%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027115539+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027115539+00'00') /Title (The Uses of Script and Print 1300-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4358 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Uses of Script and Print 1300-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The recent publication of two volumes of the Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, covering the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1400 to 1695 in just over 1600 pages, indicates something of the way in which the study of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or of books, has been transformed in the past few years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.952 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.952 243.417 m 315.944 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.944 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The subject has moved from its traditional areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of investigation, the history of printing and publishing, the establishment and editing of texts, the description )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cataloguing of early printed books and manuscripts, into new fields. It is no longer seen as the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve of, say, literary scholars and librarians, but has become a sort of common currency among scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all disciplines and interests. One only has to think of the work of Robert Darnton in relation to publishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Enlightenment or of Adrian Johns on the development and circulation of knowledge, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific knowledge, in Britain during the early modern period to realise that historians of various kinds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have played a major part in this transformation. If, as some of its proponents might claim, all history is book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, then it might be argued that historians have a particular duty to investigate the role books play in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their chosen fields of inquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This makes the collection of essays, )] TJ ET BT 209.660 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uses of Script and Print 1300-1700)] TJ ET BT 401.660 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Julia Crick and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham particularly welcome, since all but two of the thirteen contributors to the volume are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historians; they are also largely associated with British academic life. The collection has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(405)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Crick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521810639X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. R. Woudhuysen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.9517 243.7315 315.9437 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed out of a conference held at Exeter University in the spring of 2000, yet for a book so concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the relations between the oral and the written or printed, it bears few traces of its spoken origins. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial and well-produced book, but it has a disappointingly small number of illustrations ? just six. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a reasonably full index which goes beyond simply listing authors, titles of books and places, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although entries such as 'scribes: as copyists 69-106' or 'scribal culture: medieval ... 29-69' are not as useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they might be. The book lacks an index of manuscripts cited, which is rather a pity since this is often the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easiest and fastest way to discover whether a particular subject has been covered in a book of this kind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of what kind of book it is should not be too difficult to resolve. There are helpful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating essays at the beginning of it by the editors and at the end by Margaret Aston, which by argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and summary seek to weave the twelve essays in the volume together. The essays themselves are helpfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into four sections, each containing three contributions. The sections are all organised under headings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'Script, Print and ?'; they deal with 'Late Medieval Religion', 'Textual Tradition', 'Speech' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Persecution'. The 'script' and 'print' elements in the book are well balanced by a concern with the oral, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoken and sung. With the exception of David d'Avray's more continental concerns and some brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excursions for Reformation and Marian exiles, the contributors are mainly concerned with English matters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their time frame, stretching from 1300 to 1700, certainly allows the reader to take a long view of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, but as the editors rather optimistically say, 'The disciplinary frontline between historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern culture is steadily withering away.' With one exception the contributors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly concerned with material objects ? printed books and broadsides, manuscripts, archives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents ? and tend to avoid the theoretical concerns which are necessary to the study of the book in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, but can so easily dominate it. Yet even with the best efforts of the editors and Margaret Aston, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume has a slightly heterogeneous feeling to it. This is almost bound to be the case with these kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay collections, organised around such large and general topics. Nevertheless, several distinctive concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge in the course of the book and help to make it one of those volumes in which one can learn something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of use and interest from every essay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the strongest threads running through it is a repeated concern to show that Elizabeth M. Eisenstein's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments for a 'shift "from script to print"' need to be modified. Just as disciplinary frontlines are said to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withering away, so 'the boundaries between the cultures of speech manuscript and print' can be refined, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuities as well as the interactions between the three can be brought out. In some ways the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most successful when it addresses received ideas relating to religion and to religious dissent. The focus here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is mainly on the Reformation, but Anne Hudson's important work on the Lollards rightly plays a major part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in determining how the subject is approached. The argument can be simply put, that historians should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place Protestantism and print in one camp and monasticism and manuscripts in another, and equally that, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Hughes puts it in relation to Thomas Edwards's )] TJ ET BT 287.828 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangrna)] TJ ET BT 339.164 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1646\) 'simple contrasts between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical and orthodox Protestant ? do not survive analysis of the polemical constructions that originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired them'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Aston poses a related question, which can be pursued through large parts of the volume:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did the Reformation succeed, where medieval heretical movements had not, through the ability )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the printing press to disseminate texts in numbers and ways not possible for scribal copyists?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course there is no simple answer to this, but it does suggest profitable ways of thinking about the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books in history. In a characteristically well-informed essay Thomas S. Freeman deals with some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he considers 'the scribal culture of the Marian martyrs'. In particular he is concerned with why they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('relied more heavily on the written than the printed word as a means of communicating with their followers'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The advantages of manuscript over the clandestine press were that it was less visible and so safer to use, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also that letters and documents could be edited to conform to agreed doctrines and the current political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position: 'problematic and embarrassing passages' could be 'all air-brushed away'. The new religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham shows, did not 'disdain to use print as a vehicle for pursuing their vicious internal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarrels' or for disseminating the new faith. Rather, she is concerned with 'The bias of dissenting groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards script and print', when so much reformed religion placed such emphasis and value on the spoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word. She argues clearly that this was often the result 'of expediency and pragmatism, less a match made in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heaven than a marriage of convenience'. In a world in which Protestant ministers were harassed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecuted, 'books and manuscripts could stand in for faithful shepherds and wear the shoes of spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directors'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James G. Clark discusses the other side of the matter in his account of 'the Benedictines and the press'. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully surveys the provision of books in monastic life between about 1470 and 1550, examines early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial printing at St Albans, Tavistock, Abingdon and Canterbury, and concludes that by the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sixteenth century monks and some nuns would have come across \(would have been 'exposed to'\) print. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Hughes pursues arguments about the nature of print and its supposedly impersonal authority in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Edwards's 800-page )] TJ ET BT 145.820 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangrna)] TJ ET BT 197.156 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He was aware of 'The harmful power of print' and while he praised its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to convey truthfulness, he was also conscious that it lacked the authenticity of oral discourse. Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states persuasively that for the anti-sectarian author \(Milton's 'shallow Edwards'\) print was 'embedded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships founded on personal ties and neighbourhood links, with conversation and written records'. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows that speech, manuscript and print were not separate elements, but intimately bound up with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. Scott Mandelbrote, who with considerable learning examines the Bible in print during the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, takes the story of the word and the book further. The need for accurate versions of the book might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to demands for proof-readers and the elimination of typographic errors, but there was a deep-seated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to interfere radically with its text and to return to ancient manuscript sources. The process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textual revision was almost circular: 'Printed books', he states, 'seemed to suffer from many of the failings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts', yet 'manuscripts and their histories retained an ability to challenge and undermine, as well as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uphold, traditions that were supported by print'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other essays in the volume follow and take up some of these important themes. In an elegant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(densely argued essay, David d'Avray looks at 'mass communication before printing' and the means by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretical sects were able to spread throughout Europe before the coming of moveable type. He focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the friars, their sermons and the use of the pecia system for the copying of manuscripts. His larger argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that it is not printing which made the Reformation possible, but the absence of state repression at a crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage. At a more specific level he is concerned to show that manuscripts containing the same texts found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving master copies used in the pecia system show that 'the loss rate of medieval sermon manuscripts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really was colossal' and that the 'huge loss rate' can be calculated: textual evidence confirms this. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, the friars had an extremely powerful means of disseminating their preaching even before the printing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press came into operation. Felicity Riddy asks a related question concerning the ways in which authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published their works or reached a public before printing. From the general issue of what has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood until now in medieval studies as 'publication', she turns to the specific example of the recluse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian of Norwich's )] TJ ET BT 130.496 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Revelation of Love)] TJ ET BT 230.816 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. She discusses the various theories relating to publication put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward by R K Root, Harold Love and Ian Doyle and argues for publication not as an event but as a process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which 'general discussion', what we might call literary gossip, plays a part. '"Publication"?, she concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('is short for public conversation', which took place in the 'medieval public sphere'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Jonathan Barry is refreshingly sceptical about their applicability, Jrgen Habermas's widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential ideas also play a part in his account of script, print and speech at Bristol between 1640 and 1714. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other contributors to the volume Barry is keen to look for and to find 'considerable continuity in forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authority in communication'. He examines two different means of communication: newspapers, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed an obvious debt to manuscript newsletters; and Grand Jury presentments, which began as speeches but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were then transformed into manuscript or print. The decision as to which medium to use, he concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried 'practical and ideological considerations'. Provincial concerns also lie behind Andrew Butcher's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of medieval clerks and urban records at Hythe. This is the most heavily theorised piece in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume and although he draws attention to the use that can be made of maletotes, household taxation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts, his essay is rather distanced from the actual material itself. There is plenty of theoretical argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('The "speech/text" community of the town is a multi-ethnic complex involving a network of discursive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelationships of personal, collective, and institutional kinds'\), but, except for one example, it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by actual first-hand evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Musson shows that it is possible to take a large subject, in this case 'legal authority and judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility in the late Middle Ages', and produce work which makes important general points about oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and textual traditions, yet which is rooted in detailed discussion of particular points. His theme is 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduction of law to written text', and he looks at the dissemination of statute law, the role of orality in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclamations, as well as at year books, plea rolls, writs, bills, legal education, the effect of printing and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of precedent. The essay covers a great deal of ground, but like the work of J H Baker in whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footsteps he follows, Musson is always clear and to the point. Julia Crick's account of 'The art of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprinted', in which she surveys the relationship between the antiquarian transcription of pre-conquest Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charters and political discourse, is equally satisfying. She pays particular attention to Coke and Selden as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as to Robert Cotton's central role in these discoveries, which was intended to allow contemporaries 'to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view English royal government arrayed in its pristine state' and to uncover 'the imperial past of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy'. Finally, Christopher Marsh contributes a lively essay on early modern ballad tunes, in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues simply but effectively that 'Melody made meaning'. New words were continually fitted to existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tunes, allowing 'listeners to think the unprintable'. Popular tunes let ballad writers make use of 'hidden code )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of meanings', which might be sexual or political. He writes well of 'the noisiness of Restoration literature', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but his piece has wider implications for earlier periods which would be worth developing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the many difficulties with writing about books in history and the history of the book is that of getting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a suitable balance between asking large questions and publishing much smaller, but still significant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries. The subject is a relatively new one and often seems to want to make huge claims for itself, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning its back on the sort of research which needs to be done to allow a history to be written. )] TJ ET BT 490.280 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Script and Print 1300-1700)] TJ ET BT 166.352 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( successfully negotiates this difficult path through the wood and between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trees. One of the incidental pleasures it brings to light lies precisely in its use of details: the gaoler who is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be bribed with a cheese; the dried ink and penknife detected in a roasted pig sent to a prisoner; a prisoner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling a warder that a copy of Coverdale's version of the Bible, wrapped up in a handkerchief, is in fact a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece of powdered beef; a servant forcing a messenger to eat the writ, seal and all, that he has been sent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve on the wonderfully named Bogo de Clare. The essays collected here will do much to stimulate further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the overlapping cultures of speech, manuscript and print.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lotte Hellinga and J B Trapp, eds, )] TJ ET BT 232.328 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain)] TJ ET BT 453.332 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Vol. 3, 1400-1557 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999\) and John Barnard and D F McKenzie, eds, assisted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Maureen Bell, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain)] TJ ET BT 371.672 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Vol. 4, 1557-1695 \(Cambridge: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.336 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.336 263.619 m 290.324 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 219.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 201.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 201.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/405)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 200.601 m 322.316 200.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2051)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.3357 263.9335 290.3237 275.8135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 200.9155 322.3157 212.7955 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/405) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000005040 00000 n 0000005149 00000 n 0000005259 00000 n 0000005368 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000009141 00000 n 0000009170 00000 n 0000009298 00000 n 0000009334 00000 n 0000009399 00000 n 0000016537 00000 n 0000016602 00000 n 0000024289 00000 n 0000024380 00000 n 0000030521 00000 n 0000030649 00000 n 0000030704 00000 n 0000030832 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30927 %%EOF