%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923071937+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923071937+01'00') /Title (The Historiography of the Holocaust) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4322 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Historiography of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1987 Michael Marrus completed )] TJ ET BT 206.984 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.652 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.652 286.359 m 345.644 286.359 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.644 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( A succinct, cogent, yet apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive study, it appeared to cover the gamut of the subject, with state-of-the-art research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exposition of the critical disputes closely entwined. It was also a significant statement of how far the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historiography had developed since the event itself, at a time when, especially in North America, scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and student interest was mushrooming.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getting on for twenty years later, this volume edited by Dan Stone suggests the degree to which exponential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth is matched by an octopus-like extension of Holocaust studies into all sorts of arenas. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects hardly, or not remotely, touched upon in Marrus: gender issues, memorialisation, Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topography, testimony and representation. Yet Stone has to acknowledge at the outset that, in spite of his 24 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly diverse chapters, there remains a tranche of subject areas which he has not covered: no discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue, of either Jewish or Gentile responses in neutral countries, nothing specifically on the Holocaust in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary, or on the Balkans or, to any notable extent, Western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this degree of specialisation in the field, not to say the repeated revision of revisions of earlier works, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone, however, has done well to organise a very fresh and vital team of contributors. Though names include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Reich stalwarts such as Jeremy Noakes and Christopher Browning, this is a young and suitably global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(team, reinforcing further a sense that Holocaust studies has become a quite central platform of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(411)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33399745)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(584pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Levene)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6517 286.4995 345.6437 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6235 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, at least in leading )] TJ ET BT 167.312 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western)] TJ ET BT 206.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( centres. Some years ago, an august, albeit early modernist, professor at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the university at which I then was happily teaching responded to a discussion on how the Holocaust was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be incorporated within a department-produced video on the Second World War by wondering what the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to do with the other. He was, of course, quite in line with some early histories of the conflict. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professor was also implicitly stating a not entirely singular resistance to a subject, alongside Jewish history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, whose place was felt to be firmly at the margins, and was decidedly unwelcome in the space of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary mainstream.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But if such conservative attitudes are rarely openly stated now days, one could equally turn the issue on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head by asking to what degree Holocaust historians themselves seek a ring fencing off their subject, or see it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of a broader historical canon. Is the Holocaust an entirely exotic, if not utterly aberrant, creature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence outside the ?normal? path of historical development \(whatever that is\)? Or is it something to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, studying in entirely different fields, whether synchronic or diachronic, might seize upon as providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some keen insight into their own work? The question clearly mirrors the increasingly polemical debate about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether we should understand the Holocaust as unique or universal.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.292 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.292 597.747 m 375.284 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Implicitly, though not always explicitly, Stone?s volume raises this and a series of other, more general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the writing of historiography. A more trivial one, perhaps, is how should a historian, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thick of a debate, interpose him or herself into it? More portentously, how does one ? or can one ? deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an absence, or even a counter-historiography, which denies either an event, or its relevance? Alternatively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are there other ways of creating a historiography without reliance on a corpus of historical writing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, when so much has already been written on a subject, how does one envisage understanding it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afresh?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let?s consider some of these issues by passing reference to the contributors? essays. Comparative discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in this case, in relation to other genocides ? is most keenly, indeed magisterially, developed in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay of the volume, by Dirk Moses. He challenges the very notion of Holocaust-centricity by reminding us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the coiner of the term ?genocide?, the Polish Jewish international jurist, Raphael Lemkin, conceived it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the course of the war but with the intention of conveying more than simply Jewish destruction. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later writers, like Stephen Katz and Yehuda Bauer, have questioned whether Lemkin would have taken this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line if he had known the full extent of the Holocaust. Moses repudiates this notion, proposing that, in spite of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his awareness of what was happening to his own family, it was the unique qualities of national, religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial groups, not of any specific group, which Lemkin sought to protect through international law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemkin?s position may not in itself ? as Moses is aware ? be a guard against the pitfalls of ethnocentricity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the problems of a ?competitive martyrology.? Strongly influenced by North American cultural mores, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative scholars there can be particularly prone in this direction, with Ian Hancock, in this volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venting his exasperation on the repeated sidelining of the )] TJ ET BT 310.976 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Porrajmos)] TJ ET BT 362.312 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the destruction of the Roma ? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream Holocaust historiography. This is a shame not because Hancock has more than a point, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it gets in the way of what he might have been telling us about what has been written to date, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why there is still so much ground to cover. Equally, while Hancock is rightly insistent that there was a Roma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Final Solution?, he never seeks to consider why the chronological sequence is so drawn out, why high-level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders on the matter \(just as very often in the case of the Jews\) were at cross-purposes, or, indeed, why so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the destruction, primarily in eastern Europe, is lost to view.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.2917 598.0615 375.2837 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, there is among Stone?s contributors an essay which really does successfully place Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering within a broader context. This is Dieter Pohl?s piece on )] TJ ET BT 349.964 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 371.300 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Occupation and Holocaust in Poland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This involves a close and detailed survey of events, including Soviet occupation in the east, in 1939?41, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic about which, he notes, ?very few historians have dared to try comparative approaches? \(p.98\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interwoven into this is a model account of post-1945 historiographical debates about the Polish fate under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation. And further interwoven is the way the specifically Jewish fate has ? or has not ? been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approached within this frame; it even tackles issues of Polish anti-Jewish collaboration. All this is done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously and rigorously, without fanfare or apology. In many ways it is unprecedented and a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marker as to what can be achieved in what is otherwise a minefield of controversy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But then Pohl is unusually modest in not putting his own highly important work to the fore. There are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of variations on a theme here. Robert Ericksen, writing with Susannah Heschel, in a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating contribution on the role of the German churches, considers his own significant work in the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person. Tim Cole somewhat too keenly foregrounds his own role in the ?Ghettoisation? debate in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person. Browning, with whom Cole has bones to pick, also does so, but with the caveat that he makes no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretence that what he is doing is ?an inextricable mix of analysis, academic memoir and advocacy? \(p.173\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His efforts to be fair to others engaged in similar research, however, are well-met.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not surprisingly, it is Browning-type debates which have been at the heart of Holocaust historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though with a general consensus in these pages that the old intentionalist-versus-functionalist dichotomy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either exhausted or simply pass. Historians now, says Browning, for the most part agree that ?there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?big bang? theory for the origins of the Final Solution? only a debate about which decisions should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered more important, more pivotal, than others? \(pp.184?85\). A more specifically Jewish discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the nature of leadership, grass-roots survival and ?resistance? also receives stimulating treatment from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Michman, Robert Rozett and equally Tim Cole, showing the degree to which debate has moved on from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Arendt?s and Raul Hilberg?s arguments about Jewish ?passivity?. Also resurrected here are earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies by Phillp Friedman and Samuel Gringauz, further reminding us that rigorous scholarship on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of European Jewry was getting underway in its very ashes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A strength of Stone?s volume, thus, is his effort to broaden the parameters of this historiography, though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denying that problems might be encountered en route. For instance, no less than three chapters attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackle eastern Europe and Russia under communist and post-communist rule. This is surely fundamental to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events whose murderous epicentre was in the ?Lands Between?. Yet the more the contributions by John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klier and Thomas C. Fox on the pre-1990s develop, the more it is apparent that any serious indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust scholarship was politically thwarted, submerged or, indeed, strangulated at birth. This impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is only further heightened in Florint Lobont?s discerning contribution on the post-1990 scene, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the post-communist situation may even be worse, not least in the way that resurgent nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing now seeks to rehabilitate Antonscu, Horthy )] TJ ET BT 282.656 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 303.656 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(., even to the point where they are meretriciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recast as saviours rather than persecutors of Jews.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7983 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is both important and alarming for the long-term health of Holocaust historiography, because its effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be to divert attention away from the broader European, as opposed to specifically German, dimensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mass murder, in the countries where it took place. Martin Dean makes clear that collaboration in what had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the historic Polish )] TJ ET BT 149.348 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kresy)] TJ ET BT 174.668 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was integral to the evolution of the Holocaust, giving a further bite to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate goaded by Jan Gross?s recent book on the self-willed communal massacre of Jews in Jedwabne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in the Bia?ystok region, at outset of Operation Barbarossa.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.284 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.284 711.795 m 380.276 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.276 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the simultaneous state-willed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanian extermination of Jews, as its troops re-entered Bessarabia and the Northern Bukovina, en route to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transnistria, continues to be overwhelmingly sidelined in the broader historiography, as do other direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assaults ? over and beyond assistance to the Nazis ? by the Hungarians and Ustasha in particular. How these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, or, indeed, elements of Western European collaboration in the deportations to the death camps, are to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be fully incorporated within that amalgam of human eradication we call the Holocaust is not evaluated here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the ambiguities in the approach of the critical bystanders ? the Western Allies ? are, in part, well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlined in Tony Kushner?s contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably, where Stone?s volume is most successful is in teasing out new areas of research, or old areas in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of marked re-evaluation. Oded Heilbronner?s plea for more research on pre-1933 German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism, given his thesis about an emerging Weimar alliance between ?racism and respectability? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12\), for instance, neatly dovetails with Frank Bajohr?s treatment of local initiatives post-1933 towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Aryanisation? ? otherwise expropriation ? of Jewish livelihood and property. This is an immensely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important area of research which we ignore at our peril. Genocide may ultimately involve the killing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human beings, but the stages by which victims are degraded and deprived of their wellbeing and)] TJ ET BT 496.604 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( raison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d?tre)] TJ ET BT 64.676 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? often through the forcible removal of simple material objects whose personal value defies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative assessment or audit ? is as significant here as is the degree to which other ?ordinary? people are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing to be complicit in the process. Bajohr?s own research suggests as many as 100,000 Hamburgers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone were implicated in this societally-legitimised form of plunder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The development of this particular type of study, largely over the last decade, is in considerable part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebted to a regional ? not necessarily Holocaust related ? )] TJ ET BT 319.952 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alltagsgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 404.612 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But this backdoor the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach has entirely demolished ? at least in Germany ? an earlier, including )] TJ ET BT 410.600 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marxisant)] TJ ET BT 458.600 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sought to put the blame for the Holocaust entirely on political-economic elites, or, even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveniently, on a handful of culpable leaders. The Nuremberg Trials, arguably quite intentionally, helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pave the way for this black hole, demanding in turn a reassessment of the legacy of the judicial history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its impact on memory, again here adroitly interrogated by Donald Bloxham. Both Jurgen Matthus, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Kobrak together with Andrea Schneider, fill in the score on further, recently well-developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects for reconsideration, in the former, ?perpetrator research? ? even if, as Matthus admits, pinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the subject seems ?elusive?, and the usefulness or possibility of a typology ?open to debate? \(p. 211\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the latter, the role of big business in Nazi hyper-exploitation of slave and forced labour. Of this tranche of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German-centric essays, however, the best is certainly that of Ericksen and Heschel, which superbly unravels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the culpability, or failure, of the various faith groups, including Martin Niemller?s )] TJ ET BT 437.636 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bekennde Kirche)] TJ ET BT 519.944 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit-where-not-explicit anti-Judaism from the churches? pre-Nazi antecedents, as well as the residual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apologetics in a number of recent studies of key German clerics from this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the churches, however, have been for a long time a subject of debate, ?Gender and family? \(Lisa Pine\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Testimony and representation? \(Zoe Waxman\) and ?Memory, memorials and museums? \(Dan Stone\) all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate to emerging lines of current Holocaust research, while suggesting close linkage to broader, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily fully developed, historical trends of the moment. One essay, however, particularly stands out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this group though also, in some sense, apart from it: Andy Charlesworth?s ?Topography of genocide?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might suggest that this is not really a historiographical essay at all, though this may, in part, be due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scarcity of other like-minded studies, not to mention the novelty of the discussion. It is certainly at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of historical research, more about how we might culturally and psychologically map often quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ordinary,? even beautiful, landscapes which became killing sites, and how we then might intrude ?people? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims and perpetrators ? into them. In so doing, Charlesworth manages to reach entirely beyond ?normal?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.2837 712.1095 380.2757 723.9895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7300 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical terms of reference. The results certainly are dissonant and unsettling. He cites Richard Glazer, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the very few Treblinka survivors, who describes the transient qualities of the camp as being like a Wild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West settlement, or a Yukon gold-mining town; it was a very ?male? place, in which the wealth came thick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fast, the prostitutes flocked in and there was spending galore. Nor does Charlesworth stop there, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagining how Nazi victory against the Soviets might have turned the steppes into an eastern equivalent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Wild West, with SS troops sallying forth from their ?cavalry forts?, battling against remaining Slavic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hostiles?, to be, in turn, iconically captured on celluloid Easterns ?in cinemas across the Reich? \(p. 248\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlesworth is not being facetious. His whole piece may be a shot across the bows of convention, but in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposition of what is actually entirely modern and contemporary, this is )] TJ ET BT 381.980 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 396.644 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( piece in the volume in which we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get closest to seeing none other than ourselves in the Holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But should we want to? Or be forced to? Is it necessary in a historiographical study to try and get at some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffable essence? But perhaps that is exactly what makes this subject different from others; it is, in fact, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge, grotesque and beyond the bounds of decency that notions of some strict disciplinarity become quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant. Perhaps this is the reason why Charlesworth?s approach comes across as an albeit highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled scream; and why others wilfully turn away. Genuine engagement, however, can certainly take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different forms. Josh Cohen?s difficult but profoundly reflective essay, for instance, attempts to chart a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Holocaust philosophy in which a number of North American Jewish writers have tried to derive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and transcendence from it, while other, notably European philosophers, of the ilk of Adorno and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levinas, have resisted the temptation. For some of us ordinary mortals, perhaps, it is some of the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorials which ultimately might help us to get there. One is the Kassel counter-monument by Horst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoheisel ? described here by Stone ? of a an upside down replica of a fountain built by a Jewish architect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigmund Aschrott, demolished by the Nazis in 1939. The description evinces not just absence ? not least of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews of Kassel ? but a further conscious, provocative dissonance. If this is intended to make us all sit up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and think, is it surely pertinent to )] TJ ET BT 196.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historiography of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 373.352 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, in such a big project, one might carp somewhat about lapses in consistency and coherence. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a quite a lot of overlap, and though most essays are excellent, a couple fall a little short. There is, too, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niggling anxiety that a contemporary Western zeitgeist, in which the Holocaust is very firmly centred, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly at odds with other political and cultural imperatives which want to use it more selectively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse or demolish it altogether. Yet this is a reflective, often profound collection, highly suggestive of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous range of often brilliant works which have been written on this grim topic. It offers enormous food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for thought on the field so far and potential directions that it could still take. And that will surely make it an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indispensable guide to current and future researchers of the Holocaust and, indeed, those trying to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of it within a broader historical frame.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Marrus, )] TJ ET BT 146.996 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History)] TJ ET BT 268.664 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.656 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.656 249.363 m 360.644 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gavriel D. Rosenfeld, ?The politics of uniqueness: reflections on the recent polemical turn in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and genocide scholarship?, )] TJ ET BT 248.312 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and Genocide Studies)] TJ ET BT 405.296 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13.1 \(1999\), 28-61.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.284 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.284 220.851 m 558.272 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan T. Gross, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neighbours, The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland, 1941)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.008 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.008 192.339 m 152.996 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editor is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 110.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 92.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 92.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/411)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 91.065 m 322.316 91.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 66.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2062)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.6557 249.6775 360.6437 261.5575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2837 221.1655 558.2717 233.0455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0077 192.6535 152.9957 204.5335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 91.3795 322.3157 103.2595 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/411) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005015 00000 n 0000005124 00000 n 0000005234 00000 n 0000005343 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000009032 00000 n 0000009116 00000 n 0000009145 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000009309 00000 n 0000009393 00000 n 0000015681 00000 n 0000015711 00000 n 0000015839 00000 n 0000015875 00000 n 0000015940 00000 n 0000021513 00000 n 0000021597 00000 n 0000029633 00000 n 0000029663 00000 n 0000029791 00000 n 0000029827 00000 n 0000029932 00000 n 0000037285 00000 n 0000037413 00000 n 0000037468 00000 n 0000037596 00000 n 0000037651 00000 n 0000037778 00000 n 0000037833 00000 n 0000037960 00000 n 0000038055 00000 n 0000038120 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38315 %%EOF