%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075203+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075203+01'00') /Title (The Memory of Catastrophe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4235 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Memory of Catastrophe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trauma has become a burning topic in Western cultures of late. Traumatic events and debates over how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are remembered by individuals and memorialised by cultures are important for lots of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies. Survivors, grass-root communities, clinicians, psychiatrists, politicians and academics across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wide array of disciplines have rarely agreed and often loudly disputed the nature and effect of traumatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacts on human life. This is not just the effect of the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001 \(although this is evoked in the first sentence of Gray?s and Oliver?s introduction\). Throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s, lawyers and judges argued over how far to extend ?nervous shock? in negligence claims attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatal events like the Hillsborough Stadium disaster, psychiatrists disputed evidence that traumatic memories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a peculiar fixity or, on the contrary, a fatal malleability in relation to recovered memories of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse, and cultural commentators were forced to assess the emergence of collectivities of mourning around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents like the death of James Bulger or Diana Spencer. A decade of genocide in Rwanda, Congo and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former Yugoslavia, as well as significant anniversaries of the end of the Second World War and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust, made questions of commemoration, public remembrance and apology major political concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The torrent of discourse about 9/11, however unimaginable the event, had in some ways been pre-prepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a decade of this kind of discussion. Even by 1997, the very idea of collective life for some now seemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be imaginable only through the spectacle of trauma. As the cultural theorist Mark Seltzer put it: ?The notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kendrick Oliver)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719063450X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Luckhurst)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the public sphere has become inseparable from the collective gathering around sites of wounding, trauma, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pathology.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.672 780.819 m 124.664 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The output of academic work in this area does not yet seem to have peaked, and shows a markedly multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary character. In recent months, psychiatrists could read Tim McNally?s sober assessment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent disputes over traumatic memory in )] TJ ET BT 240.668 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remembering Trauma)] TJ ET BT 348.320 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, sociologists might look at the book of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborative seminar led by Jeffrey C. Alexander in )] TJ ET BT 288.956 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity)] TJ ET BT 482.960 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists can peruse Anne Whitehead?s )] TJ ET BT 225.632 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trauma Fiction)] TJ ET BT 301.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is the merest indication of the multiple fronts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on which the question of trauma and memory has advanced. But it has led one historian, Wulf Kansteiner, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider that the idea of ?collective? trauma has become meaningless by over-extension, and worse that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has occluded the original victims of suffering by bathing us all in ?an easily adopted model of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trauma, one which is stripped further of any concrete suffering and which turns us all into accomplished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.008 626.259 m 101.000 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray?s and Oliver?s fascinating and valuable )] TJ ET BT 254.624 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Memory of Catastrophe)] TJ ET BT 390.284 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a collection of 14 essays from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference at the University of Southampton in 2000, tries to steer between these two extremes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial introduction acknowledges the historical importance of these ideas and the relevance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection that investigates how disasters have been memorialised, but is also suspicious of over-extension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the risk of diffusion. The editors present the collection as rescuing terms like memory, catastrophe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trauma from imprecise usage and what they call ?intellectual promiscuity? \(p. 4\), making them safe for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History. This is not just a standard gesture of disciplinary appropriation, however, for Gray and Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observe that both concepts of memory and catastrophe issue a particular challenge to historiography. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the individual essays, it is worth pausing on the editors? exploration of how ?the memory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catastrophe? creates specific disciplinary problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray and Oliver observe that memory has been theorised by some in opposition to history. History is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official discourse fatally complicit with nationalism, ruling elites, colonisers and so on, whilst memory is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile and fugitive resource of the oppressed. Although rarely stated in such bald terms, a Foucauldian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in counter-discourses of memory has rendered some in the humanities suspicious of History and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted the development of more critically self-aware practices such as ?cultural history?. In a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, the influential French historian Pierre Nora opposed the artificial constructions of historiography to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidly vanishing plenitude of the ?organic? memory intrinsic to traditional societies. The editors are rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicious of this mystical evocation of memory, yet the huge success of Nora?s )] TJ ET BT 423.296 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux de memoires)] TJ ET BT 510.608 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1980s is surely one of the main sources for the current academic interest in the field of memory. Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Oliver also have to negotiate the difficulties of the idea of a ?collective? memory, the worry that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistically scales up models for the individual psyche and transposes them onto complex social worlds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus dressing up the old-fashioned )] TJ ET BT 201.668 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalits)] TJ ET BT 251.000 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( approach in new garb. Psychological models indeed get a hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time from the editors, even though the study of memory is a large area of psychiatric research \(to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing of biology, and the recent advances in medical and neurological understanding of memory\). We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warned off using the dangerously ?protean? and ?anarchic? term trauma, for instance, in terms similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kansteiner: ?The danger of trauma theory is that it implicates us all in an undifferentiated world of hurt.? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These problems are joined by ?catastrophe? and its challenges to historiography. Many thinkers significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in continental philosophy and literary theory have written about catastrophe as the limit of signification and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning: one could cite Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida, Martin Heidegger and many others. Here, Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Oliver sum up ?postmodernist thinkers? by allusion to Jean-Franois Lyotard?s suggestion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional historiography meets its limit when confronted by the catastrophe of the Holocaust. This is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given relatively short shrift, but then Lyotard is not read as such, he merely stands in for a strand of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unproductive relativist thinking. This is a shame: )] TJ ET BT 272.012 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Differend)] TJ ET BT 339.008 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a difficult book, certainly, but it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativist and it does not abandon the demand to think historically. The ?signs of history? that Lyotard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invokes \(?Auschwitz? is just one of many\) are challenges to conventional genres of knowledge because their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedentedness demands witness in new ways. This is also the thrust of the argument of Cathy Caruth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literary theorist whose book )] TJ ET BT 188.996 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unclaimed Experience)] TJ ET BT 298.628 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has exerted some influence in cultural theory about )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.6717 781.1335 124.6637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0077 626.5735 100.9997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catastrophe and trauma. Gray and Oliver cite her argument that because traumatic events are at the limit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning they remain in some ways unknowable and incompletely assimilable to historical understanding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray and Oliver also want to bat this assertion away as dangerous, yet Caruth, like Lyotard, is hardly out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disable the doing of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, these writers offer cogent reasons for the cultural and historical fascination with disasters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traumas: something happens that wrenches norms and expectations out of joint, and discourse follows in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake, trying to turn the inconceivable into meaningful narrative form. Texts follow texts, driven by the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand, perhaps never able to exhaust finally the meaning of the catastrophe. Doing history might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of these discourses ? but what I sense from Gray and Oliver is an unease with other disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts that challenge empirically based historical research. They assert: ?It is the attribution of qualities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual or cultural transcendence to ?memory? which most effectively limits the capacity of the critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method to gain purchase upon its historical operations.? \(p. 5\) As a materialist, there is nothing I can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagree with here ? except that I think the current obsession with memory, catastrophe and trauma across a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot of disciplines is partly to do with the sense that these terms have come to stand as limit-cases or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to materialist explanation. They do not mark the abolition of meaning or comprehension, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but are points of pressure that have compelled a rethinking or extension of knowledge formations. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably why the area is so strikingly interdisciplinary: it is the founding condition of this emergent field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays in the collection are unbowed by these theoretical anxieties in the main, and set about studying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the memory of catastrophe with brio in the limited space each contributor has. The book organises instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cultural rupture in chronological sequence from the English Civil War, American slavery and the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine to the political manipulation of national memory around historical traumas in Serbia and Croatia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s. There are many different styles of writing on display \(detailed archival history, occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference paper discussion, the cultural history of representations, fieldwork and oral history\), but if there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is anything that unifies the contributors it is the repeated demonstration that the memory of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catastrophe usually has a history of changing meaning and significance. Mark Stoyle tracks the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of remembrance of the Civil War, for instance, seeing Cromwell re-emerge from his folkloric elision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the devil to become a latterday commemorated ideal of republican parliamentary democracy. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating essay, Peter Gray examines the changing meaning of the Irish famine, particularly against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed political context of contemporary Ireland in the wake of the Nationalist and Loyalist ceasefires. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This essay is strong on how politicians sought to re-invent the meanings of the Famine during the 150th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary commemorations to make it less a source of sectarian division \(nationalists have often called it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate colonial genocide\). The commemorations instead tied the Famine to questions of overseas aid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in Africa. James Guimond pursues this idea of shifting significance of catastrophe on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic or representational level with the sinking of the )] TJ ET BT 310.988 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Titanic)] TJ ET BT 344.996 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He traces how narratives about class have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered in three stages ? the aftermath emphasising the selfless heroism of the aristocracy, the 1950s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and film )] TJ ET BT 77.348 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Night To Remember)] TJ ET BT 184.340 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emphasising the efficient and dutiful behaviour of the middle ranks, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s Hollywood film portraying a melodramatic victory of Irish immigrant over European aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bounder. I found this a somewhat mechanical and reductive approach, which was too confident in finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singular interpretations for each phase of )] TJ ET BT 233.300 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Titanic)] TJ ET BT 267.308 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remembrance. Catastrophes and catastrophe narratives are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so absorbing because they offer multiple and often contradictory sites of identification, not uniform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections of each successive age. His view that Cameron?s blockbuster appealed to ?X-Generation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American youngsters fails to account for much of its astounding global success. How did Asian or European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectators invest in its catastrophic narrative?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contested interpretation of the same set of events is what is illuminating about the strongest contributions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Bloxham?s essay, ?The missing camps of )] TJ ET BT 275.324 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aktion Reinhard)] TJ ET BT 354.320 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, is a compelling account of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative and understanding of the Nazi Final Solution was skewed in the immediate post-war trials and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of the concentration camps. American and British reaction was inevitably controlled by the traumatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images from the first liberated camps, Bergen-Belsen and Dachau. These concentrated a mix of prisoners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were not organised as extermination camps. The camps dedicated to the eradication of the Polish Jewry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the)] TJ ET BT 79.004 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Aktion Reinhard)] TJ ET BT 161.000 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( plan had in fact been chillingly successful: Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka had )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrially murdered 1.8 million Jews in 1942?3 before being dismantled and largely erased from record. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reconstruction of this machine took years of painstaking research, and Bloxham suggests that this is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the reasons for the belatedness in understanding the Holocaust as focused on the elimination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Jew. There is excellent commentary on how the Nuremburg trials distrusted eyewitness accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and focused on documents: ?the examination of the conspiracy and aggressive war charges considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outweighed that on war crimes and crimes against humanity?, Bloxham concludes. \(p.125\) Although this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material repeats the arguments of Bloxham?s )] TJ ET BT 253.976 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust on Trial)] TJ ET BT 366.320 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\), it was important that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection had strong work on the Holocaust, since it so often features as the ur-text of discussions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities and limits of a historiography of catastrophe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrea Reiter?s essay that immediately follows this, on Binjamin Wilkomirski, is less successful. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkomirski produced a harrowing Holocaust memoir in 1995, which won a number of awards. In 1998, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was exposed as Bruno Dsseker, an Austrian man adopted in the 1940s who had never been incarcerated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concentration camps. Reiter sketches in a broad context of memory and trauma theory and intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about Holocaust memorialisation in the 1990s as the backdrop for Wilkomirski?s initial reception. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, she argues that whilst Wilkomirski?s )] TJ ET BT 271.676 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fragments)] TJ ET BT 323.672 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might be ethically inauthentic it has an )] TJ ET BT 515.660 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authenticity: ?Its authenticity as a Holocaust text is rooted in its literariness and has been testified to by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception it initially received.? \(p. 140\) I?m unclear how this takes the already extensive discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkomirski any further along ? it seems important to me to hang on to the assertion that the book is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitative fake. The interest might lie in how Wilkomirski used the framework and symbolism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust to explore his own undoubtedly traumatic psychical life \(and one does need some of the language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of psychical trauma and its effects to understand how all of his fake testimony might still be ?true? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkomirski\), but it doesn?t seem helpful to locate its importance in the authenticity of its aesthetics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reception of and various kinds of resistance to narratives of disastrous and traumatic events is the focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kendrick Oliver?s essay on the massacre at My Lai, another highlight. In March 1968, American soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered a village and with no evidence of Viet Cong fighters or arms set about the slaughter of 400 unarmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians. Oliver traces the responses to this American war crime, from initial assertions that this was graver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Kennedy?s assassination, via Nixon?s slow and managed disengagement from comment on the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecution of the perpetrators, to what Oliver suggests is the virtual silence over the massacre in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary American politics. \(Oliver can?t be blamed for failing to anticipate how the torture conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by American reservists in Abu Ghraib prison has resuscitated the memory of My Lai for some.\) Oliver is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly right in noting that the massacre becomes an affair of American conscience, neatly displacing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnamese victims of this act. His conclusion that ?the discordant responses to the massacre precluded its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy absorption into the nation?s usable past? \(p. 185\) is a curious one, though. It is hardly likely that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national memorial tradition would volunteer to integrate an instance of its own shamefully murderous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality. Here again, I thought that some judicious use of the psychoanalytic concept of ?disavowal? or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream psychiatric notion of ?dissociation? might have illuminated the mechanism by which America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has worked ? on the political and civil society levels anyway ? to keep My Lai out of its memorial traditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ends with some very contemporary analysis by Rose Lindsey on how the destruction of Vukovar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1991 has been used by nationalist and post-nationalist governments in Croatia, and with a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations by Tony Kushner on how the decision of NATO commanders to launch its first military attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its history on Serbia and Kosovo in 1999 was in part shaped by ongoing debates over Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialisation in American and British political circles. This elegantly demonstrates the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of catastrophe to our contemporary world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, this collection contains a series of valuable snapshots of research in this area. The contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirm through juxtaposition of different national contexts that the organising capacity of memory is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful device in contemporary cultural politics across the world, and one that deserves study. Where I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder if the collection falls down is in the mild angst that the editorial framing displays about purifying its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology from the taint of other disciplines. Gray and Oliver consider that this is a terrain fraught with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dangers of ?intellectual promiscuity?. I view the terrain of the memory of the catastrophe as the very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 1921 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of a multi-disciplinary convergence. This means danger to disciplinary traditions in some respects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also a potentially hugely productive cross-fertilisation of ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Seltzer, ?Wound culture: trauma in the pathological public sphere?, October, 80 \(1997\), 3?26, at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 701.043 m 139.004 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulf Kansteiner, ?Genealogy of a category mistake: a critical intellectual history of the cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trauma metaphor?, Rethinking History, 8.2 \(2004\), 193?221, at p. 203.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.316 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.316 672.531 m 457.304 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 628.687 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 610.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 610.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/410)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 609.513 m 322.316 609.513 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.536 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2060)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 701.3575 139.0037 713.2375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.3157 672.8455 457.3037 684.7255 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 609.8275 322.3157 621.7075 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/410) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000535 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000004904 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005123 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000008793 00000 n 0000008921 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009096 00000 n 0000017493 00000 n 0000017523 00000 n 0000017651 00000 n 0000017687 00000 n 0000017717 00000 n 0000017844 00000 n 0000017880 00000 n 0000017945 00000 n 0000025945 00000 n 0000026010 00000 n 0000033626 00000 n 0000033724 00000 n 0000035698 00000 n 0000035825 00000 n 0000035880 00000 n 0000036008 00000 n 0000036063 00000 n 0000036191 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36286 %%EOF