%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827092248+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827092248+01'00') /Title (Review Article: Early Stuart Foreign Policy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3205 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Early Stuart Foreign Policy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early Stuart foreign policy remains a relatively neglected topic, despite mounting evidence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of international religious conflicts in British political culture and the strains imposed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of war on the British state. Jonathan Scott has recently called for a systematic rethinking of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period based on a recognition of the fundamental importance of the European context of the Thirty Years? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, but even he has relatively little to say about the Stuart monarchy's attempts to intervene in continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(413)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glyn Redworth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300101988X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brennan Pursell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754634019X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(338pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Malcolm Smuts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7758 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.356 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.356 795.075 m 86.348 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.348 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One reason for this neglect stems from the stubborn insularity of English historiography; another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that any serious student of international relations needs to master continental European, as well as English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives. These two books attempt to overcome this challenge and, although one succeeds better than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, both are to be welcomed for this reason.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth's study offers the fullest account of the Spanish Match ? the ill-fated effort to marry the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I to the Infanta Maria of Spain ? since Gardiner. It draws upon Spanish sources unavailable to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great Victorian scholar, while advancing a bold thesis certain to provoke controversy. Clearly written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often vigorous prose, it will be as accessible to students and general readers as to experts. Unfortunately it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also glosses over complexities requiring fuller and more nuanced treatment, making this a book to be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with caution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth is at his best when illuminating the tangle of political, diplomatic and personal relationships at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the marriage negotiations. He provides the fullest available discussion in English of Spain's famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador Gondomar and his mission to England. A highly ambitious politician of minor noble stock, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gondomar was also a scholar and the owner of the largest private library in Spain, and his intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplishments helped him establish a close relationship with James I of England and English courtiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Francis Bacon and the Earl of Arundel. Redworth argues that James's friendship with Gondomar also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from their shared sense of being strangers in England and the enjoyment they took in exchanging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on the peculiar behaviour of the natives. Shortly after arriving in London on his first embassy of 1614, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gondomar reassured James that Spain would not interfere with his rule in Ireland if, in exchange, James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrained corsairs in American waters. He then proposed a marriage alliance, offering as bait a dowry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(500,000 \(later enlarged to 600,000\), which seemed especially attractive after the failure of the 1614 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament. Redworth thinks that Gondomar's enthusiasm for this match, which he believed would advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own career, and his superficial knowledge of Spanish court politics caused him to underestimate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties that religious differences would pose in its negotiation in ways that ultimately misled James. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although deserving of serious consideration, this conclusion is not entirely supported by a recent Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, which presents evidence that Gondomar and his superiors had considerable doubts as early as 1620 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the English would ever agree to religious conditions acceptable to Spain and Rome.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.632 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.632 400.419 m 470.624 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.624 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gondomar?s continued interest in the Match, despite the obstacles, appears to have stemmed from his view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the commercial and naval strength of the English and Dutch made it imperative for Spain to prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two powers from allying against her interests, at least as much as from purely personal ambition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth also provides a fresh account of events surrounding the 1621 parliament, uncovering new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation of Buckingam's pro-Spanish views and providing an original interpretation of the genesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Commons' petition for war with Spain that precipitated the parliament's dissolution. More than most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, he stresses James's fear and resentment of bellicose Protestantism as the main motivation for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to ally with Spain. Some historians may argue with the assertion that 'it is in?moments when James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lashes out [to Gondomar] that we get closest to finding out who he felt his real enemies were' \(p. 42\), since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the King had every reason to exaggerate his anti-puritan sentiments when talking to the Spanish ambassador. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the royal outbursts recorded in the Spanish documents Redworth has uncovered, such as James's boast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that puritans were taking the place of recusants in English jails after the 1621 dissolution, are certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book next proceeds to develop a fresh interpretation of the journey of Charles and Buckingham to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid, which has perplexed historians almost as much as it did contemporaries. The prince and duke had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('their own secret contacts with Madrid' \(p. 51\) and thought that they understood the situation there better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the King's diplomats. In May 1622 Charles told Gondomar he was willing to travel incognito to Spain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrongly concluding this meant that the prince was ready to convert to Catholicism, and seeing a chance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance his own career, Gondomar encouraged the scheme. Unfortunately he never enjoyed the confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the inner circle around Philip IV, although his skill at self-promotion had disguised this fact from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English court. He therefore did not know that on his deathbed Philip III had implored his heir not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude the Match and that Olivares was already searching for a way to break it without driving England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a war. To dissimulate until he could perfect an alternative scheme, Olivares also deceived Charles's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.3557 795.3895 86.3477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.6317 400.7335 470.6237 412.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7875 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal envoy, Endymion Porter, into thinking the Match was virtually concluded. The prince's trip thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place amidst a tangle of false hopes and misunderstandings. His initial lavish welcome in Madrid ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Redworth describes well ? inevitably gave way to friction and mounting suspicion, as the Spaniards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slowly realised that he was not going to convert and demanded new religious concessions, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament's ratification of freedom of worship for English Catholics, to stall the Infanta's marriage to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretic prince. By early May 1623 Charles concluded that negotiations had reached an impasse and asked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permission to return to London, which Olivares refused. 'The Prince of Wales was captive in a foreign land' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 111\). In order to escape, on 7 July he suddenly agreed, in bad faith, to all Spanish demands. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonished the Spanish court, which now felt that it had no choice but to proceed with the marriage; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth thinks Charles's deception fooled everyone except Olivares and possibly James.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it may require modification by further work on Spanish court politics, much of this narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems plausible. A more complete study would need to pay more attention to internal disagreements within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish regime and events like the fall of Lerma and rise of Olivares during the period of Gondomar?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residence in London. Gondomar had stronger contacts with Lerma?s regime than with that of his successor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fact that may have complicated his efforts to assess the changing directions of Spanish policy from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distant post in London. But even if Redworth oversimplifies, his argument that the Match became entangled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a web of misunderstandings appears essentially correct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He will meet more resistance, on the other hand, in making his further claim that in pursuing the Match the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English were prepared to sacrifice the interests of James's son-in-law, Frederick V Elector Palatine, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principality had been conquered by Spanish and other Catholic armies. Previous accounts have mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that the Palatinate's restoration was a central objective of Stuart policy, and that a diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution tied to the Spanish Match provided an alternative to war. Redworth argues that, on the contrary, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return of the Palatinate was always a secondary concern in London. His evidence consists partly of letters by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English diplomat John Digby, telling his superiors that Spain was unwilling to provide more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic assistance in the recovery of the Palatinate, but even more of a document showing that James was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to conclude the Match without an explicit agreement over the Elector's restoration, after receiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Porter's optimistic report in 1623. Charles's and Buckingham's determination to make war on Spain after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Match collapsed must therefore have owed more to wounded pride and a petty desire for revenge than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern for the Frederick of Bohemia. The larger strategic objectives used to justify attacking Spain ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense of German Protestantism and the vindication of the dynastic rights of Charles's sister and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband ? were, Redworth argues, merely 'a twisted excuse for a war of vanity' \(p. 5\). These contentions not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only challenge other accounts of late Jacobean foreign policy, they also implicitly undermine revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts at rehabilitating the reputations of England's first two Stuart monarchs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth?s evidence is less conclusive than he appears to think, however. Even if James was willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude a marriage alliance without a simultaneous agreement over the Palatinate, it does not necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow that he intended to abandon his son-in-law. He might well have hoped that Spanish diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance would still eventually achieve a satisfactory solution. Another English agent in Madrid, Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aston, remained optimistic on this score, while at the time of Porter's departure for Madrid an observer at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English court reported that the prince's secretary, Francis Cottington, had returned from Spain with 'great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and plausible assurances )] TJ ET BT 154.988 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 176.324 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the restitution of the Palatinate and of the accomplishment of the marriage.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same observer also stated that while awaiting the outcome of Porter's mission a committee had begun to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet to consider preparations for war, 'wherein the Prince showeth himself a fervent and forward actor', who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclaimed that 'he would never harken to the marriage till the Palatinate were restored'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.908 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.908 160.323 m 470.900 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.900 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles )] TJ ET BT 73.676 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(might)] TJ ET BT 101.012 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have been insincere in this claim, we cannot fully assess his attitude without deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the full range of military and diplomatic options under consideration at the time, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to provide limited military assistance to the Elector's cause without a formal rupture with Spain, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example by encouraging English volunteers to enlist for military service in Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, even if Redworth is right in thinking that the Stuarts would have abandoned the Palatinate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return for a Spanish marriage alliance, it need not follow that their policy was motivated by a myopic desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for peace at any price and subsequently by petty vanity. This study's greatest weakness lies in its failure to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.9077 160.6375 470.8997 172.5175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6094 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a more complex and nuanced analysis of the wider political, diplomatic and military contexts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the marriage negotiations. The problem is exemplified at the start of chapter 3, dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central European background, where Redworth sweepingly asserts that Princess 'Elizabeth's marriage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick, instead of enhancing her father's reputation as a peacemaker, was to have devastating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the reputation of James and his son for sound judgment' \(p. 19\). He does not support this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement with any sustained discussion of reactions in Madrid or other European capitals to Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German alliance, and what little evidence he does provide comes almost entirely from the period following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outbreak of war in the Empire in 1619, )] TJ ET BT 241.316 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(six years)] TJ ET BT 283.640 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( after the Palatine marriage took place. While there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that Frederick's decision to accept the Bohemian crown and the crushing Habsburg military response it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked placed James in a very awkward position, these events could not have been foreseen in 1613 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James had no direct control over them. By jumping from 1613 to 1619 Redworth evades the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing what James originally hoped to achieve by the Palatine match and whether he had any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for Frederick's disastrous challenge to Habsburg rule in Bohemia. There is no attempt here to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a balanced account of the evolution of James's policies, the internal debates over Germany within his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council and the extremely difficult diplomatic, strategic and military problems that the Stuarts faced as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplated the prospects of war. Instead we are presented with a narrative dominated by shallow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities and simplistic choices between starkly opposed policy options, lacking any sense of nuance or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Pursell is more concerned with Frederick than with James and Charles, and with Germany than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with England, he still manages to provide a useful corrective to Redworth's simplifications. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly convincing in showing the contingent nature of the circumstances leading up to Frederick's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disastrous defeat at the Battle of White Mountain and the subsequent loss of the Palatinate. In 1618 The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire did not appear poised on the brink of full-scale religious war. There were certainly tensions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including those produced by the attempts of Catholic princes to chip away at the privileges and property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed by Protestants within their territories. Like some other Protestant leaders, Frederick saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburgs as a dynasty intent on subverting the Empire's constitution by establishing a hereditary claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial title and extending imperial power at the expense of the liberties and privileges of the electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college and other German institutions. The role of Spanish diplomacy and the occasional participation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish troops in German affairs also aroused fear and resentment. But there was a deep commitment, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic as well as Protestant rulers, to settling disputes by peaceful means and without the intervention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign states. Thus, when the Bohemian estates rebelled, both they and their Habsburg adversary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferdinand, had considerable difficulty in gaining military support. The governments of Denmark, France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain and Britain all wanted a mediated settlement, while even Frederick hesitated before accepting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bohemian crown, hoping to promote the candidacy of the Catholic but anti-Habsburg Duke of Savoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead. As the local crisis escalated, with relatively small Bohemian armies invading Austria to besiege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vienna, a hardline faction in Madrid eventually prevailed in obtaining limited military assistance for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor. But even after a string of decisive Catholic victories in 1620?21, the Spanish Crown wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid an open-ended engagement in Germany, while all the major Protestant powers except the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitated to commit themselves. It is therefore clear that James was not obtuse in hoping to achieve a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic settlement; moreover his reluctance to break with Spain closely resembled the attitude of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant princes.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7379 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pursell makes a good case that Frederick's refusal to relinquish his claims to Bohemia and to compromise on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other issues did more than anything else to obstruct a settlement and enlarge the war. Believing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(righteousness of his cause and the support of God, he continued to pursue unrealistic objectives, bringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added military disasters upon himself, his allies and his subjects, while further angering the Habsburgs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exasperating his own allies, especially James I. Relations between James and his son-in-law grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly tense and querulous, as the latter's provocative behaviour undercut efforts to negotiate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement on his behalf. Frederick believed that the Habsburgs would never negotiate away their gains, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the only hope lay in inciting a larger war. He therefore disapproved strongly of the Spanish Match and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined to refrain from new military initiatives during its negotiation, until the army of his ally Halberstadt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was destroyed by Tilly on 6 August 1623.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite devoting only a few pages to the Spanish Match, Pursell offers a very different interpretation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redworth, arguing that while in Madrid Charles continued to press for Frederick's restoration until he met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an outright refusal from Olivares. 'This exchange may have been the moment in which he decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave Spain and forsake negotations' \(p. 204\). Even after Charles's return to London, Pursell argues, he, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially James, had not given up on negotiations but continued to canvas alternative schemes, such as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage between Frederick's heir and a daughter of the Emperor or the Duke of Bavaria. But these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic efforts faltered, in part because Frederick refused to countenance them, while alternative plans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for contracting alliances with the Dutch, French and other powers hostile to Spain and the Emperor moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James's death in March 1625 came as a relief to Frederick and also unleashed a flurry of Palatine lobbying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among English politicians, urging a resort to war. The ultimate goal was to contract an alliance centering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Protestant states \(Britain, Denmark, the Dutch and Sweden\) but perhaps also including the French, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Savoy and the Republic of Venice 'to wage a dynastic, not a religious war for a constitutional end', i.e. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick's unconditional restoration. But since these powers had their own disparate goals and interests, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full coalition never materialised, and the governments that did come to Frederick?s aid often failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperate fully with each other. Moreover, as the war spread into northern Germany, pulling in previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral states, the Palatinate ceased to be the central issue. The elector had got the wider conflict he wanted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the defeat of Denmark in 1626 and disengagement of Britain in 1629, after a series of military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political debacles, left him no closer to achieving his objectives. Gustavus Adolphus's intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany provided renewed hope, since the Swedish king 'saw that no peace in Germany was secure or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feasible without Frederick's restoration' \(p. 270\). But Gustavus was more interested in using Frederick to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extract support for his campaign from Charles I and other Palatine allies than in the constitutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious principles underlying the Palatine cause. Although Frederick joined the Swedish army he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grown disillusioned some time before his death from fever on 30 November 1632, some thirteen days after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Gustavus himself. The issue of the Palatinate was only finally settled in 1648 through a compromise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very similar to the one James had suggested a quarter of a century before. By then the principality's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population had been reduced by 75 per cent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pursell's book raises a few issues on which more discussion is needed. He presents Frederick as a figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily motivated by constitutional rather than religious concerns, who was perfectly happy to tolerate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutherans and Catholics, and even to ally with Catholic states, to defeat what he perceived as Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny. Since Ferdinand was also motivated by his conviction that Frederick threatened the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution, more than by religious zeal, Pursell argues that it is misleading to call the Thirty Years? War a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war of religion. This is convincing on one level and Pursell has certainly provided a corrective to stereotyped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of Frederick and Ferdinand as dogmatic confessional rivals. But his own evidence also demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how frequently religious and constitutional issues became thoroughly intertwined, making a clear distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them impossible to sustain. Protestants were so touchy about constitutional issues partly because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had reason to believe that wherever Catholic princes had enlarged their power ? in France and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Netherlands as well as parts of Germany ? they were using it to undermine reformed churches. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma of how to respond to this challenge ? whether through peaceful political and judicial protests or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent resistance ? separated moderate Huguenot leaders from more intransigent figures like the Duke of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7943 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rohan, in much the same way it that it separated Frederick from a Lutheran prince like the Duke of Saxony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or from James I.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.664 780.819 m 126.656 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It also divided English Protestant politicians as they looked across the Channel at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European situation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is therefore worth thinking more carefully about how worries over the )] TJ ET BT 383.276 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(long term)] TJ ET BT 429.608 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( survival of Protestantism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered into political calculations and policy debates, even over seemingly secular issues. To what extent did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreement or confusion over this issue undermine the cohesion of Protestant alliances, while also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing internal fissures within Protestant governments? In a telling discussion Pursell explains that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplating whether to accept the Bohemain crown Frederick sent letters to London soliciting advice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James failed to respond but the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Abbot, did, urging Frederick to accept. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pursell believes that Princess Elizabeth may also have encouraged her husband to believe that he would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her father's support. Frederick's disastrous decision to accept the crown therefore stemmed not just from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own rashness but from the confusing signals he received from an internally divided English regime. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible explanation is that James failed both to discipline his own council and to make his own views clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until it was too late. But Garcia Oro's study of Gondomar has turned up intriguing evidence that the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities believed James to be acting in bad faith, by pretending to support Habsburg interests and peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while he secretly intrigued with the Dutch and other Protestant powers to foment trouble.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.960 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.960 569.235 m 475.952 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.952 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although it runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter to almost everything English historians have written about James's policies and may well be wrong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this contemporary view at least merits careful consideration. Did James miscalculate not by seeking peace at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any price, as some contemporaries and many later historians have claimed, but by duplicitously encouraging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick's Bohemain venture in the belief that, if it succeeded, it would serve Stuart interests and, if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed, his diplomacy could negotiate a line of retreat?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By concentrating on Frederick and portraying him as the central cause of the escalation of the Bohemian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis into the Thirty Years? War, Pursell may at times obscure the role of other dimensions of the conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But his book is a thoroughly researched and intelligent study that unquestionably breaks new ground. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although less satisfying, Redworth's study also reopens old questions by using fresh evidence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European archives. One hopes that these books herald the start of a trend toward a more cosmopolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to Stuart politics that will at last allow us to situate early modern Britain more adequately within its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Scott, )] TJ ET BT 140.348 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England's Troubles: Seventeenth-Century English Instability in European Context)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 306.387 m 212.324 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jos Garca Oro, )] TJ ET BT 147.320 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuna, Conde de Gondomar y Embajador de Espana )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1567?1627\): Estudio Biografico)] TJ ET BT 224.012 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Xunta de Galicia, 1997\), chapter 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.632 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.632 277.875 m 459.620 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trumbull manuscripts, v. 7, pieces 81 and 82 \(old numeration\), William Beaulieu to William )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trumbull, 11 October 1622, italics added. For Aston see )] TJ ET BT 337.988 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ibid)] TJ ET BT 356.660 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v. 2, 143, 148, 182. For these documents )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have used Library of Congress microfilms LCM041/Camb/194 and 196; the Trumbull manuscripts )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are now in the British Library.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.996 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.996 220.851 m 263.984 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre and Solange Deyon, )] TJ ET BT 195.656 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henri de Rohan)] TJ ET BT 272.312 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.304 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.304 206.595 m 394.292 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Garca Oro, 307?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.652 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.652 192.339 m 220.640 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Pursell wishes to thank Professor Smuts for his sympathetic and balanced review. If readers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested, they can find a fuller statement of my views on the Spanish Match in The Historical Journal, vol. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45, 4 \(2002\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 93.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 75.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 75.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/413)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 74.553 m 322.316 74.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6637 781.1335 126.6557 793.0135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9597 569.5495 475.9517 581.4295 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 306.7015 212.3237 318.5815 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.6317 278.1895 459.6197 290.0695 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9957 221.1655 263.9837 233.0455 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3037 206.9095 394.2917 218.7895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6517 192.6535 220.6397 204.5335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 74.8675 322.3157 86.7475 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/413) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2067)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2069)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000003906 00000 n 0000004015 00000 n 0000004125 00000 n 0000004234 00000 n 0000007795 00000 n 0000007923 00000 n 0000008007 00000 n 0000008098 00000 n 0000015909 00000 n 0000015939 00000 n 0000016065 00000 n 0000016101 00000 n 0000016131 00000 n 0000016259 00000 n 0000016295 00000 n 0000016379 00000 n 0000024307 00000 n 0000024337 00000 n 0000024465 00000 n 0000024501 00000 n 0000024566 00000 n 0000030713 00000 n 0000030778 00000 n 0000038210 00000 n 0000038343 00000 n 0000046339 00000 n 0000046369 00000 n 0000046497 00000 n 0000046533 00000 n 0000046563 00000 n 0000046691 00000 n 0000046727 00000 n 0000046855 00000 n 0000046910 00000 n 0000047038 00000 n 0000047093 00000 n 0000047221 00000 n 0000047276 00000 n 0000047404 00000 n 0000047459 00000 n 0000047587 00000 n 0000047642 00000 n 0000047768 00000 n 0000047863 00000 n 0000047928 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48305 %%EOF