%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021175054+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021175054+01'00') /Title (Public Lives: Women, Family and Society in Victorian Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4068 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Public Lives: Women, Family and Society in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Lives: Women, Family and Society in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 332.996 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Eleanor Gordon and Gwyneth Nair is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously researched study of the lives of middle-class families in Glasgow. In particular, they focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the residents of twelve streets drawn from the Claremont/Woodside/Woodlands estates, situated west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city centre. This seemingly narrow sample nonetheless provides the authors with a wealth of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which to illustrate the heterogeneity of the middle-class experience and its diverse socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make-up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main strength of the book lies in the manner in which the authors have exploited to the full the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities provided by ESRC funding. Their exhaustive compilation and interpretation of statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, painstakingly collated from census returns, inventories, wills, marriage contracts, valuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rolls and the like is genuinely impressive. It allows them to uncover a number of striking demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns that will do much to illuminate our understanding of the dynamics of middle-class households. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they reveal that, in their sample, only half of the households in 1851 conform to the ?standard bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of a male-headed nuclear unit?. By 1891, only just over a third of households could be classified as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such \(p. 36\). Indeed, they assert that, by that date, forty per cent of all households were headed by women \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169\). Moreover, they discover that throughout the period, between 30 and 38 per cent of single men over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(412)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor Gordon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwyneth Nair)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300102208X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathryn Gleadle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7744 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 30 lived in a female-headed household \(p. 170\). They explain that ?Whilst there are some examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?classic? situation of sister keeping house for brother, there are also counter-examples of brothers living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in households headed by their sisters? \(p. 43\). Furthermore, their figures suggest \(and here they are referring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to spinsters over the age of 30\) that ?A majority of daughters and sisters lived in )] TJ ET BT 421.964 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(female)] TJ ET BT 453.956 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-headed households, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were not the social dependants of men? \(p. 177\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These examples are suggestive of the diverse ways in which women may have conceptualised their domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities. The household could be the site of autonomy and independence for women. As the authors note, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?it is salutary to remember that wives comprised a minority of adult women? \(p. 232\). Equally compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are their findings concerning the intricate nature of family networks that comprised the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods. Such evidence should assist in reconceptualising the significance of community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood for Victorian middle-class women and shed new light on the complex contours of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations in the urban environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally, the restrictions of Gordon?s and Nair?s sample become apparent. For example, in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to prove that the image of the aged, impoverished spinster is an exaggerated stereotype, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note that ?those who remained in our area were not living in absolute poverty? \(p. 197\). While they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge that some women may have been ?forced to leave the area to live more cheaply elsewhere?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not allow this qualification to override their substantive point. Obviously, by selecting a solidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class sample area, they are unlikely to find people living in ?absolute poverty?, and so the logic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears rather strained. Also, much of their discussion tends to cluster in the mid-Victorian period \(where, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, the authors appear to be most at home\). Greater attention to both the 1830s and 1840s and post-1895 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years would have been most welcome. However, such minor quibbles should not detract from the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of these statistical surveys.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the reasons why this part of their book is largely successful is that it is able to appeal to both a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general and a specialist audience. Through the judicious use of vignettes they are able to bring this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion to life and thus combine statistical analysis with highly effective illustrations of how such trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted upon the lives of individuals. Certainly there appears to be a concerted effort to package the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so as to widen its appeal among a general audience. Many of its chapter headings are drawn from pop songs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?It?s a family affair?, ?What?s love got to do with it??, ?I will survive?\). Similarly the nature of many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s arguments appears to be designed to capitalise on popular interest in women?s history \(it shares the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same publisher as Amanda Vickery?s )] TJ ET BT 217.640 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman?s Daughter)] TJ ET BT 350.960 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \). This is particularly apparent in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader aim of exposing what the authors refer to as ?the many stereotypes about Victorian women and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families?. Here they are on trickier terrain, and the project of writing for a diverse audience begins to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumble somewhat. According to Nair and Gordon these stereotypes are diverse and ubiquitous. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book reads, at times, as a litany of such images: ?It is rare for the adjective ?Victorian? to be used other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pejoratively?, they proclaim on the first page. Elsewhere they complain of the ?commonly held view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian prudery? \(p. 126\), and at another point bemoan the fact that ?Too often the Victorians have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed as obsessed by appearances and ritual? \(p. 117\). Similar statements are peppered throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text, including the rather bizarre claim that ?the nineteenth century is frequently depicted as a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love conquered all? \(p. 71\) \(a point which is substantiated only by reference to Lawrence Stone?s work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where do all these stereotypes come from? The authors claim that ?In large part we have derived our \(i.e., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reading public?s\) view of the Victorian home from the prescriptive literature of the period? \(p. 107\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly they frequently evoke ?prescriptive literature? as the source of common misconceptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian family \(see pp. 58, 71, 89, 134-5\). Yet, the book is lacking in any detailed or systematic discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such literature. At one point the authors make rather vague reference to ?Enlightenment thinkers? \(p. 71\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the only prescriptive text to which they refer \(although it does not appear in the bibliography\) is Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kames?s )] TJ ET BT 80.336 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Loose hints upon education chiefly concerning the culture of the heart)] TJ ET BT 417.644 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As this text was published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1781, and was primarily directed towards upper-class women, it is hard to trace its relevance for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian middle class. The only contemporary source that the authors cite in this regard is the )] TJ ET BT 490.280 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Waverley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 71.348 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but as a reforming, proto-feminist periodical this can hardly be said to represent ?prescriptive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5432 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature?. A study of the wide range of genres and approaches that comprise what we might loosely term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prescriptive literature? would have been extremely helpful to Gordon?s and Nair?s discussion. As recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship has suggested, works such as the advice literature to women authored by the likes of Sarah Ellis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sarah Lewis actually articulated far more complicated, expansive and unpredictable views on women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role and domestic ideology than Gordon and Nair suppose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further, related, problem in constructing a book around such stereotypes is that the analytical framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in such a strategy is simply too unnuanced to allow for consistently arresting arguments. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is that the authors too often fall back upon self-evident truisms to structure their work. As they put it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their conclusion: ?Domestic ideology, then, did not have the effect of isolating nuclear families in ?fortress? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes, nor of stripping them of close association with the extended family. Neither did it inevitably elevate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the status of the ?man of the house? to that of demi-god? \(p. 233\). Who, in fact, has ever claimed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian male was endowed with quasi-divine status, or that the Victorian family was ?stripped? of contact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its wider kin? Moreover, as historians we all now know, )] TJ ET BT 330.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(surely)] TJ ET BT 360.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that Victorian middle-class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not ?debilitated and virtually housebound? \(p. 221\). Consequently many of Gordon?s and Nair?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions are lively and engaging but should be seen as amplifying and extending existing insights, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than as offering new interpretations. For example, given the richness of recent and emerging scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s business and economic opportunities \(think of the work of Penelope Lane, Margot Finn or Alastair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Owens, or the raft of recent PhD dissertations by such historians as Christina de Bellaigue, Nicola Pullin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Wiskin\), it is not surprising to learn that women of the Glaswegian middle class could exert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable financial agency \(although it is certainly useful to have these patterns more fully explored with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to Victorian Scotland.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their handling of the ?separate spheres? debate these issues become more telling. Here the authors follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much recent scholarship in arguing that ?The discourse of separate spheres, while powerful, is not sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain how middle-class women?s experience was shaped and their identities constructed? \(p. 7\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an approach has been so repeatedly considered, debated and exemplified over the last fifteen years that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments in this regard are unsurprising and somewhat predictable. Furthermore, although they rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out that the ideology of separate spheres was not ?a simple spatial contrast between a domestic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-domestic setting? \(p. 200\), much of their argument assumes just such a dichotomy. They use the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that women enjoyed dancing and visiting to argue that they ?went out into a world whose horizons ? were far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider than those suggested by the discourse of separate spheres? \(p. 202\). It was disappointing to find that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the analysis collapsed back into such a level of argument. Of course Victorian women went out: has anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever seriously argued that they were actually in a state of purdah? Now that historiographical debate on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters has reached such a mature state of affairs it would have been rewarding to see the issue of separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres considered at a more sophisticated level, perhaps through analysing the ways in which this language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have helped to structure identities and perceptions in more delicately-negotiated processes of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7606 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If many of their arguments appear to be knocking on a door that has already been flung open, Gordon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nair suggest that their particular contribution is to consider that the attention paid to gendered identities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years has been at the expense of analysing the common stock of values upon which both men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women drew. The ?middle-classness? of women, they assert, ?is often underestimated as a formative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on their identity? \(pp. 4-5\). In this the authors may be situated within a broader historical trend that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is seeking to investigate more precisely how gender may be conceptualised as but one factor in the matrix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. While their insistence that the gendered nature of domestic space has been greatly exaggerated is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible contribution to the debate, I was not fully convinced that their broader arguments were sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finely-tuned to further this project. For Gordon and Nair it appears to amount to recapturing the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of middle-class values such as ?liberalism?, ?Christian duty? and ?Protestant values of moral responsibility? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in analysing the subjectivities of middle-class women. If I have read them correctly, then, I find this a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzling. There are very few studies of middle-class women, I would venture, that have not taken such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values as an absolute given in their evaluation of female identity \(not least given the extensive literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to such themes as women and philanthropy, missionary work and religious engagement\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, there are muted hints that the authors might have been tempted to cross more innovative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual terrain. Their footnotes to the introduction include a citation to Terry Lovell?s excellent essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.332 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.332 542.979 m 239.324 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.324 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The potential implications of Lovell?s insights are not elaborated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text, but Lovell?s feminist reading of Bourdieu is highly suggestive as to the ways in which notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and gender may intersect, shift and complicate one another. It would have been instructive to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon and Nair might have developed such ideas with greater precision and intricacy in the course of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The absence of a fully-developed theoretical framework is also apparent in the blunt distinction that is drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout between the ?discursive? and the ?material?. They note, for example, that ?Middle-class mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not simply the products of domestic discourses? \(p. 147\), arguing further that ?the material context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that some things are not shaped by discourse alone? \(p. 235\). There is little sense here of the mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted nature of agents? material and discursive experience. Discursive identities emerge in this work as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously detached and abstract, rather than as rooted within a complex web of practice, experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. They are presented almost as goods on a supermarket shelf ? women can simply choose the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that most appeals, Gordon and Nair writing of a repertoire of discourses on which men and women could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw. A more satisfying analysis might have probed more deeply to consider the ways in which individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivities were constructed and how different kinds of identity formation were made possible. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints, influences and resistances led women to privilege one particular construction of femininity over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These criticisms perhaps stem from the inevitable difficulties associated with attempting to pitch a book at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both a specialist and a general audience. While the general reader might occasionally be a little perturbed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such phrases as, ?the occupation of space may have been diachronically gendered? \(p. 125\), on the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(for this reader at least\) the pendulum swung too far in the opposite direction. There are many points in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book where the authors? desire to state the obvious mars what might otherwise have been delightful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh descriptions of Victorian family life. Do we really need to be told that ?When not in each other?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company family members would correspond? \(p. 56\), or that families who lived close enough to one another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have paid short, rather than extended visits to each others? homes? \(p. 56\). At times this style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing can be distinctly unhelpful. I am sure that many hackles will be raised by their assertion that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Inasmuch as she \(the Victorian mother\) was a slave to her children, she would be a more than willing one? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 145\). This is not to detract from the purpose of catering for multiple audiences )] TJ ET BT 429.620 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 458.612 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. However, I think it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a project of enormous difficulty, and one that requires subtle analytical sophistication and exquisite prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it is truly to engage and convince such a broad constituency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, this is a book that will do much to inform and entertain ? not least because it succeeds so well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in bringing its subjects to life. Specialist readers may find themselves underwhelmed by the conceptual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative bases of the book, but it will bring further evidence to bear on the ongoing re-evaluation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3317 543.2935 239.3237 555.1735 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 1801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered identities in this period, as well as offering some intriguing glimpses into the highly variable nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Victorian middle-class domestic life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(July 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 721.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 690.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Lovell, ?Thinking feminism with and against Bourdieu?, in )] TJ ET BT 365.336 690.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Bourdieu on Society and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture)] TJ ET BT 100.688 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B. Fowler \(Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2000\), 27-48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.328 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.328 674.787 m 421.316 674.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 590.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 572.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 572.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/412)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 571.113 m 322.316 571.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 546.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2065)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/gordonnairresp.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 502.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.3277 675.1015 421.3157 686.9815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 661.3303 34.0157 661.3303 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/gordonnairresp.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 571.4275 322.3157 583.3075 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/412) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004772 00000 n 0000004881 00000 n 0000004991 00000 n 0000005100 00000 n 0000008661 00000 n 0000008789 00000 n 0000008873 00000 n 0000008938 00000 n 0000016735 00000 n 0000016800 00000 n 0000022285 00000 n 0000022369 00000 n 0000030028 00000 n 0000030058 00000 n 0000030186 00000 n 0000030222 00000 n 0000030320 00000 n 0000032174 00000 n 0000032302 00000 n 0000032357 00000 n 0000032483 00000 n 0000032613 00000 n 0000032741 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32836 %%EOF