%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027221112+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027221112+00'00') /Title (History and the Media) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4623 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History and the Media)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In December 2002, 400 people assembled at the Institute of Historical Research in London to attend a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference called ?History and the media?. Its purpose was to investigate the recent and phenomenal rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular history, and as such it drew delegates not only from colleges, libraries and museums, but also from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television studios, newsdesks and film production companies. As David Cannadine explains in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, the result was ?very much a conversation rather than a confrontation? \(p. 2\). Between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps, common ground was sought out. Possibilities and pitfalls of continued interaction were explored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, by implication, attempts were made to understand the reasons behind the history boom: was it New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s 1997 election victory? The death of the Queen Mother? The Millennium? The Internet? In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, we have the considered thoughts of some of the leading lights who were in attendance; eleven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, arranged to alternate between the worlds of academic history and the media.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By far the best of the academic chapters is that by Roger Smither, keeper of the Film and Video Archive at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Imperial War Museum. His piece, ?Why is so much television history about war??, is excellent ? clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling, intelligent and well argued. He begins with a brisk overview of the landmark series that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped history on television. By this stage in the proceedings \(Chapter 4\) readers are already well acquainted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the canon ? )] TJ ET BT 116.000 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War)] TJ ET BT 188.660 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first broadcast 1964\), )] TJ ET BT 300.968 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World at War)] TJ ET BT 387.968 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1974\), )] TJ ET BT 428.960 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War)] TJ ET BT 496.964 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Second World War in Colour)] TJ ET BT 195.680 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\) ? so it is much to Smither?s credit that his discussion, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being engaging, also feels fresh. When he moves on to consider the question of his title, his overview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an obvious answer: programmes about war have been hugely successful, and for many producers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(409)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 August, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403920370)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(184pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Morris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that alone is reason enough to make more. But where Smither?s conclusions might seem at first to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious ones, they are offered on the basis of proper reflection, explanation and analysis. For instance, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly known and often repeated fact that archive footage is cheap footage. But why exactly is this? An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archivist well versed in the history of archives, Smither guides us through the historical reasons ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation governing freedom of information, the founding-philosophies of film archives. Similarly, while it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might seem obvious that we have a lot of archive film of war because the twentieth century offered a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war to film, Smither again tackles the root causes: the reasons that newsreel was shot, the tastes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns of early cinema-goers and cinema-managers, the prevailing xenophobia and nostalgia of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Public. Only once does he venture a personal opinion, and is careful to precede it with a cautious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclaimer \(?the mechanics of human memory are an area in which I have no expertise whatsoever?\). It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to reinforce the impression that, by the end of this chapter, not only have we learned a lot, but we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have done so in the company of an author who is highly informed as opposed to merely highly opinionated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Max Hastings is both, and his chapter is the other outstanding contribution to this volume. ?Hacks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars: allies of a kind? is an exceedingly well written piece, essentially arguing in favour of the pseudo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance of his title. There is plenty of anecdote: for instance, having heard so much about )] TJ ET BT 466.604 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War)] TJ ET BT 539.264 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is amusing to discover that young Max, 17, was a researcher for the series, and that he learnt more about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?manic intrigues and serial bonking which characterize life in television? \(p. 105\) than he did about the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. Where anecdote is used, however, it is used judiciously, and illuminates rather than clouds his wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument \(in the above instance, Max also learnt that television is a visual medium, that the words must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the pictures and not vice versa\). Beyond this, the chapter contains many home truths that other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics and media types would do well to take on board. It is refreshing to be reminded, after all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grand claims made elsewhere in the volume about the power of television to educate and democratise, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes should not be overloaded with information, visual or otherwise, since they are mostly watched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the evening, after work, when the audience?s ?receptivity to complex intellectual signals is at its lowest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ebb? \(p. 106\). Of course, television can usefully stimulate public debate but, as Hastings points out, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate is never exclusively in the public?s interest: it also stimulates what might be otherwise unimpressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book sales. Hastings?s aim is especially true when he discusses and finds wanting the media?s declared love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of novelty: ?It is very seldom that an article or a programme unveils information genuinely unknown to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars. What happens is that a new generation of editors or television producers rediscover facts hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown not to science or academe, but to themselves.? \(p. 109\) In fact, in spite of its professed neophilia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says Hastings, the media is extremely reluctant to reverse old verdicts ? a point he illustrates to good effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with examples about the First World War \(bad\) and the Second World War \(good\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one point in his chapter, Hastings defends Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 338.324 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 434.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against its critics. As he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly avers, this was unquestionably a tremendous achievement, and ?the trade of history is surely in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama?s debt? \(p. 109\). The criticisms, however, evidently stung Schama, and he uses his own piece, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Television and the trouble with history?, to rebut them. Nearly everything he has to say is sensible, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of being indisputable, and his comments attest to the thoughtfulness, at every level, that went into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making of )] TJ ET BT 86.012 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AHOB)] TJ ET BT 118.004 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The problem here is that the chapter itself is far too messy. Schama sets out to disprove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?four interconnected assumptions? which, he contends, lead other academics to suppose that television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history cannot get serious. But thereafter he gives the reader almost no clues as to which of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions he is addressing. It is almost as if, with the constraints of writing for television now finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifted, Schama is determined to be as opaque as possible ? an impression reinforced by his lengthy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly wilfully obscure opening gambit involving the critic Walter Benjamin. With a more robust editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? for example, )] TJ ET BT 105.992 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AHOB)] TJ ET BT 137.984 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s Martin Davidson ? this could have been a great piece. Alternatively, perhaps Max )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings, given his reported experience in rendering scholarly articles comprehensible \(p. 115\), might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been prevailed upon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Kershaw?s chapter, ?The past on the box: strengths and weaknesses?, is far more digestible. Regrettably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, it is little more than an appetiser ? at under six pages, the shortest chapter in the book by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way. Moreover, it is, like Schama?s piece, a reprint of an earlier article and, whereas in its original context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the )] TJ ET BT 55.676 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 185.672 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) it must have sparkled, here it feels somewhat dusted down. The reader will )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8276 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find much to agree with but, by this stage in the proceedings \(as Chapter 8, it is buried near the back of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book\), he or she will have heard most of it before: history has never been more popular; television can have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a big impact; a picture is worth a thousand words. Apart from the quality of the writing, what really marks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kershaw?s piece out from the rest is his less-than-rosy opinion of TV companies. ?They are essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitative?, he declares. What they want for their history programmes is academic legitimation, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?without care it is easy to provide backing for a programme which might damage rather than enhance a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation? \(pp. 122-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Hunt learnt this lesson the hard way, as he himself admits at the end of his chapter ?How does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television enhance history?? Such self-awareness, however, is fleeting, and serves to make his contribution a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious read. The essential point he wishes to make is that television history is great ? notice his title has no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truck with those historians who contend that TV diminishes their discipline. Such historians, Hunt suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should get out more. Like the post-war generation of academics, they should go forth from the academy, into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider world, and share the fruits of their labours. No sane historian, of course, would deny that sharing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical knowledge in this way is a good and necessary thing. The difficulty with Hunt?s piece is not his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message, but his anxiety to let us know at every stage that, like Macaulay, Trevelyan and Schama, he is on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the side of the angels. Thus, despite tacitly acknowledging the shortcomings of his series )] TJ ET BT 463.304 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civil War)] TJ ET BT 510.308 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pains to remind us, on more than one occasion, of its public utility. After it was broadcast ?the Open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University received an unprecedented number of enquiries and then take-up of courses on the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century? \(p. 94\). In other words, never mind the quality: feel the width. If all historians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally enlightened, they would be more grateful: ?For progressives, the capacity of television history to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broaden learning, democratise knowledge and generate public discourse has to be regarded as a laudatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality.? Hunt adopts a similar partisan view when he later concedes that television history has its faults. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus Channel 5?s low-budget offering )] TJ ET BT 222.320 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Most Evil Men in History)] TJ ET BT 365.312 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is dismissed as ?execrable?. Yet it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to see how, in conceptual terms, it differed from BBC2?s big-budget media event )] TJ ET BT 451.952 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Britons)] TJ ET BT 518.288 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another project in which Hunt was personally involved ? which is singled out as praiseworthy \(again, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating public engagement\); both series worked from the same questionable assumption that it was useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and meaningful to judge long-dead individuals by moral absolutes \(though only one attempted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless task of inviting the public to place them in rank order\). )] TJ ET BT 362.312 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evil Men)] TJ ET BT 405.968 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, did interview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading historians in each case; )] TJ ET BT 186.320 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Britons)] TJ ET BT 252.656 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( relied on the advocacy of experts whose qualifications were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather more mixed, including, as they did, Jeremy Clarkson, Michael Portillo and the comedian Alan Davies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of Chapter 10, ?Writing the history of broadcasting?, carries a similar BBC bias. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable, and partially excusable, given that its author, Jean Seaton, is the Corporation?s official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian. A greater problem )] TJ ET BT 172.988 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vis--vis)] TJ ET BT 213.644 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the chapter?s title and its content is that much of the latter is devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to answering questions about broadcasting itself, rather than how one goes about writing its history. True, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are initially treated to an overview of earlier attempts to approach the subject. \(The outstanding figure is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asa Briggs, who between 1961 and 1995 produced a five-volume history of the BBC; more than two pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here are an encomium of praise for Briggs, his style and his work.\) Thereafter, however, we are invited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider what seem to be tangential questions: ?how good broadcasting gets made?; how technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes ?set programmes going?. We are told that the people involved matter and, almost as an aside, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn that to construct a history of these people, one talks to them. Hence the underwhelming conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?you do broadcasting history just like any other kind, by talking with individuals and groups together?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mischievous medievalists might protest here that, even if we were able to get our individuals together, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have little to say for themselves. Yet there are more serious objections, or at least question marks, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise in regard to Seaton?s methodology, as set out in her final pages. Unlike Briggs, who did not have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to watch or listen to programmes again, Seaton has access to the biggest and best-kept television and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radio archive in the world. How does she approach such a mountain? The answer seems to be that she relies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily on her own memory ? recalling, for example, those programmes she watched in the 1980s as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of becoming ?surrounded by an increasing tribe of small boys?. The fact that she admits to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings of such a methodology \(?of course what I watched was heavily biased; I did not do it then as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researcher but just as a person?; ?none of this is systematic, and I do not think it can be?\) does not make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem, to this reviewer, any less questionable or unhistorical. Nor does the example she chooses to illustrate )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8045 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its merits: ?I had christenings where all the small children in sight had plastic swords down the back of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jumpers ? a strange accessory ? but one directly derived from a cartoon called )] TJ ET BT 410.576 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thunderbirds)] TJ ET BT 475.916 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.? \(p. 156\) As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the most closeted historian will recall, )] TJ ET BT 245.324 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thunderbirds)] TJ ET BT 310.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was first broadcast in the 1960s, not the 1980s. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a cartoon; its protagonists did not carry swords, nor wear them down their jumpers. The children in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question may have been watching )] TJ ET BT 199.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thundercats)] TJ ET BT 259.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a less enduring cultural artefact but undeniably a cartoon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in the 80s and featuring swords. Then again, perhaps they were fans of )] TJ ET BT 405.260 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters of the Universe)] TJ ET BT 520.244 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 80s, with characters who did indeed strap their swords to their backs. The point is, of course, that I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(don?t know: my memory is imperfect. In order to be certain, I?d have to research the subject properly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so to the remaining non-academics. Taylor Downing, a writer and independent television producer with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 200 historical documentaries to his credit, gets the book off to reasonably good start with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Bringing the past to the small screen?. There is much to agree with: that history and reality TV are two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories best kept separate; that dramatic reconstruction works for the vignette, but not the broad canvas; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that television should bring new historical understanding to a wider audience. There?s no real coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument as such, and the main weakness is that the chapter was evidently converted from an audio-visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation, where video clips at one time provided the evidence; reduced to very short written synopses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these become less than clinching. But for all that the piece is a little unfocused, it is a passionate and at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even polemical opening chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downing?s main conclusion is that television history needs to have a strong visual core and a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative. Most of his fellow contributors agree \(e.g. pp. 9, 19, 42-3, 95, 121\). On television, if you must do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis or argument, the advice is: keep it short, and get on with your story. A good, commonsensical rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for one medium, however, does not necessarily hold true for another, as Lord Bragg proceeds to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his chapter ?The adventure of making )] TJ ET BT 230.972 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Adventure of English)] TJ ET BT 353.300 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, wherein we learn almost nothing but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts about his most recent television series: how long it took to shoot, and how long to edit; how long the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part breaks were, how great the music was. The team he assembled were experienced old hands; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations they chose with care. The few general points Bragg has to offer are made at excruciating length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with extended examples and quotes from the series. One extract, for example, is used to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews can work well for conveying complex arguments. \(One could easily marshal evidence, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to show occasions where they do not.\) Other sections of the series are discussed at length ? for instance, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole page on the origins of the expression ?OK? ? but with no discernible purpose. What fresh insights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one constantly wonders, is one supposed to take away from this excursus? That television has limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length, so one has to generalise? That later periods of history have archive footage, whereas earlier ones do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not? That Lord Bragg doesn?t like dramatic reconstruction much, but that he used it a bit? In a book such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, from an academic press, the emphasis should be on analysis, not narrative. That the tantalising array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex questions set out in the editor?s introduction have been ducked in this adventure story is made plain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by its banal conclusion: the series was the hardest thing Melvyn has ever done, but it was worth it because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people liked it, ?And now I have had the chance to describe the process for this book!? \(p. 87\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another chapter almost devoid of analysis is Jeremy Isaacs?s ?All our yesterdays? ? the title being borrowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a programme that the experienced documentary-maker worked on early in his career. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a nostalgia show, and this is essentially a nostalgia chapter. It reads like the first stab at a memoir, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at times clippings from other peoples?. Thus, for example, having learned that )] TJ ET BT 432.620 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World at War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(arguably the most groundbreaking of Isaacs?s many magisterial series\) was made possible due to tax cuts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ITV companies, we are treated to a gripping blow-by-blow account of who agreed what with whom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, and in whose office. There are many other similar nuggets of equal value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tusa?s chapter is entitled ?A deep and continuing use of history?. In it the author explains how, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoying his time reading history at Cambridge, he couldn?t see how his studies would prove useful later in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. How wrong he was: as it turned out, history was profoundly useful throughout his entire career. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical skills he acquired \(at the feet of Walter Ullmann, no less\) could be applied to obtain a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of global politics during the 1960s, 70s and 80s ? useful for a graduate who went on to hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various news production and editorial roles at the BBC. Similarly, when in 1986 Tusa became head of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC?s World Service, the importance of being able to construct a coherent historical narrative was soon )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8201 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily apparent. ?Management?, he tells us, ?involves telling an organization a story which it recognizes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a true account of itself; and then telling the outside world the same story? \(p. 134\). John Birt?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake, we learn, was ignoring and disparaging the Beeb?s history. And when, in 1995, Tusa left the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corporation to become MD of the Barbican Centre, he was able, with Clio as his assistant, to work the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic, albeit with some sleight of hand. \(The received wisdom at the time was that the Barbican?s history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was nothing to shout about. ?It was more a question of retro-fitting the history to the place?, Tusa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confesses.\) Moreover, Tusa is not alone in finding history useful in the world of work. His son, ?also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of Cambridge history?, now a city-analyst, found that the best way to understand the Westland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Affair was to establish the exact details of what had happened ? just like a historian would. So the moral of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter is: all those essays are worth it. As such it is exactly the kind of piece that an editor of an alumni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazine or departmental prospectus would welcome. In this volume, however, it deserves no place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Has Hollywood stolen our history?? screamed the title of a session of the ?History and the media? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference, thereby successfully engaging the interest of that day?s newspapers. Here it becomes the title of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last chapter, a short offering by the filmmaker David Puttnam: inappropriately, since Puttnam makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear from the start that he has absolutely no interest in the question whatsoever. Instead, he accuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood of what he sees as the more serious crime of simplifying the past. ?The tyranny of the bottom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line? means that producers of big-budget pictures avoid complexity and reduce everything to ?a simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle between good and evil?. \(Strange, then, that Hollywood is held in such low regard by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican party, since it appears to view the world in similar absolute terms.\) Beyond this, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Puttnam does not have much to say. Filmmakers should avoid simplicity and get more complex. Here, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot help thinking, would have been a good place to start.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the repeated mantra that great television history is all about well-constructed narrative, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity, concision and structure are all highly desirable qualities, it comes as a surprise to find so much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing on display is faulty, repetitious and downright slapdash. Several sections of certain chapters read like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first drafts. Jeremy Isaacs refers allusively to something called )] TJ ET BT 336.620 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History at War)] TJ ET BT 408.620 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( before proceeding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reintroduce it to us on two further occasions \(it turns out to be a book\). ?Although I disagreed with much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Ferguson?s utilitarian critique of empire, the series attracted millions of viewers? \(p. 98\), says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Hunt, seemingly unaware that the size of a particular programme?s audience is not contingent upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether he personally agrees with its ideological content. And what is the reader to make of Jean Seaton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question ?But what do you do with what you make of programmes when you see them again?? or her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence ?One aspect of considering programming is scheduling, the ways in which putting together the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stream of programmes that will call, attract and hold audiences over an evening, a week, a year is thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of?? \(pp. 156-7\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like the writing, the editorial standards vary enormously from one chapter to the next, leading to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion that they were never very rigorously imposed in the first place. Some chapters come with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes, some without; some endnotes come with pagination, some do not. Each to his own, one might say: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Max Hastings?s piece has no notes, and loses nothing by their absence. But the same inconsistencies carry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over into the main text. Thus, while Roger Smither identifies Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 414.668 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnum opus)] TJ ET BT 481.664 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as ?)] TJ ET BT 502.988 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Britain)] TJ ET BT 80.360 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(three series, the first broadcast in autumn 2000\)?, it is elsewhere called ?)] TJ ET BT 435.944 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 531.620 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 119.360 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, and even ?Simon Schama?s history of Britain series?. Similarly, Ken Burns?s film on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American Civil War is referred to variously as )] TJ ET BT 277.628 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War)] TJ ET BT 345.632 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 368.960 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civil War)] TJ ET BT 415.964 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Channel 4?s 2002 series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spartans)] TJ ET BT 97.688 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is mistakenly called )] TJ ET BT 199.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sparta)] TJ ET BT 231.020 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; television historian Michael Wood is called ?Michael Woods?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, questions of style aside, the crucial failing here is that there is too much anecdote and too little analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In several cases what is being offered is under- or un-substantiated opinion based on personal experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone. Having set out in his introduction an exciting list of questions, concerning, as they do, the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only academic history and the media, but also the society that produces both, David Cannadine remarks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?these questions are easily posed, but have yet to be convincingly answered, and assigned their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate \(and relative\) significance. Moreover, they rest on assumptions which have themselves not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been tested or proven? \(p. 1\). Sadly, these sentences are as true now as they were before )] TJ ET BT 459.884 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.810 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Media)] TJ ET BT 64.676 49.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1260 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review, and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of York)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.york.ac.uk/ipup/projects/packaging/history/discussion/cannadine.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 714.051 m 428.000 714.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.000 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 710.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 692.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 692.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/409)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 691.545 m 322.316 691.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 666.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2058)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.york.ac.uk/ipup/projects/packaging/history/discussion/cannadine.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 714.3655 427.9997 726.2455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.york.ac.uk/ipup/projects/packaging/history/discussion/cannadine.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 691.8595 322.3157 703.7395 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/409) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000005295 00000 n 0000005404 00000 n 0000005514 00000 n 0000005623 00000 n 0000009184 00000 n 0000009312 00000 n 0000009396 00000 n 0000009461 00000 n 0000017525 00000 n 0000017590 00000 n 0000025919 00000 n 0000025984 00000 n 0000034082 00000 n 0000034147 00000 n 0000042401 00000 n 0000042492 00000 n 0000043805 00000 n 0000043932 00000 n 0000044063 00000 n 0000044191 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44286 %%EOF