s\) adopted the term reform, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of Tory Radicals \(many drawn from the elite\) in a range of reform and radical movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves more attention than is given here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the adoption of the Reform Act and the institution of a Reform Ministry in 1832 responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures that were perceived as direct attacks on those excluded from the franchise, the word ?reformer? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regained its earlier association with half-measures and betrayal; it was as Chartists rather than as reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that advocates of universal manhood suffrage pressed their case, while insisting that they were the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritors of the reform tradition. Their use of the alternative label enabled those who sought to redress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social conditions rather than electoral transformation to champion reform in a new guise, one that by the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian decades would become hegemonic: social reform. Once a ?bogey word?, by the mid-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??reform? had been largely naturalised and tamed? and a ?new bogey? was beginning to take shape, though )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7462 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what this was \(socialism?\) is not stated.\(p. 62\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While recent work has characterised nineteenth-century radicalism as the extension of an older tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular constitutionalism, in an essay on Parliament and the state \('Parliament, the state, and "old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption": conceptualising reform, c.1790-1832'\), Philip Harling indicates a distinctively novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in the critique of ?Old Corruption?; the excoriation of the fiscal-military state during and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Wars. Such criticisms were not limited to popular radicals and there were persistent calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrenchment from establishment figures who, in the face of popular loyalism, evangelical assaults on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of personal gain, and outdoor demands for public probity by country gentlemen and farmers, sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?improvement? or ?amendment? of the system as a means of countering the demand for wholesale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary reform and of securing elite rule. Through a series of ?practical improvements? ? a term that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harling usefully prefers to ?reform? ? and administrative measures, the scale of government patronage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sinecures was reduced substantively. ?Practical improvements? to the institutions of state were regarded less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as reform measures than as responses to the movement for parliamentary reform and to the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic representation. As many Tories argued, far from abolishing ?Old Corruption?, manhood suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would impose a new form of tyranny whereby political representatives would lose their disinterestedness by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cow-towing to the whims of the mob. ?[M]uch of the language of elite reform, Harling concludes in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important observation, was a language of ?anti-Reform?.\(p. 99\) When the Reform Act was finally conceded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was in the face of the sheer scale of outside agitation and in recognition that ?practical improvements? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were insufficient to stave off demands for parliamentary reform. If changes to the franchise were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic than earlier historians admitted, the eradication of the borough-mongering system constituted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major transformation of the system of representation. Underlining Chartism?s distinctive place in the radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition, Harling argues it was not the abuses of the fiscal-military state that fired popular agitation but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited franchise and the new institutions of governance enacted by the Reformed Parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Lobban examines the pragmatism of elite ?adjustment? in relation to law reform c.1780-1830 \('"Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wine in new bottles": the concept and practice of law reform, c.1780-1830'\). Improvements took some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of continental attempts at codification but the Benthamite principle of utility was largely rejected as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too mechanical, lacking the flexibility of the common law?s incremental method. Bacon?s advocacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pruning? rather than ?ploughing up and planting again? characterised legal demands for readjustment rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than innovation.\(p.120\) The cost of litigation and the sale of offices was a major focus of radical critiques of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Old Corruption? and elite recognition of the need for retrenchment lay behind some proposals, yet reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was driven principally by the rise in litigation itself. It is no coincidence, Lobban finds, that the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration era, which saw the most litigious society in English history, heard the first calls for extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal reform and both trends re-emerged after 1790. What Lobban does not explain are the reasons for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion in litigation. Bankruptcy law was a major preoccupation from the late-eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that pressure for reform was driven by changes within commercial society. The lack of attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the social and economic context of the institutional adjustments examined in this volume is one of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main weaknesses. There is no extended consideration of economic reform and political economy, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both energised and divided reform projects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Revisiting? church reform, Arthur Burns notes that the resonance of the word ?reform? with ?reformation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled its more ready adoption by ecclesiastical campaigners than in secular improvement projects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proposals focused on internal church matters ? abolition of sinecures, redistribution of resources to urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes, conditions of the ?working clergy? and so on ? and despite charges of luxury and abuse levelled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-clerical critics of ?Old Corruption?, the church was free to put its own house in order without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure of outside agitation or censure; few measures received significant opposition in Parliament. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, church reform rarely trespassed into contentious debates over citizenship and religious affiliation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Test and Corporations Acts or Catholic emancipation. Historical overtones of reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permitted even conservatives to deploy the term ?reform? and churchmen more willingly adopted utilitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments than legal reformers, especially when championing efficiency. The appeal to utility indicates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional focus of much church reform and has prompted many historians to examine such measures as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a process of professionalisation and yet, ironically, Burns argues, Victorian churchmen attributed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their transformation of the lax Hanoverian church to moral zeal, connoting a ?reformation of manners? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the church had played little part. Unlike evangelicals, church reformers paid scarce attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal of domestic or overseas mission, vital aspects of other reform projects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Medicine in the age of reform?, Ian Burney examines how radicals couched their demands within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of English particularism. The Lancet launched its attack on medical bodies and institutions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of ?Old Corruption?, castigating the Royal Colleges as ?rotten corporations? while championing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rights of the disenfranchised surgeon-apothecaries. Medicine after the French Revolution has been seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as increasingly polarised between two competing camps: those influenced by the ?universalist? approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the diseased body developed in French medicine, who advocated the reorganisation of medical practice on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationalist and abstract principles; and those who defended the traditional view of the patient as a unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution influenced by a particular environment that required individual ? rather than standardised ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment, best catered for by institutions that had evolved organically. Yet despite being influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental theories and experiments, radicals framed their demands within the discourse of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism and its appeals to historical wisdom. While acting for under-represented elements within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the profession, particularly the general practitioner, they pursued a meritocracy based on their possession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approved, specialised knowledge. Their vision of reform was constructed as much against competition from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular, demotic medicine as against a reactionary medical hierarchy: ?never have quacks, quackish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrines, and quack medicines, exercised a greater influence over the minds and bodies of the people? raged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancet)] TJ ET BT 84.344 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1835.\(quoted on p. 178\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burney?s essay touches on issues of the discursive formation of power and knowledge that inform much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent work on medicine and politics. Interestingly, in a volume that seeks to reconceptualise the ?age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform?, there is no explicit engagement with theoretical models of power that have informed studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, professional bodies and even voluntary associations in the last decades, such as the nuanced readings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the workings of hegemony and ideology in Corrigan and Sayer?s )] TJ ET BT 362.300 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Arch)] TJ ET BT 437.624 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Robert Gray?s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Factory Question)] TJ ET BT 139.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Mary Poovey?s Foucauldian take on discursive regimes in )] TJ ET BT 438.632 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Body)] TJ ET BT 91.676 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.676 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.676 414.675 m 108.668 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.668 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Most essays focus instead on dialogues between individual actors within the elite or would-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be-elite, which are explained by reference to the historical context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One strength of the volume is the examination of the imperial dimension of many reform projects, evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the abolition movement as David Turley demonstrates in his reassessment of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antislavery. ?Reform? was an ambiguous term for abolitionists who aimed to eradicate, rather than renew, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slavery system and they mostly avoided its use before 1830. ?Improvement? was their preferred term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalling the movement?s associations with rational dissent, evangelical mission and philanthropy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuelled its concern with the reformation of domestic manners as well as colonial institutions. Comparing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements in Manchester and Sheffield, Turley shows how abolition was constructed as a civilising project, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on the liberation of the market and the cultivation of the habits and discipline of free labour, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as emancipation. The conviction that commercial and moral objectives went hand-in-hand continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the post-Emancipation movement. The removal of the ?stain? was also imperative for the regeneration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the metropolis, where the cultivation of civilised Christian habits was perceived to be as needed as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies; in Sheffield, abolitionist missionary zeal infused a campaign to improve the conditions of climbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boys. The centrality of missionary and civilising ideals to philanthropic, radical and reforming projects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its absence from others merits further research. While Owenism and feminism invoked the enthusiastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of mission, its use in Chartism, except by women, is strikingly infrequent, despite the movement?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive deployment of Christian references. Philanthropic conceptions of mission at home and abroad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were premised on the provision of instruction in the promotion of order and duty; a model largely rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Chartists who formulated knowledge as a means of working-class independence and empowerment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rhetoric of mission pervaded discussions of ?the Woman Question? in all its manifestations from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeen-eighties through to the Edwardian suffrage movement and the campaigns for women?s rights were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly animated by the concepts of slavery and emancipation with all their imperial connotations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given that these debates were inspired by radical and conservative formulations of ?woman?s mission?, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve closer attention than is afforded by this volume. In what ways, for example, did their discussions of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.6757 414.9895 108.6677 426.8695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between institutional and moral reform, restoration and innovation, mark the differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Wollstonecraft?s and Hannah More?s understanding of the reform of gender relations and its place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national regeneration? Kathryn Gleadle?s essay '"The age of physiological reformers": rethinking gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity in the age of reform', is the only study that directly addresses women?s participation in reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. Her focus is physiological reform ? vegetarianism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, hygeism and medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botany ? where the body and the home were reconceived as politicised sites. Domestic roles were far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant in early Victorian radicalism than is generally acknowledged and by privileging domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities over formal public politics, physiological reform enabled women ?to express ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction in the ?public? world of reforming politics?.\(p. 201\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?democratic epistemologies? of physiological reformers were developed across the classes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteen-twenties, reaching a peak in the eighteen-fifties and -sixties, revealing a chronology different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise and fall of the Chartist platform. Gleadle suggests that the continuation of women?s participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such movements ? and at home through radical practices of hygiene, diet and nursing ? might indicate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1850 women became more closely involved in, rather than alienated from, politics. The argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women ?disappeared? from public politics after Chartism is forcefully contested by Gleadle, but while this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may apply to middle-class radicals who were more clearly prominent in public campaigns, after 1850 it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to make the case for working-class women who, after decades of visible presence in public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration and organisations, vanished from view. While some may have continued to name children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after radicals or practise natural childbirth, the nature of working-class women?s political participation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically changed at the very moment that many middle-class women sought to speak and act on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gleadle?s is the only essay to explore working-class participation in reform, though the pressure exerted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebeian radicals forms the context for the professional and elite responses examined in the volume. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission is recognised by the editors who outline the trajectory of working-class agitation in the period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to its extensive treatment elsewhere. Nevertheless, more attention could be given to the interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between elite, middle-class and plebeian radicals. Such dynamics might be explored in literature, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important arena for cross-class ?dialogue? in terms of production as well as consumption, and another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant absence from the volume. Moreover, it was perhaps most explicitly within literature that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers imaginatively reconfigured the relationship between elite, professional and industrial society. Novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be read as revealing the complex relationship between ?reform? and ?reaction?, for authors notable for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political conservatism ? Jane Austen, Charlotte Bronte ? mounted excoriating critiques of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender relations. Women writers were also, of course, prominent pioneers of the social or industrial novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that did much to popularise ?social reform?. To what extent, though, did this genre, conventionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the mid-Victorian period, mark a development of, rather than a departure from, earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform literature?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The performative aspects of radicalism have engaged historians of the theatre and politics and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary exchange is extended here by three essays exploring the role of the arts during the age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, beginning with Jennifer Hall-Witt?s study of opera and elite culture \('Reforming the aristocracy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opera and elite culture, 1780-1860'\). While the opera was not supported by public funds, its function as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of fashionable society invited attacks on aristocratic manners that drew on radical discourse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pandered to the popular taste for Society scandal fed by the silver-fork novels of the eighteen-twenties and -)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirties. Often exaggerated and salacious, such literature exposed the mechanisms of exclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demarcated elite culture, many maintained by women, as in their control over admission to balls, concerts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and plays. Between 1780 and 1820, the nobility tightened its grasp over the opera via patronage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. While there were calls in the press for a reform of the opera, Hall-Witt suggests that reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was brought about chiefly through commercialisation and, perhaps as significantly, by the response of elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society to this process. After 1832 lady patrons released their hold on admissions and increasingly tickets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were sold by commercial agents. No longer occupying the same pre-eminence as the place to be seen, opera-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectating became more anonymous and performers, rather than the audience, the focus of gossip. As its rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came under scrutiny inside and outside Parliament, at the opera house the aristocracy reformed itself. Yet, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite concessions to wider public mores and the loosening of control over the opera, Hall-Witt maintains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landed elite dominated membership of the audience long after 1832, just as their counterparts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political sphere continued to preside over Parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike opera, the theatre was tightly controlled by statute before 1843, with only the patented or ?legitimate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre licensed to produce the classical genres. Consequently, the theatrical world developed its own radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of monopoly and corruption as well as close connections with political reform, as Kate Newey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigates in ?Reform on the London Stage?. Though deregulation did not occur till 1843, it was preceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a House of Commons select committee, set up shortly after the Reform Act, to address a long-running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate over the purpose of ?the national drama?. The patented theatres were in competition with the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialised ?illegitimate? theatres south of the river and in the East End, which thrived on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melodrama and spectacle that infused radical representation. In the eighteen-twenties and -thirties they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatised alternative visions of the national community, lauding inclusivity and mutuality and appealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially to working-class audiences, as in the staging of Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 387.608 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Play of King John! Or, the Days of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magna Charta)] TJ ET BT 105.020 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Montcrief?s )] TJ ET BT 189.332 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reform! Or John Bull Triumphant!)] TJ ET BT 357.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 252\) As Parliament cemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class exclusion from the Houses of Parliament, the illegitimate theatre provided substitute venues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the popular classes could participate in another kind of community that represented their own sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, as well as political, value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considerations of cultural value lay at the heart of campaigns for national art institutions examined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holger Hoock \(?Reforming culture : national art institutions in the age of reform'\). The relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political discourse and fine art remains an under-researched area of cultural history, yet the art world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of taste ?became intensely politicised? in the age of reform, with calls for a public or ?national? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallery made by artists in the late seventeen-nineties, inspired by developments on the continent, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opening of the Louvre to the nation in 1793.\(p. 254\) In Britain, debate centred on the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between public and private funding and property rights; criticism of aristocratic sinecures and control; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability of arts institutions to parliament; and public access. The civilising and improving aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the access campaign are indicated by the relaxation of the British Museum?s admissions policy to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of ?decent appearance? in 1810. \(p. 260\) Soaring visitor figures fired demands for a National Gallery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally established by government purchase of a private collection in 1828. In this move towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation of art, elite culture anticipated the political concessions made by the Reform Act and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?helped to launch the multifaceted civilising and restructuring of reform projects? that cut across party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines.\(pp. 269-70\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dynamics of the national and international meanings and contexts of the reform movements are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of the final three chapters. Where the reform debates in Ireland have been seen as responses to British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralising policy, Jennifer Ridden examines the development of two native reform movements and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive relationship to each other. The Act of Union left open the question of how Ireland was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administered and how the various nations within the Union were to interact. The government of Ireland, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither fully centralised nor colonialised, enabled O?Connell?s Catholic Association and the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominational liberal reform movement to use British political structures and constitutionalist discourse ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve Irish ends?.\(pp. 271-4\) In a careful assessment of how the two movements addressed different socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and religious constituencies, Ridden investigates more closely than other essays the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between political ideology and social aspiration. In his mobilisation of the mass platform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Connell sought to construct a cross-class alliance of Catholics under elite leadership to preserve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing social order; ?I desire no social revolution, no social change?.\(quoted on p. 276\) A Gaelic-Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity ?operated as a cultural ?glue??, binding together the leadership and followers and ?Repeal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union?, far from being a realistic objective, was for O?Connell a bargaining tool for gaining popular support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to ?terrify[ ] the enemies of the people? who might otherwise ?adjourn. . . all practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement?.\(quoted on p. 280\) By contrast, the moderate, liberal reform movement was emphatically non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominational and non-ethnic, appealing to a middle- rather than cross-class constituency, aiming to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replace the Ascendancy with a ?virtuous, legitimate, and broadly Christian elite? and to promote economic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational and urban reform within the Union. With a ?liberal theology ? of citizenship? that emphasised )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6079 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the individual and improvability? such reformers sought a ?middle way? between the radical rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of the Catholic Association, evangelical Protestantism and the Ascendancy.\(p. 286\) Despite very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different modes of appeal and objectives, both movements were, unlike reformers in other parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union, willing to work within a centralised state, provided that it was not dominated by the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oligarchy, and in this capacity may have heavily influenced the ?British age of reform? at its centre. \(pp. 293-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miles Taylor \(in 'Empire and parliamentary reform : the 1832 reform act revisited'\) examines an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary omission from histories of the Reform Act: the imperial considerations that underlay much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory opposition to the legislation, namely the charges that Scottish and Irish representation would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased to the detriment of the English and that, in the name of emancipation within the island, the reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bills threatened to end the representation of millions across the empire. Moreover, the balance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic and imperial parliamentary representation was debated at a major ?turning-point? in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. Parliamentary reform was itself fuelled by demands for colonial reform ? tithe and ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform in Ireland, slave emancipation, the renewal of the East India Company?s Charter and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrenchment ? and the representative duties of the British parliament were contested by all sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform debate, just as other European rivals were thrown into fiscal and constitutional crisis by imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-reach. If the Whigs won the battle ?at home? with the 1832 settlement, crisis overseas was scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(averted by massive compensations to colonial interests \(half the UK annual revenue to the planters\) and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion and war in Jamaica, Canada and India in 1837-8, ?it was clear that while stability might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the British mainland by the Reform Act, in the empire it was a rather different story?.\(pp. 310-11\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet stability was not much in evidence in Britain that year, as mobilisation for the Charter began; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial context of that struggle is equally deserving of the attention that Taylor brings here to elite debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their introduction, Burns and Innes emphasise the dialogue between European and British reformers. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Napoleonic blockade did not stem the influence of late-Enlightenment thought and ?philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism?, as reformers looked to protestant models of reform in Germany and Scandinavia. By contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Sperber usefully brings the volume to a close by throwing into sharp relief the differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and continental experiences of the age of reform, concluding ?The fundamental impression ? remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of two quite different political universes?.\(p. 313\) Where in Britain and Ireland much agrarian reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enacted by opponents of parliamentary reform, it was above all the emancipation of agriculture and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of serfdom that animated European attacks on the )] TJ ET BT 320.972 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anciens rgimes)] TJ ET BT 398.624 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and on much of the continent, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not until 1848 that the liberation of rural society from pre-capitalist relationships was affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, rather than reform. Somewhat at odds with Turley?s and Taylor?s assessments of the connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between colonial and domestic reform, Sperber contends it is difficult to see the abolition of slavery as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having a similar impact on British and Irish society as the ending of serfdom had for their European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours. Though there were comparable developments towards administrative uniformity and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equality in Britain, these were largely framed in opposition to, rather than in the assertion of, nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims as on the continent and in Ireland. The preoccupation of British radicals with parliamentary reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found little correspondence in the absolutist regimes where it was difficult to conceive democratisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without revolution. With the emergence of ?socialism? and the ?social question? after 1830 there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel moves towards social reform but in Europe this was limited to urban districts at least before 1848.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While much reform on the continent was driven by state bureaucrats, mirrored in Britain by the philosophic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals and the centralisation of Poor Law administration, on the whole British reform was activated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary association and outside pressure. While there were significant moves towards associationism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe after the 1830 revolutions, this was limited to urban, industrial areas. Even there, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvements in communication, the development of the public sphere was restricted by state repression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and led to ?the uniquely continental phenomenon of crypto-political associations? that contrasted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic openness of the British mass platform.\(p. 323\) The underdeveloped nature of European civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society also militated against the participation of women in voluntary and political associations ? a striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference that Sperber observes in respect of the British experience ? although much needed comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on European women?s movements might qualify his conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult, Sperber confesses, to resist the rather Whiggish claim that the political system in Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better able to accommodate change than its European counterparts and this might be indicated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different associations of the word ?reform?.\(p. 329\) By the end of the eighteen-twenties, the term signalled a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradualist alternative to revolution, where on the continent it retained its older connotation of innovation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently other words were deployed such as ?regeneration? and ?reorganisation?. However, Sperber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects the applicability of modernisation theory, concluding:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were a collection of paths leading to the future \(or at least from the ancien rgime to a civil )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of property-owners\), and the concept of reform, the movements of reform, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes of these movements, were a particular characteristic of the British one. \(p. 330\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sperber?s closing comment marks a rare instance of theorisation in the volume. In its own terms, how does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this collection ?reform? or ?transform? the historiography of the ?age of reform?? The renewed attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite discussions is an important reorientation in a field dominated by ?middle-? and ?working-class? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism, although there is no reflection on the ways in which understandings of class formation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?interest? are problematised in recent work. Gleadle?s contribution on the new ?cultures of self? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays on reform and the arts usefully refocus and broaden the object of political history and the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the importance of placing British reform in the context of empire and political developments abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The examination of the contested meanings of the language of reform is productive and, as the editors hope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens up many lines of enquiry for future work, especially in relation to reform projects after 1848; although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a seventy-page introduction some bolder claims about their trajectory might have been advanced. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to rethink the historiography would be to examine how contemporaries conceived the ?age of reform? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a distinct historical period, given that so much writing on the era has been informed by the histories that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they produced. Where other work on political discourse has engaged explicitly with debates over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology and methodology and in some places advocated a new kind of political history, this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricts itself to close analysis of the terms of political debate. By focusing so heavily on key players in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and institutional arenas as they ?responded? to outside events or to critics and opponents from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?within?, the form of historical analysis tends to suggest the restoration ? with some ameliorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjustments ? of a traditional style of political narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 176.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 145.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Wollstonecraft, )] TJ ET BT 170.324 145.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Vindication of the Rights of Woman)] TJ ET BT 352.328 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: J. M. Dent, 1985\), p. 51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.652 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.652 144.339 m 560.648 144.339 l S BT 64.016 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 130.083 m 78.008 130.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 117.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Corrigan and Derek Sayer, )] TJ ET BT 227.324 117.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Arch: English State Formation as Cultural Revolution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Blackwell, 1985\); Mary Poovey, )] TJ ET BT 268.988 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1864)] TJ ET BT 88.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1995\); Robert Gray, )] TJ ET BT 369.320 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Factory Question and Industrial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England, 1830-60)] TJ ET BT 150.680 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.660 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.660 73.059 m 443.648 73.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 48.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.6517 144.6535 560.6477 156.5335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 130.3975 78.0077 142.2775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.6597 73.3735 443.6477 85.2535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/403)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2047)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/403) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000377 00000 n 0000000414 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000005279 00000 n 0000005388 00000 n 0000005498 00000 n 0000005607 00000 n 0000009168 00000 n 0000009296 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009409 00000 n 0000009537 00000 n 0000009573 00000 n 0000009638 00000 n 0000017234 00000 n 0000017299 00000 n 0000024814 00000 n 0000024898 00000 n 0000032902 00000 n 0000032932 00000 n 0000033059 00000 n 0000033095 00000 n 0000033160 00000 n 0000040581 00000 n 0000040646 00000 n 0000048289 00000 n 0000048354 00000 n 0000054486 00000 n 0000054584 00000 n 0000061735 00000 n 0000061863 00000 n 0000061918 00000 n 0000062044 00000 n 0000062099 00000 n 0000062225 00000 n 0000062280 00000 n 0000062364 00000 n 0000063090 00000 n 0000063218 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 63313 %%EOF