%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722121552+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722121552+01'00') /Title (The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War: Kings, Courts, and Confessors) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4010 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War: Kings, Courts, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Confessors)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Robert Bireley SJ in his study )] TJ ET BT 229.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War: Kings, Courts, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessors)] TJ ET BT 87.356 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( proposes to answer three closely interrelated questions. First, what influence Jesuits and Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessors in particular had on the policies of war at the courts of Vienna, Munich, Paris, and Madrid during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period of tangled conflicts commonly labelled the ?Thirty Years War? \(1618-1648\); secondly, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not there was a united ?Jesuit policy? concerning the war as well as a joint Jesuit stance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between religion and politics; finally, what principles and policies Jesuit superiors general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed guiding Jesuits confessors at courts often openly hostile to one another during decades of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bireley undertakes to answer these questions by concentrating on the correspondence between the superiors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general in Rome ? Muzio Vitelleschi \(superior general 1615-45\) and Vincenzo Carafa \(superior general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1645-49\) ? and the Jesuit confessors at the courts of Austria, Bavaria, France, and Spain between 1618 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1648. His great familiarity with seventeenth-century politics and diplomacy, and his intimate knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuit debates and literature in particular allow Bireley to put these letters into their wider political context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is the first to offer a comparative perspective and analytical narrative on the role of the princely and royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessor in seventeenth-century European diplomacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bireley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521820170X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Braun)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7853 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first and most obvious victim of the thorough evaluation of his sources is the myth of the Society of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesus as a monolithic power fiercely committed to enforcing a unified Counter-Reformation ideology by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulating the consciences of Catholic princes across Europe. The picture that emerges from Bireley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is one of conflicting loyalties, personalities, and policies. Anything but supranational agents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Counter-Reformation Catholicism, Jesuit confessors at early modern European courts are presented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided in their beliefs, ideas and stratagems, as much as early modern Catholic Christendom as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The German Jesuits, for instance, appear as a group deeply split over the course of the Counter Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the empire. Providentialist ?militants? like William Lamormaini in Vienna and Adam Contzen in Munich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used their close relationship with the sovereign to press for a military solution to the religious situation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. They did, however, face fierce opposition, and not only from lay counsellors and other religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular clergy in favour of a religious compromise and peace with the Protestant powers. Many Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?moderates? wrote to complain to the superior general in Rome, and published treatises heaping severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism and sometimes abuse on their ?militant? brethren and the princes they served. Bireley is able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify the conclusion of the Peace of Prague in 1635 as something of a watershed in this respect. Death or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline removed the most fervent advocates of ?holy war? from the political scene ? emperor Ferdinand II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamormaini, and Contzen ? and the ever more widespread and pronounced weariness of war supported a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained ascendancy of the ?moderates? in Munich and Vienna ? a party that included Lamormaini?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor Johannes Gans SJ.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As to the courts of France and Spain, at no point during the period under investigation did French or Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits obtain influence on religious and foreign policy comparable to that of their brethren in the empire. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain the Jesuits did not even provide the royal confessor, though Bireley is still able establish a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative perspective by including Hernando de Salazar and Francisco Aguado, the very different Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessors of the count-duke Olivares. Olivares as well as cardinal Richelieu, the leading statesmen of Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and France respectively, again conceived of their foreign policies in terms of ?reason of state? rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?holy war?. Olivares and Richelieu were able to do so not the least because of theologians? ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile and marry the demands of ?reason of state? with those of Catholic doctrine ? though this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject in its own right demanding much more research.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.644 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.644 388.419 m 317.636 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.636 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The extent to which Protestant princes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counsellors conceived of the conflict as a ?holy war?, too, will have to be part of a fuller picture of the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religion in early seventeenth-century European politics. These questions, however, lie well beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of this study. What Bireley shows with admirable clarity is that Jesuit confessors quarrelling among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves almost as much as with the confessional enemy were in no position to enforce or even stimulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a unified Jesuit-Catholic policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were in no position to unify the Counter-Reformation not the least because the individuals concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly differed in character as well as the understanding and practice of their spiritual office. William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamormaini and Johannes Gans in Vienna, Jean Suffren and Nicholas Caussin in Paris, or Francisco Aguado )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hernando de Salazar in Madrid were poles apart in terms of personality, style, and the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they approached their office and used their spiritual authority. What is more, the actual ability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessor to influence political decisions was not just a matter of individual character, resolve, and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nous. Whether or not a confessor willing to intervene in policy-making was able to do so very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on whether or not his prince would allow it. Bireley has already shown that Lamormaini could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take up his controversial position at the centre of Austrian Habsburg religious and foreign policy only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Ferdinand II wanted him to.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.312 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.312 162.579 m 223.304 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.304 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ferdinand III, on the other hand, made it very clear from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of his reign that he would not permit his confessors to play a similar role. A Jesuit confessor ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any aspiring member of early modern court and government ? also had to face the competition of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many courtiers and counsellors vying for the power that came with a close relationship to the ruling prince. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unfortunate and, as Bireley stresses, surprisingly nave Nicholas Caussin realised too late that the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality cardinal Richelieu cherished above any other was the willingness of the royal confessor to subject his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will and opinions to that of the cardinal. At the very least he had to make sure that they did not get in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of the cardinal?s schemes. Richelieu never hesitated to act decisively when confronted with potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivals for Louis XIII?s favour, and reminded the superior general of what he expected from the members of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.6437 388.7335 317.6357 400.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.3117 162.8935 223.3037 174.7735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Society and of what the Society as a whole in turn could expect from him. The role of the confessor thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges as diverse and changeable as the different cultural and ever-changing political environments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts of Vienna, Munich, Paris, and Madrid. Looking at the role of confessors and other religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular clergy in early modern courts and governments, again, helps us today to differentiate the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern political cultures with which we are confronted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuit superiors general in turn, whatever their personal political priorities and aims, saw much of their time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and correspondence taken up by the need to mediate between Jesuits who ? bound in loyalty to disagreeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes warring princes and statesmen ? supported conflicting schemes. Frequently, Vitelleschi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his successor Carafa had to resort to rhetorical subterfuge and artifice in order to placate princes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourites incensed by or suspicious about individual Jesuits? political and polemical activities. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only unifying principle discernible in superiors general?s dealings with their frequently insubordinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers is their sometimes desperate desire to prevent the ire of princes, infuriated by individual Jesuits? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions and deeds, turning against the Society as a whole. Mostly successful in this respect, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise willing and able to accommodate widely differing and competing personalities, policies, and court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures. They had to be. Superiors general in Rome felt themselves to be and indeed were dependent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their princely benefactors. They recognised themselves as equally dependent on individual Jesuit confessors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to provide them with information, support policy initiatives devised in Rome, or to consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely consequences their individual actions might have for the reputation of the Society as a whole. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least they depended on individual confessors? willingess and ability to stay in touch in the first instance. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of correspondence between the superiors general and individual father confessors vary widely. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period between 1624 and 1635, for instance, Vitelleschi addressed just under 1,000 letters to William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamormaini, and about 125 letters to Adam Contzen. Jean Arnoux, on the other hand, received a mere 77 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters during the four years \(1617-21\) he served as confessor to Louis XIII of France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This rather uneven distribution of correspondence ? Bireley?s principal source ? highlights the limits of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. We learn very much about the confessor?s role and religious diplomacy in Rome, Vienna, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munich, and a great deal about Paris. However, Madrid, despite the fact that it was at the centre of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, remains somewhat at the periphery of Bireley?s otherwise excellent study. In general, Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiors general reacted to events and developments in Jesuits? careers at court rather than proactively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guiding their sheep. While individual Jesuits could exert sometimes considerable influence policy making at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European courts ? their interpretation of what was in the best interest of the Society of Jesus and Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom varying considerably ? Jesuit superiors general did not enjoy the same privilege of instigating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or manipulating national policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many respects, Bireley?s book is a history of the Jesuit superior general Muzio Vitelleschi?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual Jesuit confessors? continual interpretation, adaptation and manipulation of the )] TJ ET BT 463.640 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Instruction for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessors of Princes)] TJ ET BT 139.352 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( issued by Vitelleschi?s predecessor, Claudio Acquaviva, in 1602. Acquaviva had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good reason to draw up the )] TJ ET BT 167.324 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Instruction)] TJ ET BT 219.992 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The advantages that came with Jesuits being required as court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessors were plain to see for everyone ? the spiritual guide of a prince would enjoy plenty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to further the good of the church and the Society. The disadvantages were equally evident. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Individual confessors and hence the Society of Jesus as a whole could be identified with unpopular decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and policies ? as was the case with Hernando de Salazar, whose role in the development of taxes made him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the least liked political figures in Spain and a prime focus of anti-Jesuit sentiments. Generally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic and Reformed critics and enemies alike would suspect Jesuit confessors of manipulating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princely conscience to the advantage of the Society ? thus William Lamormaini?s offensive eagerness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure restituted property for the Society of Jesus seems to have seriously damaged the reputation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society among other religious groups in Austria. It was even more dangerous, perhaps, for confessors to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangled up in quarrels between princes or among factions at court. Jean Suffren is a sad example of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessor caught between warring branches of the Bourbon family, although in his case the Society as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole does not seem to have suffered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acquaviva?s )] TJ ET BT 98.996 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Instruction)] TJ ET BT 151.664 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had sought to protect the Society from such harm by stressing, for instance, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessors were ?to avoid even the appearance of exercising political power?. What Acquaviva had left )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanswered, however, was the resultant question of how exactly confessors were to define the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between spiritual and political guidance in an age of escalating confessionalism interlocked with raging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national rivalries. If Acquaviva did not issue future confessors at courts with clear guidelines in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, neither did his successors Vitelleschi and Carafa succeed in clarifying and resolving this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma. The political and religious contexts within which they operated, as well as the personality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions of many of the individuals involved, tended to make any attempt at defining the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between spiritual and political advice a largely futile undertaking. Not the least merit of Professor Bireley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is to demonstrate that this was indeed the case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuit superiors general as a result frequently ended up between a rock and a hard place: compelled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate the demands of popes, the expectations and occasional fury of princely benefactors, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent stubbornness and independence of mind of Jesuit confessors. Much of Muzio Vitelleschi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence with confessors deals with the ever-present fear that the activities of individual Jesuits in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful and public positions would offend important benefactors and cause a backlash against the Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole. His letters offering adhortation and advice are invariably polite, showing him ever so cautious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to offend the recipient. They did little to make confident and fiercely independent individuals like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamormaini or Salazar change their minds and be more concerned about the reputation of the Society as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole. Each and every one of these letters demonstrates how little influence the superior general could exert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over his very own ?subjects? while they were ensconced in a position of trust and power at a princely or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bireley presents us with a detailed analytical narrative wrought from painstaking research in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Jesuit and non-Jesuit archives. His study integrates and expands upon his earlier works on Adam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contzen, William Lamormaini, and the early modern Catholic tradition of statecraft. Scholars and students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on the history of the Society of Jesus and the complex political and religious history of the first half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the seventeenth century will ignore it at their peril.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See R. Bireley, SJ, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Counter-Reformation Prince: Antimachiavellianism or Catholic Statecraft in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early Modern Europe )] TJ ET BT 173.000 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill/London: University of North Carolina Press, 1990\) and H. Braun )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and E. Vallance, eds, )] TJ ET BT 168.320 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contexts of Conscience in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1700)] TJ ET BT 460.292 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.000 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.000 334.899 m 196.988 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Bireley, SJ, )] TJ ET BT 136.688 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Politics in the Age of the Counterreformation: Emperor Ferdinand II, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Lamormaini, S.J., and the Formation of Imperial Policy)] TJ ET BT 374.012 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill/London: University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Carolina Press, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.668 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.668 292.131 m 255.656 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 248.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 230.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 230.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/404)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 229.113 m 322.316 229.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2049)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.9997 335.2135 196.9877 347.0935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.6677 292.4455 255.6557 304.3255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 229.4275 322.3157 241.3075 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/404) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004714 00000 n 0000004823 00000 n 0000004933 00000 n 0000005042 00000 n 0000008603 00000 n 0000008731 00000 n 0000008815 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000016812 00000 n 0000016842 00000 n 0000016970 00000 n 0000017006 00000 n 0000017036 00000 n 0000017164 00000 n 0000017200 00000 n 0000017265 00000 n 0000024976 00000 n 0000025074 00000 n 0000030876 00000 n 0000031004 00000 n 0000031059 00000 n 0000031187 00000 n 0000031242 00000 n 0000031370 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31465 %%EOF