%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721175910+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721175910+01'00') /Title (Lord Cromer: Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Proconsul) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4260 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Lord Cromer: Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Proconsul)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is curious that it should have taken imperial proconsul Lord Cromer \(1841?1917, Evelyn Baring until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1892\) nearly a century to find a scholarly biographer worthy of his centrality to British, imperial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian history in the Victorian-Edwardian age. The Marquess of Zetland?s now 72-year-old )] TJ ET BT 490.256 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lord Cromer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1932\) displays the frequent defects of official biography. Roger Owen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that in contrast to another great proconsular symbol of Britain?s imperial noon, Lord Curzon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromer ?is hardly remembered outside the Egyptian context? and that his ?once mighty reputation has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost totally disappeared? \(p. vii\). Much of the difference must lie in Curzon?s post-Calcutta prominence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as foreign secretary in the critical post-war years from 1919 to 1924.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a time of intense debate about American empire today, Owen?s )] TJ ET BT 356.612 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lord Cromer)] TJ ET BT 420.284 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( takes its place alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing number of books reassessing earlier empires. The author notes that the current wave of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation strikes many of the same chords as a century ago, when Cromer wrestled with global issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international finance, bankruptcy, and economic orthodoxies on fiscal management, loans and free trade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Late nineteenth-century globalisation was different, however, in coinciding with the high tide of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion and in openly using white racial superiority to justify subjugating others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is Owen?s first biography, but it brings his scholarly work full circle. In 1966 he published his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic article on ?The Influence of Lord Cromer?s Indian Experience on British Policy in Egypt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(414)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Owen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199253382X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(460pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Reid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1883?1907.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 795.075 m 109.664 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subtitle ?Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Proconsul? conveys well the author?s determination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project Cromer?s image well beyond the Egyptian stage. Owen tracked the residences and offices of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject not just to Cairo but also to Malta, Calcutta, and Simla. He devotes 60-odd pages to a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of Baring?s Indian years ? as private secretary to his cousin Viceroy Lord Northbrook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1872?76\) and then as financial adviser to Viceroy Lord Ripon \(1880?83\). But before India and ?the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire in Africa? Baring served ?in the old empire of island fortresses like Corfu and Malta? and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly in the West Indian sugar colony of Jamaica. After leaving Cairo in 1907, Cromer?s writing and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches in the House of Lords engaged issues on both the British domestic and the imperial scene beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Owen has exhaustively mined the private papers of Cromer, the Baring-Cromer family, and their British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries. He draws on some two dozen sets of papers, many never used before for Cromer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like most men of his time and class, Cromer jealously guarded his inner life, and the exterior mask hardened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the years went by. Most of the correspondence of the successive Lady Cromers \(ne Ethel Errington and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Thynne\) is missing, but a few of his letters and notes to them have survived and reveal the depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his devotion. Losing Ethel to kidney disease in 1898 cast a pall over the British Residency, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromer?s second marriage in 1901 only partially alleviated. Glimpses of the man?s lighter side come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through in his friendship with Edward Lear, the painter and nonsense poet whose verse Cromer sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitated. This biography also uncovers the deepest Victorian secret of all, the illegitimate daughter Louisa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sophia whom Baring sired, presumably with a Corfiote mistress, in 1863. Letters from the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop of Corfu reveal that Baring supported Louisa with twice-yearly payments and a final lump sum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when she turned eighteen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such intimate glimpses aside, )] TJ ET BT 179.684 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lord Cromer)] TJ ET BT 243.356 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is primarily the story of a public life. Well-chosen part, chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and section titles usher the reader down a logical chronological-thematic path. Two of the life?s four parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are preparatory: ?The training of an officer and a gentleman, 1841?1872? and ?An apprenticeship in imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and international finance, 1872?1883?. The centrepiece is ?Governing Egypt, 1883?1907? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concluding part is ?Reimmersion in British political life, 1907?1917?. Slightly more than half of the 400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages treat the Egyptian years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One source of particular interest is the ?Biographical Notes?, which Cromer assembled in 1905 with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children and any future biographer in mind. Here he cast his life as a morality tale of an indifferently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated and undisciplined young man reformed by the love of a good woman. The power of this narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line deeply affected Zetland?s biography. Owen is careful to keep the trope at an appropriate critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance, comparing the Biographical Notes carefully with contemporary evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1762 Evelyn Baring?s paternal grandfather Francis founded the Baring family?s banking firm in London. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn, who was the eleventh child of his father Henry, spent his first years on the family estate in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fishing port of Cromer in Norfolk. Henry died when Evelyn was seven, and his mother Cecilia packed him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off to boarding school. At eleven he entered a military preparatory school and at fourteen the Royal Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy at Woolwich. He graduated at seventeen with an artillery commission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From 1858 to 1867 Baring was aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Storks, High Commissioner of Corfu and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governor of Malta. Baring enjoyed hunting and society at the governor?s palace but also began acquiring on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own the classical education he had missed in military schools. In 1866 he assisted Stokes on a royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission of inquiry into the repression of a rebellion in Jamaica. After two years of Staff College back in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, Baring helped implement post-Crimean reforms at the War Office, where his older cousin Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northbrook was under-secretary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Northbrook became viceroy of India in 1872, he took Baring along as private secretary. Here, in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 795.3895 109.6637 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6460 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit of Gladstonian Liberalism, Baring crystallised the administrative desiderata for governing subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples which he professed all his life: tight control of expenditure, a simple and low tax structure, minimal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military strength, concern for peasant welfare, and an eye on the press as a gauge of local public opinion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back at the War Office in 1876, 35-year-old Baring finally married Ethel Errington, the death of her father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having removed his veto over a non-Catholic match.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Retiring from the army in 1877 after twenty years, Baring went to Cairo as British commissioner on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caisse de la Dette Publique. Khedive Ismail had plunged Egypt into bankruptcy, and the Caisse was set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to protect the interests of European creditors. Owen devotes 40 pages to Baring?s immersion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration and politics of Egypt?s international debt. Khedive Ismail was deposed in favour of his docile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son Tawfiq, and in 1879?80 Baring became British controller of finances in the Egyptian government. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Europeans, he underestimated Egyptians? anti-European feelings and indigenous junior officers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resentment of the Turco-Circassians? monopoly of high army posts. In 1880 Baring left for three years in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India as financial officer under Lord Ripon. Baring?s Gladstonian Liberalism had its limits: he had to defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opium exports to China as essential to the Indian budget and opined ?we shall not subvert the British Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by allowing the Bengali Baboo to discuss his own schools and drains. Rather we can afford him a safety-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valve if we can turn his attentions to these innocuous subjects? \(p. 168\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile in Egypt the Urabi revolution and the ensuing British occupation unsettled the established order. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In September 1883 Baring arrived back in Cairo as British agent and consul-general with a mandate for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor reforms and a prompt withdrawal of British troops. He had the advantage of already knowing Khedive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tawfiq and Riaz, Nubar and Sharif, the pashas who had lately held the prime ministry. Baring?s initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(request to slash the British garrison from 6,700 to 3,000 and withdraw it from Cairo proves his initial belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in early evacuation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Sudanese Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad?s defeat of a British-officered Egyptian expedition under Colonel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hicks in November 1883, however, changed everything. Gladstone?s cabinet ordered Egypt to evacuate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sudan to the Egyptian frontier, dispatching Charles ?Chinese? Gordon, with Baring?s support, to Khartoum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to carry this out. Gordon?s death in the fall of Khartoum in January 1885 prepared the ground for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual Anglo-Egyptian reconquest of the Sudan a dozen years later. Baring, Gladstone and Gordon each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had their partisans in distributing blame for the 1885 fiasco, and recriminations continue to this day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From 1885 to 1887 Baring ran a ?race against bankruptcy? \(p. 215\) ? struggling to find the money to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up payments on Egypt?s debt, pay for the occupying army, finance the administration, and fend off French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and British domestic objections to the occupation. He decided against evacuating Egypt in the foreseeable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future. Perhaps without fully realizing it, he)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had helped to place Egypt on a path along which the only logical destination was not self-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government but annexation ? the country would now be subject to the familiar colonial process )] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which the more reforms were implemented, the more further reform was seen as absolutely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary[.] \(p. 233\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the next decade Baring worked to convince opinion makers back home, from cabinet ministers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists, that Britain must stay in Egypt. Alfred Milner?s )] TJ ET BT 323.012 172.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in Egypt)] TJ ET BT 407.012 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Edward Arnold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1891\), an unabashed defense of the occupation, was a powerful weapon in this campaign. Alternating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative and Liberal cabinets under Salisbury and Gladstone complicated his task. Gradually he came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that the Conservatives looked out for imperial interests better than his own Liberal Party. By the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s few Britons still believed in evacuation. Only Cromer?s fellow aristocrat and nemesis Wilfrid Blunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept up a persistent drumbeat of opposition to Britain?s empire on the Nile right through Cromer?s tenure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all but his last three years in Cairo, Cromer had to fight against French resistance to the British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Egypt. He railed at what he saw as French obstructionism, often expressed through the Mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tribunals or the Caisse de la Dette Publique, which delayed or hindered reforms he thought necessary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally in 1904, the Anglo-French Entente afforded him a triumph ? a hand for Britain in Egypt in return for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one for France in Morocco.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the late 1890s, Cromer implemented what would now be called privatisation, circumventing French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other European interests on the Caisse by raising loans through Ernest Cassel and his local banking partners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Egypt. Cassel set up the National Bank of Egypt, which obtained a monopoly on issuing Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banknotes. He also made immense profits at Egyptian government expense through a concession to sell off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state lands of the Daira Saniya. Cromer came to recognise the dangers of permitting such profiteering but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had only limited success in reining it in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irrigation improvements inspired by British experience in India and often supervised by Anglo-Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineers were central to Cromer?s plan to revive Egyptian agriculture and government revenues, benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant and landlord alike, and reap political support for the occupation. He repaired the barrage north of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cairo and in 1902 crowned the irrigation improvements with the Aswan dam. Owen suggests that he thereby)] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presided over one of the world?s first modern green revolutions, in which a temporary surge in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yields and outputs based on a combination of extra water and more prolific strains of cotton was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bought at a longer-term cost in terms of waterlogging and an intensification of pest attacks )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning in the early 1900s. \(p. 397\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With Egypt firmly fixed in his mind as an agricultural country exporting raw cotton to industrial Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromer refused tariff protection to fledgling Egyptian-based textile factories. His educational policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famously failed to accommodate the demands of the growing urban middle class. His Indian experience had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led him to fear that underemployed graduates of Western-style schools were likely to turn to nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest. He starved the several higher professional schools and the primary and secondary system that fed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, left the traditional religiously-centred education concentrated on al-Azhar alone, and offered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses only a few years of terminal elementary schooling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of chapter 16, ?Things fall apart?, aptly describes the last three years of Cromer?s reign. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cocksure belief in his own righteousness and the ill will or depravity of his opponents, the narrow scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on public opinion which filtered to him through Oriental Secretary Boyle, the return of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberals to power back home, and the rapid crystallisation of Egyptian nationalism all contributed to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoing. The limited victory of the Anglo-French Entente in 1904 encouraged his dream of sweeping away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining international constraints on British freedom of action in Egypt. He wanted to abolish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capitulations and Mixed Tribunals and set up a European legislative council alongside the existing Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Under benevolent British hegemony, he even dreamed of ?fusing together all the races of the Valley of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nile? \(p. 332\) Owen is on the mark here: ?it is difficult to exaggerate the extraordinary, and misguided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition behind this exercise in what would now be called ?nation-building.? Even more striking than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreality of the whole project is the megalomania involved? \(p. 332\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The outrageous death, prison and flogging sentences handed down to delta villagers at Dinshway in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer of 1906 ? punishment for their resistance to British troops shooting pigeons in the neighborhood ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised Cromer?s detractors in Egypt and back home in parliament. The concessions of Cromer?s last few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months, such as resurrecting the ministry of public instruction under future national hero Sa?d Zaghlul, came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too little and too late. Cromer resigned in the spring of 1907.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back home he nursed his health and published )] TJ ET BT 259.988 103.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Egypt)] TJ ET BT 328.976 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Macmillan & Co.\) early in 1908. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then he began the final stage of his career as a politician in the House of Lords and an essayist. Avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public comment on the travails of his hand-picked successor Sir Eldon Gorst in Egypt, Cromer concluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Empire was in danger from without ? the Germans ? and within ? from suffragists, the Irish, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialists. He anguished over the constitutional crisis of 1909?11 prompted by Lloyd George?s budget and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the powers of the House of Lords but decided to make the campaign against women?s suffrage his top )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority. In 1910, with Curzon at his side, he presided over the merger of separate men?s and women?s anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragist leagues into the National League for Opposing Women?s Suffrage. He was president; Curzon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why did the great proconsul focus on votes for women as the most pressing issue of those unsettling times? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He feared that the Empire might be at stake: ?As the ?German man is manly [and] the German woman is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womanly ? can we hope to compete with such a nation as this if we war against nature and endeavour to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invert the natural role of the sexes??? \(p. 375\) What of ?the unsexed woman voting at the polling booth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaiming on the platform and in Parliament, and possibly sitting at the desk of the Cabinet Minister to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decide some question affecting the destinies and interests of her fellow-countrymen and women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antipodes?? \(p. 374\) Or was the worry closer to home? Cromer?s old enemy Blunt gleefully gossiped to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary that ?Lady Cromer has become a suffragette in opposition to her Lord? \(p. 375\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars everywhere will be indebted to Owen for this masterful biography. Thoughtful Egyptians will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly disagree that ?For better, and often worse, Lord Cromer is as much a part of Egypt?s history as he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Britain?s? \(p. xii\). Owen correctly reminds us that ?many of Cromer?s Egyptian contemporaries were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more ready to acknowledge some of the positive effects of his rule than most of those who followed? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. xiv\). Yet the author is uneasy about how Egyptians will receive his book:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final word to my Egyptian friends. I am well aware that by writing about someone as well )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known and well hated as Lord Cromer I run the risk of appearing as an apologist of empire, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which I am certainly not. \(p. xii\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Owen is not an apologist of empire. As illustrated above, some of his assessments of Cromer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record are harsh, as they should be. Yet for all his negative remarks, Owen?s admiration for the man?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability, energy, determination, and achievements shines through. Owen takes most seriously the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographer?s and historian?s duty of viewing things through the eyes of the subject and his contemporaries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Owen?s perceptive reflections keep the reader well aware of twenty-first century perspectives. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer was frequently reminded of the arrogance, ignorance, hypocrisy and folly of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American empire in Iraq.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like all important books, this biography will challenge scholars to further research, amendment, extension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reinterpretation. In light of the excesses of many applications of psychological theory to history, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may feel relieved that Owen sticks close to his sources on such matters as the paucity of parental warmth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval in Baring?s childhood, his austerity and authoritarianism as an adult, and the fierceness with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he fought women?s suffrage. Owen does reflect on the corrupting effects of power, but in light of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on masculinity and femininity in relation to empire, one wishes he had pushed a bit further. Cromer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Curzon together at the head of the anti-suffrage crusade cries out for further analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The vantage points of Owen?s )] TJ ET BT 182.984 201.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lord Cromer)] TJ ET BT 246.656 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are mainly the imperial centre and the colonial outpost in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery: Whitehall and ?the man on the spot? in the British residency on the Nile. If the sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably overwhelmingly British, at least anti-occupation Gladstonian Liberals and the eccentric and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acerbic Wilfrid Blunt make sure that the views are not monolithic. But there is room for further inquiry into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others? reactions to Cromer and his public persona ? from the French diplomats with whom he sparred for so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years and above all from the Egyptians over whom he ruled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subtitle ?Victorian Imperialist, Edwardian Proconsul? is excellent for situating its subject in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global context but at the cost of omitting the crucial word that would call this book up in a title search under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Egypt?. Egyptian public opinion as viewed through the eyes of Boyle, Cromer, and Blunt is fascinating, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more should be done from Arabic primary and secondary sources. One wishes for more analyses direct from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 2227 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabic sources, such as the interesting analysis of )] TJ ET BT 275.636 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-Manar)] TJ ET BT 321.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s review ? presumably by Rashid Rida ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromer?s )] TJ ET BT 83.672 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Egypt)] TJ ET BT 152.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and of Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid?s balance sheet on Cromer?s reign in )] TJ ET BT 485.264 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-Jarida)] TJ ET BT 529.928 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, Owen has written a biography of Cromer which no student of modern Egypt or British imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can afford to ignore. It is unlikely to be superseded for a long time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 706.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published in Albert Hourani, ed., )] TJ ET BT 226.004 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(St Antony?s Papers)] TJ ET BT 320.000 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17: )] TJ ET BT 344.336 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Eastern Affairs)] TJ ET BT 454.340 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 \(London: Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 660.531 m 233.996 660.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 616.687 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 598.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 598.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/414)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 597.513 m 322.316 597.513 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.536 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2071)] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.0077 660.8455 233.9957 672.7255 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 597.8275 322.3157 609.7075 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/414) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004966 00000 n 0000005075 00000 n 0000005185 00000 n 0000005294 00000 n 0000008855 00000 n 0000008983 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000015829 00000 n 0000015859 00000 n 0000015986 00000 n 0000016022 00000 n 0000016087 00000 n 0000022600 00000 n 0000022665 00000 n 0000029266 00000 n 0000029331 00000 n 0000035917 00000 n 0000036008 00000 n 0000038288 00000 n 0000038416 00000 n 0000038471 00000 n 0000038599 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38694 %%EOF