%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021123127+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021123127+01'00') /Title (Religio Medici. Medicine and religion in seventeenth century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4485 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Religio Medici. Medicine and religion in seventeenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a timely collection of essays that sets out to address a key relationship in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Over the last decade the histories of religion and of medicine in the early modern period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have developed a more conceptually robust demeanour embracing the achievements and examples of works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Keith Thomas? )] TJ ET BT 131.672 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and the Decline of Magic)] TJ ET BT 297.320 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1971\) and Charles Webster?s )] TJ ET BT 448.280 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Instauration)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1975\). The examination of religion as a system of institutions, cultures and practices has been one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important legacies of a whole corpus of historical writings upon the impact, consequences and nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?English reformations? between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Whether exploring and interpreting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of diverse Protestant theologies and beliefs upon the universities, the parishes, or the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentalit, historians of religion have become comfortable with exploring the nature, meaning and function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?religion? in early modern historiography. This does not imply that yet there is any sense of a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of interpretation. ?Religion? to a Christopher Haigh or a John Morrill, or a Jonathon Clark or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Hill, may invoke very different, contradictory and perhaps radically incommensurable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of ecclesiastical institutions, patterns of belief, articulations of meaning, processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal identity, or discourses of legitimation. For some historians ?religion? is to be most readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified with a traditional understanding of Christian faith: a complex admixture of doctrinal, ceremonial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liturgical and pastoral propositions and activities. To practice the history of religion is then to note and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the levels of religious commitment by analysing the proximity or deviance from a standard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 June, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Cunningham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ole Peter Grell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781859283394)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(327pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scolar Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Champion)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7659 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established orthodoxy. It is then possible to ask how ?Protestant? or how ?Catholic? a community or state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be at any given time. Similarly such an approach might focus upon the doctrinal thought of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key individuals - Bishops, scholars, or dissidents - interrogating such sources \(diaries, sermons, theses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries\) for theological coherence, influence or sources. Another strategy has concentrated upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?popular? religion, the beliefs and activities of the common people performed in the parish or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment of the family. Exploiting sources such as Churchwardens accounts, probate inventories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even material artefacts historians have attempted to reconstruct the patterns and processes of the religion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday life. Commendable and exciting as many of these studies have been )] TJ ET BT 408.944 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(au fond)] TJ ET BT 445.280 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( many of them have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken little time to examine the conceptual premises of their investigations: still, some form of doctrinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian orthodoxy is adopted as the template from which to read off the ?success?, ?depth?, ?diffusion? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular theological categories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recently, developing from the writings of two Cambridge historians in the 1980s, the study of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become more political. That is to say that on top of the rather diluted anthropological approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function of religion within parish communities derived from the exemplar of Thomas? work, a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political sociology has been grafted. So in the work of J.C.D. Clark it is possible to describe the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between religion and politics under the rubric of the ?confessional state?. With a similar intent the collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of essays edited by M.A. Goldie, and others, invoked the phrase ?the politics of religion? to identify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the ecclesiological nexus between Church and State. If the anthropological tradition was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in exploring \(very crudely\) the meaning that religion had for early modern society, those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized the political dimensions of religion ultimately stressed the connections between religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. Exploring how orthodoxy was not simply a doctrinal or propositional programme but a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority empowered with coercive discipline such historical writings adopted a cautious relativism towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?truth? of any particular religious confession and instead explored how different religious communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interests attempted to establish political dominance by, and through, religious conformity. Religion then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was as much a system of administration, a tool of state formation or legitimation, as a generator of meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural order. Pastoral care was also a social system for establishing structures of social power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two developments in the historiography of religion and society in the sixteenth and seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century have been broadly comfortable with each other partially because of the periodicity of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations. Most of those who explore the contours of popular religion in the parishes or the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national religious identities focus on the period before the crisis in religious and political authority that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the English revolution of the 1640s and 1650s. The historiographical questions that haunt the precincts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sixteenth and early seventeenth century history \(for example the still hardy perennials such as ?the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the reformation in the parishes?, ?the rise/fall of Calvinism/Arminianism?, or ?Protestantism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy?\) seem to hold little appeal for historian of post-Restoration society. Those historians who write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the confessional state tend in fact to concentrate upon the period \(c1660-1820s\) when the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that structure of social power was fractured if not fragmentary. The anthropological approach to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern religion has tended to ignore the study of change in favour of an account of process and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure. Any examination of change is that of the modulations of religious ?style? within a broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological culture \(i.e. high church low church, Laudian or erastian\). Although the more political account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between religion and society, by chronological necessity, has to embrace the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing nature of the religious system, it takes as unproblematic the power of Christian faith and belief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1970s the history of medicine has similarly undergone rapid and impressive sophistication. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Echoing the patterns of more mainstream historiography much history of medicine as practised in the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1960s was teleological and Whiggish. If political and constitutional historians made a narrative around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of parliamentary institutions and the origins of political liberty, so historians of medicine sought out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foundations of modern medical science in an unrestrained and triumphalist manner. Just as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians turned away from the centre to explore the articulation of ideologies and process in the localities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so post-Webster and Thomas, historians of medicine set about exploring the mentalits of the marginal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common sort. The experience of illness, the perceptions and emotions of patients, the networks of informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?unprofessional? healers have all received expert and intelligent investigation. Examinations of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7686 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional and cultural performances of medical practitioners have been made, contextualising their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with broader social and cultural traditions. As a consequence of such historiographical revision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the larger narratives of the ?rise of medicine? have been replaced by a different series of intellectual maps co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinated around themes such as the creation of a medical market place, the eclecticism of consumption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical therapies, and an increasing interest in the relationship between medical knowledge, gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of the body. In effect medical historians adopted and adapted many of the agendas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies of social historians. This collection of essays represents both the best and the worst of some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these developments in the historiography of medicine and religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religio Medici)] TJ ET BT 105.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains a variety of different approaches, methods and subject matters ranging from Adrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John?s study of the medical dangers of bible reading to Mark Jenner?s impressive examination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between enthusiasm and ?quackery? in his exploration of the meaning of the cleric John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hancock?s )] TJ ET BT 89.660 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Febrifugum Magnum)] TJ ET BT 191.984 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1722\). There are also case-studies of individual medics \(Thomas Browne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Glisson\) exploring the homologies between medical method and religious perspectives. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, although the subject matter and material discussed is interesting, the historical product is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unadventurous. Thomas Browne is a seminal and intriguing figure. Although Cunningham writes with verve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and engagement the reader is not left with a clear understanding either of his religious convictions or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with his medical understandings or practices. Giglione?s exegesis of Glisson?s hylozoistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anatomy is impressive and intelligent, but profoundly internalist in the sense that it fails to contextualise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit and explicit dangers of Glisson?s account of matter and body with contemporary reactions or ideas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, Michael Hunter?s examination of Robert Boyle?s religious motivations for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of - ?the communication of secrets and receits in physick? - is a much more valuable example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of the individual case-study to explore the inter-reactions of religious conviction and medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment commendable because the author takes care to locate his subject within the broader cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of his time, rather than simply assume that the importance of the individual and their contribution is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a given importance. Similarly Guerrini?s informative account of the impact of Newtonianism on the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and understanding of medical science in the eighteenth century illustrates how a careful reconstruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context and reception of individual systems of thought can illuminate broader structures of belief and action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection also offers a brace of useful institutional studies. Michael Macdonald executes an expert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the career of astrological medicine in England taking the account up to the eighteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A richly textured and beautifully written piece of work it locates much of his more extensive work on Simon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forman and Richard Napier in a longer trajectory bring much evidence to indicate both the social extent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longevity of astrological medicine in early modern society. Cook?s study of the personal beliefs of medics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the London College of Physicians from the sixteenth century to the eighteenth is less successful. Although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides some useful information on the religious complexion of the College it is overly systematic: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement that ?reviewing the first two centuries of the College?s life, one is left with the distinct impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its Fellows reflected the religious views of learned English people generally? is hardly an insight. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attempting to account for the importance and role of ?religion? by constructing a demography based upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxonomy of labels \(Anglican, Catholic, pro-dissent, conservative\) is overly essentialist and reductive. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the more sophisticated historians of religion in the period are now uncomfortable with the application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious categories as an accurate and descriptive tool: identification of theological positions was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly part of a pejorative rhetorical strategy aimed at disabling the public authority of an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponent rather than an impartial recognition of a individual?s beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A much more successful exploration of the intimate connections between the religious convictions of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of individuals and their attitude to the role of medicine and the purpose of therapy can be found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Harley?s typically learned and robust examination of the ?theology of affliction? in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century Godly families of the Henrys and Newcomes. Exploring the literary remains \(diaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sermons, commonplace books\) of Henry Newcome and Philip Henry, both Presbyterian ministers, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north of England, Harley delivers a forensic examination of the relationships between providential theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the latter part of the seventeenth century and godly attitudes towards sickness and medicine. Introducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his study with brief but commendably thoughtful remarks about the methodological problems of establishing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7499 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homologies between belief systems and practices, Harley is careful to point out that careful and close case-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies are critical in such matters because, as he correctly indicates, ?there is no reason to suppose that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious groups were perfectly homogeneous since many factors other than theology? shaped attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God and medicine. Harley shows how the Godly were, because of their ideas of general providence, able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploit learned medical therapy to cure their ills. Although disease and death was a time for careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casuistical examination, remedies might also be provided by divine means. The key thing for the Godly was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to avoid the ?sins of Asa?: the cures of cunning folk and magical medicine \(those therapies, as Macdonald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, which were keenly consumed by many in the period\) were to be avoided. Harley?s contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages with the critical moments in the life cycle where sickness and religion might conjoin - birth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death - giving especially sensitive accounts of attitudes to the respective roles of sin and medicine in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of deaths amongst children and the aged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Harley is aware the Godly were only one component of a religious culture, an alternative response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of illness and affliction is discussed in Sarah Hutton?s elegant study of Anne Conway?s search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a therapy to cure her the headaches that had pained her since her adolescence. As Hutton explains, Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway in turning to her doctor, Francis Von Helmont, and his pharmacopoeia also embraced his religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and philosophical beliefs. It was Conway?s experience of pain that prompted the development of her mature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy. Exploiting the two sources for the history of Conway?s illness \(Thomas Willis )] TJ ET BT 473.336 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De anima )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brutorum)] TJ ET BT 79.352 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1672, and her correspondence with Henry More\) Hutton shows how her subject adopted an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclectic approach to her sickness. As Hutton puts it ?being a high class patient, [she] was treated by the top )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors of her age?. She also consulted healers like Matthew Coker and Valentine Greatrakes. The )] TJ ET BT 509.564 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give us ample evidence of the sort of cures she took: again the emphasis is upon diversity - tobacco, coffee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blue and red ?powders?, all sorts of ?oyntment?, baths, bloodletting, mercury, and a variety of amulets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stones. Conway?s encounter with Van Helmont led to a revision of commonplace ideas of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providentialism to a more cabalistic accommodation of the suffering of the Godly with the goodness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice of God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as exploring individuals and institutions the collection also includes essays on the nexus of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and medicine in moments of crisis and contestation. Ole Grell takes the opportunity to examine the debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and battles between Helmontian and Galentistic therapies in the crisis year of 1665 when plague struck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London with a ?dreaded vistation?. Although Grell gives an informed and engaged account of the pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battles between men like Nathaniel Hodges and George Thomson, teasing out the different therapeutic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical debates, he does not locate these disputes within the context of the politics of religion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convulsed early Restoration London. Grell undertakes a detailed and acute account of George Thomson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissection of a plague victim discussing the connections between Helmontian physic and Christian piety, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is not anchored in any discussion of religio-political meaning of the work. Grell, focusing upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson?s dedication of his work to Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, mis-characterises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eirenic thrust of his subject?s polemic. It is not possible to characterise Sheldon as patron of an ?eirenic, non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogmatic Protestantism which sought to unite the sects within the Church of England, espousing a ?liberal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arminian theology?. Recent work upon the Restored Church of England, and particularly the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert Sheldon and the London Vestries made by Paul Seaward, argues that Anglicanism in general, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheldon in particular, was far from eirenic in its almost brutal pursuit of religious conformity. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arminian theology of the Church of England may have been ?liberal? in theological terms \(say compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the supralapsarian stance of some Calvinist confessions\) it was a assiduous persecutor of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity whether Catholic, Protestant or Enthusiastic. Thomson?s concern with excluding deviant medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapies was intimately bound up with his theological orthodoxy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exemplary essay in the collection is Simon Schaffer?s ?Piety, Physic and Prodigious Abstinence?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the spectacular fasting and pious conversion of a young Derbyshire woman, Martha Taylor between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1667-69. Addressing the bigger themes of the relationship between testimony, natural knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious power, Schaffer locates the case of Martha Taylor in the wider context of the epistemological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations of social power, critically the relationship between priests, physicians and the laity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary accounts of Martha Taylor?s ?prodigious abstinence? were issued in a range of forms by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various publishers: the precise meaning of her case as a spiritual and physical event was contested by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of religious and medical interests. For some Taylor?s fasting was angelic, for others fraud, for still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further interpretations it was simply a medical condition. As Schaffer shows a range of different medical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious perspectives attempted to capture the public meaning of Taylor?s experience. Quakers, a sect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced in the demonstrative strength of regenerative bodies to endure fasting, attempted to interpret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor as a sign of the remarkable workings of the inner light. Presbyterian publicists like Thomas Parkhurst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Thomas Robins tried to shape her story ?in favour of reformed religion and against extreme spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illumination?. John Reynolds, presbyterian minister and medic, attempted to disable rival claimants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s meaning by arguing that her abstinence was neither supernatural nor physical but chemical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providential. Other medical men demanded access to Taylor?s body, even Thomas Hobbes insisted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter could only be explained by forensic examination to know ?the certainty?. It is Schaffer?s point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each of these different perspectives attempted to use Taylor?s body and its meaning to legitimate or disable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival authorities: such processes of cultural legitimation, although ultimately textual, were intimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected with matters of political order and power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surely part of Shaffer?s wider intention to indicate not which interpretation of Taylor?s abstinence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more effective or accurate but to highlight the culture of contestation and testimony in Restoration society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are lessons that historians of medicine and religion in this period might usefully adopt in future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. The claim to true religion, like the claim to powerful medical therapies, was a critical cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process for generating social authority. Treating the rival truth claims of particular religious confessions in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely epistemological manner, eschewing a sociological understanding, might confine the historian to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treating ?religion? or ?medicine? as real phenomenon rather than made resources of authority. Writing about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Calvinism? without exploring the public and institutional consequences of such theologies might result in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an acute understanding of theological positions but does not enable the historian to an understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical meaning of such claims. Similarly with medicine, researching the history of anatomy, or chemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine without locating the discourses within the broader infrastructures of cultural and political authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will result in scholastic but ultimately uninstructive \(historically at least\) studies. Many of the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained in this collection have taken as unproblematic the categories of religion and medicine and simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to read off, or match up, different aspects of individual or institutional expressions of either of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms. Thus religious expressions might be considered as epiphenomenal expressions of a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinative medical system; or )] TJ ET BT 196.664 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vice versa)] TJ ET BT 244.976 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Similarly embedded in many of the essays lies an unarticulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleology: that somehow religion was being replaced by medicine, that soteriology was displaced by welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(providentialism supplanted by understandings of risk\). Many of the conceptual problems that underpin the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection also bedevil the wider historiography. Medicine, science, politics, religion, state, society are very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly treated as discreet discourses that structure historical enquiry. Each discreet discourse has its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, epistemology and intellectual agenda. Perhaps a more fruitful and profound enquiry might attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to breach these discursive fences and explore the histories of conviction, beliefs and bodies in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexible way. Perhaps an example might illustrate these suggestions. One place where religion and politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine and bodies, authority and therapy neatly converge and converse is in the performance of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Touch. The divine authority of Kingship melded with the apostolic rights of the orthodox true religion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of the Church of England. Scrofula was an illness that required therapy. Men and women other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs claimed to cure the disease. Medical treatises described and explained both the disease and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cure. An historical enquiry that attempted to explore the history of the royal touch from a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing and converging perspectives \(for example, as a matter of ritual and religious conviction; as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation and performance of authority; as a medical therapy; as a contested form of healing; as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of civil and religious discipline\) might be able to bring the histories of medicine and religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in an exciting and intellectually coherent way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 See for example, a different ends of the chronological period, C. Haigh English Reformations. Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Society under the Tudors \(Oxford, 1993\) and J. Spurr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Restoration Church of England 1646-1689 \(Yale, 1991\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.522 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2 See for example the essays in J. Morrill The Nature of the English Revolution \(London, 1993\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 See for example J.C.D. Clark English Society 1688-1832 \(Cambridge, 1985\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 2248 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4 The works are too manifold to single out any particular volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5 See footnote 3 above.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6 See T. Harris, P. Seaward, M.Goldie \(eds.\) The Politics of Religion in Restoration England \(1990\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7 For some suggestions towards these understandings see)] TJ ET BT 34.016 738.754 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of Michael Braddick The Nerves of State)] TJ ET BT 34.016 724.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1996\) and his forthcoming synthetic account)] TJ ET BT 34.016 709.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social power in the early modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 695.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8 For an accomplished survey of the more recent contributions to medical history see D. Harley `Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 681.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American perspectives on Early Modern Medicine: society, religion and science' Perspectives on Science 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 667.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\) 346-386.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.642 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 See his essay contribution to The Politics of Religion in Restoration England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 638.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10 The research student Mark Gosbee \(Royal Holloway College, University of London\) is currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 624.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking the groundwork for such a project under the joint supervision of Professor Roy Porter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 583.589 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 564.607 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 546.827 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 546.827 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 545.433 m 316.316 545.433 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 520.456 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/327)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 545.7475 316.3157 557.6275 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005204 00000 n 0000005313 00000 n 0000005423 00000 n 0000005532 00000 n 0000009093 00000 n 0000009221 00000 n 0000009305 00000 n 0000009370 00000 n 0000017082 00000 n 0000017147 00000 n 0000024886 00000 n 0000024951 00000 n 0000032503 00000 n 0000032568 00000 n 0000040286 00000 n 0000040370 00000 n 0000042671 00000 n 0000042799 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42893 %%EOF