%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828192328+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828192328+01'00') /Title (Icon and Devotion: Sacred Spaces in Imperial Russia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4246 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Icon and Devotion: Sacred Spaces in Imperial Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some books enlighten and disappoint at the same time. This is how I felt having read Oleg Tarasov?s book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Originally Tarasov?s )] TJ ET BT 137.996 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doktorskaia dissertatsiia)] TJ ET BT 256.340 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the second PhD\), the book was first published in Russian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has now been painstakingly translated by Robin Milner-Gulland and lavishly published by Reaktion Books. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book deals with the changing place and meaning of the Russian icon in the Imperial period \(from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late seventeenth to the early twentieth century\). But in a broader sense the book is about complex exchanges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between cultures and the construction of cultural myths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icons occupied a seminal place in Russian Orthodox worship and lifestyle; their presence sacralised every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of everyday life. The book provides eclectic evidence to illustrate this point: the household and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour manual, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domostroi)] TJ ET BT 177.668 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, foreigners? accounts and the data on the production and sale of icons in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century. It sketches subjects as broad as icon worship and charity, popular iconographic subjects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the miraculous power of icons and the attempts of the church to regulate popular veneration. The description )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular belief in the intercessory power of the saint represented on the icon is compelling, if not self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some interpretations strike the reader as predictable, such as the discovery of the idea of ?a relic of pagan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindset? associated with the cult of icons \(p. 104\). Others strike as interesting but unverified. Following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fedotov, the author suggests, for example, that the cult of Mary \(Mother of God in the Orthodox tradition\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(407)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oleg Tarasov)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1861891180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irina Paert)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7435 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was identified, on the one hand, with the cult of Sophia the Wisdom of God and, on the other, with the cult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Nature and ?mother damp earth? \(p. 105\). In support of this argument he brings evidence from the peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural calendar, according to which the feasts of the Virgin coincided with the important cycles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural life. We also learn that Russian popular religiosity had a ?Sophia orientation?. The identification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sophia with the Virgin implied a ?belief in the potential sanctity of matter, the base of all creation? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signified an uninterrupted connection between ?the earthly and incorporeal worlds? \(p. 95\). Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of miraculous appearances of Mother of God in the Russian lands through icons, many believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia was the ?House of the Mother of God? \(p. 107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We also learn that in order to understand the function of icons in popular culture one has to appreciate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialised curative qualities of icons devoted to particular saints. For example, one had to pray to St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antipas to be cured from a toothache, to St Martha for fever, to St John the Baptist \(the one who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beheaded!\) for a headache, to St Boniface in the case of drunkenness and to St Martinian if one was burning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sexual lust. If such prayers failed to deliver the requested cure, icons could be punished by being hung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upside down, which Tarasov readily interprets as a sign of Bakhtinian carnival tradition. While the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides good visual examples of such ?specialised? intercession icons, it does not specify whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of the icon of particular saint was essential in bringing a desired result. Could a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prayers to popular saints be sufficient instead of icons?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the first chapter lays out a background for the understanding of the place of icons in popular culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 focuses on the religious schism of the seventeenth century, which became a watershed in Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious history. Following the semiotic approach of Jurii Lotman and Boris Uspenskii, Tarasov interprets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the schism as a complex interaction of two systems of signs, in which the traditional understanding of sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols was confronted with attempts at reforming them. It was not purely a Russian religious phenomenon: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarasov points out that at around the same time the Tridentine Catholicism was generating an interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation around the sacred monogram \(p. 123\). However, despite the vigorous resistance to reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts, the defenders of the old ritual followed the reformed Orthodox church in adopting a new form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual theology, the didactic approach characteristic of the Baroque epoch. He discerns a more rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the sacred image in both Old Believer depictions of the reformed ritual and in the icons of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints \(p. 125\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The beard was one of the ?holy? signs that Old Believers passionately defended alongside the sign of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross, the language of the service and a number of other aspects of the ritual. While shaving beards became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of civilised westernised behaviour in the Russia of Peter I, in popular eyes beards were linked with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likeness of God?s image in humanity. The emphasis on beards can be traced in the Old Believer iconography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Maksim the Greek and portraits of Old Believer merchants. Tarasov does not see any gender implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. It is important, however, to note that wearing a beard was not only a reflection of Christ?s image, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the most powerful symbols of male identity in the Old Believer community, marking both gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age difference, and symbolising the transition from adolescence to adulthood.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.952 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.952 260.115 m 420.944 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 ? ?In a world without grace? ? continues the theme of the schism?s impact on the aesthetical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological systems of Russian Orthodoxy. Tarasov explores the transformation of the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconscious during the transition from early modern to Imperial Russia. Following Solov?ev, he interprets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old Believers as an embodiment of religious individualism. He observes the ways this individualisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith led to the subjection of the icon to a more diverse, ?broader, and more intense cultural milieu which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widened its significance yet further.? \(p. 144\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarasov surveys the eschatological beliefs of Old Believers, pointing out their objection to the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconographers? depiction of the royal persons on icons painted in the style of S. Ushakov. The resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cult of the Emperor was strongest among the most radical millenarian sects like Fedoseevtsy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of the sacred nature of royalty was linked with the tsar?s disloyalty to the old ritual. Comparing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schism with the Reformation in western Europe, he argues that in Russia ?disenchantment? with the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was caused not by the emphasis on personal relationship with God or belief in predestination, but ?by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss of the Church and tsardom of special charisma? \(p. 159\). He offers examples of the followers of )] TJ ET BT 519.908 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(netovtsy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.9517 260.4295 420.9437 272.3095 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(riabinovtsy)] TJ ET BT 108.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as an illustration of the extreme individualisation of belief. They believed that due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total infection of the world by the Antichrist, believers could only pray in a room painted black, having for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decoration only a simple cross without any representation of Christ on it. Tarasov makes a valuable point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at the turn of the seventeenth century the icons combining both ?minor? and ?major? eschatology came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be placed in ?fine corners? of peasant houses, thus becoming a centre of everyday life \(p. 149\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately this point, as with many others, is not supported with evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this chapter we observe the representation ? typical for the whole book ? of Russian culture in a dualistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Schism strongly polarised the collective consciousness. Proponents of reform tended to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirm love of life and the fundamental worth of worldly existence. Its opponents, though, drew )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions that were in large part hostile to everything earthly and transitory and remained )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritually deaf to the demands of the new culture and secular system of sensibilities that were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving. \(p. 147\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Tarasov uncritically accepts the self-presentation of Old Believers and takes at face value their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical representation of their opponents. Surely, among the followers of the Old Ritualists there were as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ?life-affirming? characters as among their opponents, while the pessimists were present equally on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A dualistic model is applied in the discussion of eschatology. Tarasov points out that the ambivalence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious consciousness was reawakened by eschatological fear: the Old Believers refused to venerate icons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that depicted unclean spirits \(the Devil\) and unholy persons or animals \(soldiers at the Crucifixion site, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ass from the entrance to Jerusalem\). He writes of the cleansing of icons prior to self-immolations and about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sacralisation of the icon painter. These examples emphasise binary oppositions in the religious mind: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good versus evil, holy versus unclean, life versus death \(pp. 162-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part II consists of three chapters that draw a fascinating picture of the changing language of icon painting in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern period \(the eighteenth ? early twentieth centuries\). It provides a useful theoretical framework for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the iconography of the period, defining it as a popular craft that creatively adopted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Mannerist style. It deals with three groups of icons of the period: first, the ?Frankish? or painted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icons; second, the post-schism Old Believer iconography; and third, the cheap mass-produced icons from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suzdal?. The main aim of this part is to show the point of contact between two tendencies of the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, one towards a greater individualisation of religious experience and the other towards unity of culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?an urge to understand the self as part of a whole? \(p. 201\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Based on foreign models, notably following the Mannerist style, the Russian painted icons of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nineteenth centuries unwittingly adopted a post-Tridentine didactism. Tarasov shows that Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconographers were not alien to the Catholic model of )] TJ ET BT 295.640 230.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arte Sacra)] TJ ET BT 347.300 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that ?washed away? the confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of cultures. In the Muscovite period the Russian painters reworked western models within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of the Byzantine canon. In Imperial Russia, however, western models were openly quoted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitated. Tarasov expertly provides examples of such borrowings: the use of the dark background, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency towards sensory illusion, the use of the unorthodox shape of board \(oval, octagonal as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rectangular\), and so on. And whilst the craftsmen tried to adapt these western models to their customers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tastes, the meaning of the icon inadvertently changed. It no longer tried to ally symbol with meaning but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather provided a commentary on symbols. Metaphor has replaced metaphysics and the Western-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric has replaced mystery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The depiction of subject matter also suffered a dramatic change. While in the medieval art the subject?s face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 38.012 75.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lik)] TJ ET BT 50.012 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: usually painted last\) was a representation of general characteristics associated with a particular saint, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new icon painters tried to capture individual portrait features. Imitating the new canons developed by the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7562 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance artists, the icon painters strived for a greater individualisation in the depiction of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters. The changes reflected the shift in the understanding of a person: the ontological, strictly patristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding was replaced by a psychological one. At the same time, the shift in the representation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal person reflected a change in Russian statehood. While symbolic features of the saints became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalised, royal portraits became more iconic, encouraging both the sacralisation and glorification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal person.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, significant transformations were taking place in the representation of the landscape. While in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval icons landscape ? depicted in a ?reverse perspective? ? was symbolic and peripheral, suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that natural world had no value, in the new icons landscape received a new meaning.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.588 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.588 669.027 m 454.580 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.580 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to a true perspective and became a kind of ?natural? medium for the activity of holy and real-life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personages. More precision and skills were needed in depicting particular locations and architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures. Attention to detail was a specific feature of the eighteenth-century drive towards rationalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, ?documentalism? and ?mechanistic understanding of matter? \(p. 241\). Icon painters followed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashions of the time: the allegorical landscape of the Baroque age was replaced by the idealistic or Romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Landscape reminiscent of Salvator Rosa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would appear on the icons depicting saints in wilderness. There was also a tendency to include realistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events into an icon, ?thus localising the symbolism of the scene in a concrete historical space? \(p. 241\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early twentieth century the depiction of landscape in icons had nationalistic uses: the walls of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kremlin served as an idealised spiritual centre of Holy Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The icon painters also made use of other devices of Baroque culture, such as the incorporation of words and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts into the image, which served to strengthen the didactic aspect of the prayer image and, more generally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to elevate the role of reason in religious experience \(pp.255-6\). New icons became saturated with heraldic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signs, cartouches and emblems that integrated a motto, picture and an epigram. Everyday objects, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curtains, mirrors and books, found their way into the new icons, altering the icon?s cultural meaning. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarasov provides a compelling interpretation of the aesthetic and religious significance of these new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements, showing their didactic impulse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 looks into the world of the post-seventeenth-century Old Believer icon and tells a remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of modern myth-making. While the changes in Old Believer icons were not as obvious as in the icons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the New Ritual, Tarasov makes it clear that a subtle transformation nevertheless took place. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenters? reverence of the entire pre-Nikonian tradition, they have shown a predilection for the Muscovite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-sixteenth-century tradition that favoured complicated, multi-figured compositions, characterised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painterly scholasticism. Tarasov, however, observes the signs of change, even in these seemingly traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icons, expressed in the tendency to illustrate the holy subjects, to surround the icon of a saint by the scenes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the saint?s life often accompanied by a list of headings, which were ?echoes of more general mind-set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the age? \(p. 315\). Tarasov uses the term ?hidden montage? to characterise the complicated polyphony of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers and quotations in the icons made for Old Believer patrons. The elements of true perspective, Baroque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ornamentation and far from symbolic landscape can be found in Old Believer icons, too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adoration of pre-Nikonian icons by bearded schismatics also gave rise to a fascinating phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterfeit and stylised icons. Beginning in the Romantic era of Nicholas I?s reign, stylisations became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly popular by the turn of the century. Mass production of icons painted in the ?old manner? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the Old Believer myth. Tarasov suggests that definitions of old styles used by icon-painters and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by specialists, such as the Stroganov, Moscow and Novgorod schools, were nothing other than nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century inventions. The same can be said about the style of icon painting attributed to Andrey Rublev, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval monk and icon painter, whose life is saturated with myths and legends.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.304 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.304 134.067 m 435.296 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.296 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Old Believers, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded Rublev?s icons as wonder-working, had contributed to the growing popularity and mythologisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the icon-painter?s name. The Old Believers should thus be seen not as the guardians of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconographic tradition of medieval Russia, but as creators of the myth of Holy Russia which was a strikingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter serves as a conclusion and deals with two different phenomena: the folklorisation of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.5877 669.3415 454.5797 681.2215 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.3037 134.3815 435.2957 146.2615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass-produced icon and the adoption of popular icon by the Russian avant-garde of the early twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Quoting Kazimir Malevich, whose ?Black Square? \(1913\) is described as the icon of the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarasov shows that, during the era of social experiment, while the leftist artists were busy inverting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetical elements of the Russian icon for the sake of new forms of art, the subterranean levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective unconscious were awakened. The destruction of the old cultural world in the forge of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution was not complete: the old symbols were filled with new meaning. Whether it was Palekh?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to revolutionise the Holy Family by giving carpenter?s tools to St Joseph and a hammer to the Child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesus, or a propaganda plate that transformed the apocalyptic image of St Michael into a Red Army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horseman, the new icons mythologised reality and built bridges between traditional culture and the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarasov has written a very important book which is bold and thought-provoking, but problematic in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology. The book is the first serious attempt to engage with the iconography of Imperial Russia \(most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconological studies deal with the traditional medieval or early modern icons\). It is an invaluable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedia of the visual culture of modern Russian Orthodoxy. The author must be given credit for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilful selection of visual material, which organises the book?s narrative and provides compelling evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for many of its arguments. The illustrations, which were obtained from state museums and private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections, are truly stunning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book defines itself as a cultural study of the icon in the Imperial period. Whilst its methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is heavily influenced by the semiotic approach of Jurii Lotman and Boris Uspenskii, its evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and narrative, in fact, suggest a more complex picture than the one presented by semiotics models. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolism and the visual language of the icon are explored well, some of the book?s ambitious aims require )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a different approach. In order to understand the degree of transformation in the icon?s meaning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning within society, more attention needed to be paid to the social context of icon painting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution. We learn little about the process of commissioning, social conditions of icon painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workshops, the icon markets. For example, it seems essential to understand who was behind the counterfeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icons \(we only learn that they were some unidentified Old Believer patrons\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its promise to capture the collective mind-set and the )] TJ ET BT 330.644 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 375.308 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the believer, the book remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very much within the domain of traditional art history, focusing on the interpretation of the visual image and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its intended message. It is questionable whether we can discern the mind-set of the believer from the play of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols in the iconic space. Tarasov?s approach can be contrasted with that of Vera Shevtzov, who provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much more convincing account of believers? experiences of, and relationship with, such sacred images.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 539.564 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 539.564 331.395 m 553.556 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using narrative and archival sources she explores the story behind the icon and social interaction with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(icon. In Tarasov?s work, it seems that numerous archival and ethnographic resources that could provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers to all these questions were bypassed. Discussing Old Believers, for example, either prescriptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, polemics or the testimonies of outsiders were used. This evidence obviously does not give us any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea about the practices of religious dissenters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book promises to be a revision of Russian cultural history since the sixteenth century. In most parts it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains, however, a traditional interpretation of culture from the artist?s and art historian?s point of view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On gender aspects of Old Believer history and culture see I. Paert, )] TJ ET BT 384.608 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Believers, Religious Dissent )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Gender in Russia, 1760-1850)] TJ ET BT 226.340 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.624 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.624 139.827 m 524.612 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the role and meaning of landscape in early modern icons and maps see V. A. Kivelson, ??The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Souls of the Righteous in a Bright Place?: landscape and orthodoxy in seventeenth-century Russian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps?, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Review)] TJ ET BT 197.336 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 58 \(January 1999\), 1-25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.644 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.644 97.059 m 375.632 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the myth of Andrey Rublev see L. Hughes, ?Inventing Andrei: Soviet and Post-Soviet views of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrei Rublev and his Trinity icon?, )] TJ ET BT 243.668 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavonica)] TJ ET BT 290.996 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9. 2, \(2003\), 83-90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.984 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.984 68.547 m 443.972 68.547 l S endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 539.5637 331.7095 553.5557 343.5895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6237 140.1415 524.6117 152.0215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6437 97.3735 375.6317 109.2535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.9837 68.8615 443.9717 80.7415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 1193 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. Shevzov, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Orthodoxy on the Eve of Revolution)] TJ ET BT 339.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/407)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2055)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 118.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/407) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000005167 00000 n 0000005276 00000 n 0000008837 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000009049 00000 n 0000009133 00000 n 0000016621 00000 n 0000016651 00000 n 0000016779 00000 n 0000016815 00000 n 0000016880 00000 n 0000023579 00000 n 0000023670 00000 n 0000031285 00000 n 0000031315 00000 n 0000031443 00000 n 0000031479 00000 n 0000031509 00000 n 0000031637 00000 n 0000031673 00000 n 0000031778 00000 n 0000039392 00000 n 0000039422 00000 n 0000039550 00000 n 0000039586 00000 n 0000039714 00000 n 0000039769 00000 n 0000039896 00000 n 0000039951 00000 n 0000040077 00000 n 0000040132 00000 n 0000040223 00000 n 0000041469 00000 n 0000041596 00000 n 0000041651 00000 n 0000041779 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41874 %%EOF