%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140708060058+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140708060058+01'00') /Title (The IRA at War 1916?1923) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4463 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The IRA at War 1916?1923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart?s ten chapters explore the IRA in what is defined by him as the Irish Revolution of 1916?23. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays save two have been published over the last decade as book chapters or articles in leading academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals. All deserve to be revisited. Thematically organised, Hart examines the structure of revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence in Irish and wider British contexts. Essays on the geography of the Irish Revolution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant experience in it feature among some of the more stimulating writing on twentieth-century Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in recent years. OUP?s decision to gather Hart?s work in a single volume is therefore both welcome and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timely. More than any other scholar of his generation, Hart has explored and questioned the violence which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated Irish state formation. The methodology owes much to the work of David Fitzpatrick: quantitative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forensic, thematic in approach and exhaustive in use of sources. Hart?s comparative sociological approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, as ever, invigorating. He has reinvented his subject and opened up new understandings of events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes and personalities. It is, however, the opening mission statement ? ?A new revolutionary history? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provokes attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To those outside the field it may seem curious that the history of the Irish Revolution has received only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporadic attention since David Fitzpatrick published his seminal )] TJ ET BT 344.660 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Irish Life)] TJ ET BT 449.672 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1977. Hart?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the IRA assembled here, and his monograph )] TJ ET BT 264.980 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1916?1923)] TJ ET BT 88.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\), represent the most significant corpus of writing on the Revolution by any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar. Hart?s work, as with Fitzpatrick?s, suggests that it was not availability of sources which retarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. Inside Ireland the historicisation of the Revolution was problematised and impeded by the onset of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 June, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Regan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7707 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence north \(and sometimes south\) of the border. The full extent to which the recent civil war acted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disincentive to historical scholarship on the ?Revolution? is a question to be answered elsewhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, of particular sensitivity, for obvious reasons, is the issue of revolutionary violence and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to political legitimacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite obviously, the history of the Irish Revolution is complicated by contemporary politics, and any book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearing the title )] TJ ET BT 112.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA at War)] TJ ET BT 188.000 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cannot pretend otherwise. The problem is one of proximity: revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland \(or at least the Provisionals? attempt at it\) was a contemporary experience for historians writing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent decades. The historiography of an Irish Revolution has only of late \(1998?\) become post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary. Though the recent period of violence \(1968?98\) may be separated from the Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?proper? \()] TJ ET BT 82.988 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 88.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1912?23\), this is not altogether convincing for two reasons. First, Northern Ireland?s political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, and the origins of the post-1968 conflict, was substantially a product of the earlier period. Second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-1968 violence can be understood as an extension of the nationalist revolution pursuing a United Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether this feasibly constitutes a ?Greater Irish Revolution 1912?1998? is a moot point which should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be hastily dismissed. Certainly it is difficult, if not impossible, to define the periods and processes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrelated or unconnected. This, however, politicises a series of historical problems. The historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demarcation of revolution which brought an Irish independent state into being away from the Provisionals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt at revolution has been an imperative of the Irish Republic?s \(and to some extent British\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterinsurgency since 1970. It is argued here that the experience of revolutionary violence informs the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicisation of Irish state formation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No serious scholar of Ireland?s Revolution can avoid reflecting upon contemporary violence and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on historical conceptualisation. In choosing as his subject the IRA at war Hart negotiates history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics in tandem. His strategy is to depoliticise the subject ? or at least to ignore its political content. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s ?Irish Revolution? emphatically ?ends? in 1923. Problem solved?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thrust of Hart?s call for a new revolutionary history is to establish the Irish experience in a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework alongside France, Russia, China, Cuba and Iran \(p. 4\). What follows is a consideration of themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of greater explanation: the search for a non-nationalist narrative and periodisation; further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorations of gender, democracy, sovereignty, ethnicity, class and geography. His challenge to nationalist-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven narrative is well made but this innovation and much else ? the dualist approach to Ireland north and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south and the recognition of civil wars )] TJ ET BT 221.660 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(plural)] TJ ET BT 251.000 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( northern \(sectarian, 1920?2\) and southern \(ideological, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1922?3\) ? are anticipated in Fitzpatrick?s )] TJ ET BT 235.304 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Irelands 1912?39)] TJ ET BT 364.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\). This prompts one to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect on whether, in calling for a ?new? history, it is not wise in to consider what has gone before. Hart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to historiography is overwhelmingly congratulatory, though there is engagement with historians on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points of detail, among them Michael Hopkinson on the assassination of Henry Wilson \(p. 215\), Joost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augusteijn on urbanization and republican violence \(p. 48\) and Michael Farry and Enda Delaney on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic decline of the protestant population in the early twentieth-century \(p. 226\). Hart finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable concord with leading lights in his field, with Charles Townshend, Tom Garvin, Eunan O?Halpin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Dudley Edwards and David Fitzpatrick all receiving plaudits ? and rightly so ? for pioneering work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart is intent on building on existing scholarship by augmenting it with his explorations. Such an approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begs the question: is there not a case to be made for at least testing the foundations? It must be admitted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-1968 generation of twentieth-century Irish historians wrote in difficult circumstances, especially those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who addressed issues problematised by and, it is fair to say, influencing the contemporary war. At the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least ? and this may seem self-evident ? this difficulty needs to be recognised and articulated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By not engaging with a critical historiographical approach Hart evades the necessity to re-examine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogate the strongest work in his area. This is, however, essential to any aspiration to developing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, quite apart from taking stock. What follows is a terse endorsement of a consensual approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Irish history in which differences of opinion are suppressed at the expense of invigorating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. Nevertheless, perceptible tensions open up ? to the )] TJ ET BT 320.300 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cognoscenti)] TJ ET BT 377.624 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at least ? between orthodoxy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s innovation. The one is, however, compromised by the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart identifies the crucial differentiation between the interests of southern and northern nationalists: )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7200 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Partition did not reflect the wishes of the nationalist majority in Ireland but it did reflect the priorities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in the twenty-six [?southern?] Free State counties.?\(p. 24\) However, he is determined to bend his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into conformity:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those in favour of the Anglo-Irish Treaty would see it and the consequent Free State as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realization of national liberation. Those opposed demanded republican popular sovereignty to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfy this goal. All would believe that the nation-state is incomplete without the territory and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of Northern Ireland. Further liberation required \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Hart accepts pan-nationalist rhetoric over the southern nationalist )] TJ ET BT 376.940 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 426.944 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that he correctly identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the quotation cited first. It is difficult to reconcile the two interpretations within the same essay. Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists were not overly exercised by partition or the fate of their co-religionists in the north in 1920 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after. There was no cross-border civil war or invasion of Northern Ireland in 1920?2, nor in 1925 \(nor for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that matter after 1968\). Southerners talked up the rhetoric of a united Ireland but their interest after 1920 lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the stabilisation of the border and the northern minority on the other side of it. It may be observed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the greatest long-term threat to the southern state from 1920 came from radicalised nationalists escalating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-border civil war. For this reason southerners fought their own civil war in the south ? on the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican status not partition ? abandoning the northern IRA?s offensive in May 1922. It took a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter of a century before republicans mounted a cross-border offensive: only to be jointly defeated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin and Belfast governments. Southern nationalists may have )] TJ ET BT 348.992 506.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(talked)] TJ ET BT 378.320 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?further liberation?: but their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest remained stabilisation. Partition was a symbiotic southern nationalist and northern unionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct. Of course, this remains heresy within southern nationalism and the historiography that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern Irish nationalism is an unrecognised and, as yet, unaddressed historiographical problem. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preponderance of partitionist interpretations of post-revolutionary Ireland, which Hart rightly criticises, is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part a product of this. The triumph of ?Irish democracy?? meaning southern Irish democracy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalisation of the northern sectarian violence of 1920?2, the apportioning of blame for partition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination and sectarianism exclusively on the British and northern Unionist regimes and refusing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise southern investment in partition are all manifestations of southern nationalist ideology on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, only some of which Hart rejects. The Irish Revolution was predominantly a southern affair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by southern interest, led by Munster revolutionaries. What community had more to lose by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escalation of republican demands followed by violence than the minority in north-east Ulster, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in Belfast? This may explain Sinn Fein?s failure to achieve hegemony over northern nationalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1918. More pointedly, no Ulsterman sat on the IRA Executive/GHQ from January 1919 to March 1921, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and no Volunteer from the six counties of Northern Ireland was appointed before the split in March 1922. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining post-partitionist Ireland one is confronted not with southern and northern priorities, but with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate identities and diametrically opposed interests. In the south identity, narrow interest and survival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged a nationalist ideology which silently eschewed pan-nationalism. This became all the more acute ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both politically and within the historiography ? when northern nationalists imperilled the stability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(island after 1968.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the contentious subject of the Revolutionary IRA?s relationship to democracy, Hart cites Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English?s observation they had ?a complicated relationship? with it. But English goes much further in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated survey of revolutionary republicanism, adopting the dichotomy which has preoccupied many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in recent years: that the revolution and ultimately southern state formation can be understood as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contest between democratic and anti-democratic forces led by the IRA, more particularly the anti-treaty IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1922. English subtly articulates this position: ?The 1921 Treaty provided the clearest instance of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency, with clear popular majorities in favour of the agreement being brushed aside by the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treatyites.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.332 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.332 81.555 m 104.324 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.324 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Anti-treatyite rejection of politics ?carried with it distinct traces of the anti-democratic?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.576 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.576 81.555 m 544.568 81.555 l S endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3317 81.8695 104.3237 93.7495 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.5757 81.8695 544.5677 93.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary reaction against Britain involved rejection not only of British rule in Ireland, but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also of the form of politics which accompanied it: the IRA philosophy was one which eschewed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict attachment to democratic principle. Yet the goal of Irish Republicanism did rest on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical adherence to democratic notions, and once the Revolutionaries attained power they )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted a very British form of parliamentary politics...the fact that the destabilization did indeed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove temporary owed much to the internalization within Ireland of that very political tradition )] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of liberal democracy against which so much IRA activity was directed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.948 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.948 697.539 m 418.940 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English?s interpretation of the anti-treatyite IRA of 1922 as broadly anti-democratic has been shared of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Tom Garvin, Charles Townshend, Michael Laffan and Eunan O?Halpin in defining the causation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern civil war. English?s \(1996\) interpretation while not as polemic as others, candidly places his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument in a present centred context:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue of one?s attitude toward constitutional mandates?is one of undoubted significance to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Ireland?should one respect the popularity expressed political preferences and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromises which they usually entail, or should electoral endorsement be obscured by a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for uncompromising, aggressive vangaurdism?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.944 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.944 535.491 m 356.936 535.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is significant. Fitzpatrick?s more recent work on the Revolution is distinctive in respect of its avoidance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of using democratic legitimacy as an interpretative tool \(see )] TJ ET BT 324.296 484.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harry Boland?s Irish Revolution)] TJ ET BT 482.624 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2003\)\). The assumption appears to be that revolutions cannot be understood as democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes. Hart?s ?ademocratic IRA?, presumably \(in the absence of a definition of what the term means\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows this lead. In the context of the historiography, defining the IRA as ademocratic not anti-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important distinction, particularly because from the late 1970s historians have, with increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis, argued for the anti-democratic, and therefore illegitimate, use of violence by the IRA in 1922, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic legitimate force used by those creating the independent Irish state. It is no coincidence that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend coincided with the Provisional IRA?s campaign. For southern Irish nationalism, the fact that resurgent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican-militarism claimed historical legitimacy from the same sources as the southern state ? the 1916 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising, Patrick Pearse )] TJ ET BT 138.668 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 159.668 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(., the 1918 Sinn Fein general election victory and ultimately state formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through violence ? proved, to say the least, problematic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?ademocratic? definition of the IRA sets Hart \(along with Fitzpatrick\) apart from those defining them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variously as anti-democratic, pre-democratic or non-democratic. These distinctions deserve engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Hart is determined, for whatever reason, to avoid. He is also inconsistent: ?The threat to democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally ended when the revolution did, with the IRA ceasefire in April 1923.? \(p.27\) This conceptualisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the southern civil war ? and arguably the IRA ? owes more to Garvin, English, Laffan and O?Halpin than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Fitzpatrick, or perhaps his own ?ademocratic? interpretation. Democracy, as applied to interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish Revolution, has become in recent years a moralising political tool, more engaged with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary ideological dialogue than with historical analysis. Hart stands on two stools.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In respect of a most troubled relationship between democracy and Northern Ireland, Hart again tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile his research with orthodox interpretation. For example, ?the Northern Ireland government and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist Party certainly failed the democratic test in their exclusionary sectarianism and drive for one-party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule? \(p. 24\). But this again is at the expense of consistency:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9477 697.8535 418.9397 709.7335 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9437 535.8055 356.9357 547.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paramilitaries [republican and loyalist 1912?23] were a symptom of state and democratic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure?Only when the post-partition regimes were established did the majority of both ethnic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups transfer their trust and allegiance back to the state and its armed forces. Full democracy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was restored once ethnic sovereignty or security was achieved \(pp. 108?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was or could Northern Ireland be so described? One possible answer lies with Hart?s definition of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As part of the United Kingdom, Ireland was then a part of an increasingly democratic political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system: one which excluded no competitors, granted considerable freedom of speech, was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively free of corruption, and allowed new anti-establishment parties to emerge and wield )] TJ ET BT 64.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power? \(p.16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one applies this interpretation to the post-partition Ireland almost any conclusion is possible. Could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland?s nationalists wield real power at any political level? Was Northern Ireland a threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy on the island? An adequate definition of democracy is a root problem. The desire to use it as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative tool is another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was no liberal-democratic solution ? British or Irish ? to the ethnic question in Ireland in 1920. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border ? along with British-inspired institutional paraphernalia, proportional representation and a Council of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland ? was the best that was on offer and it gained the acceptance of southern nationalists \(more relieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than grudging\) and northern unionists. The arbitrary nature of the boundary drawn is now accepted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost everyone as ?democratic? in the sense of being as democratic as it is possible to be in the absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viable alternatives; it is even accommodated, to a limited face-saving extent, by ?post-revolutionary? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Provisionals?. But the Stormont regime to 1972 was not a shining example of democracy in any definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the western liberal tradition. Hart has it both ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart is neither a statist nor a southern nationalist, though the influence of both ideologies can be traced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though his work. His research on localised and specialised topics subverts orthodoxy, but it is his willingness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to embrace it when dealing with general explanations which surprises. His exploration of the plight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants in the Free State illuminates the sectarian underbelly of the revolution that a nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography prefers to ignore. In escalating violence in Cork, Tipperary, or Dublin could Michael Collins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Boland, or Ernie O?Malley be held accountable for raising sectarian tensions in Antrim, Down or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast? Was the cost of a southern state the institutionalisation of ethno-religious tensions in a compressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reactionary northern state? Could revolutionary violence in 1922 and 1968 conceivably be part of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grotesque, protracted process? To accept this argument would, however, be to shatter nationalist icons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to a southern nationalist identity still rooted in its own glorious revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That open sectarian conflict was intrinsic to any war of ?national liberation? will remain a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassment to those who conceive of the Irish Revolution as having wholly positive outcomes. In placing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarianism at the centre of the Revolution, Hart does an incalculable service, retrieving his subject from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve of professional nationalists.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 6570 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This compendium is the product of a gifted historian. Read chronologically \(as the papers were first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published\) as opposed to thematically \(as they are presented\), degrees of development can be identified in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which recent transitions in Irish political climates may be tested. The essay on paramilitarism \(first published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in early 2003\) is subversive of much written on revolutionary republicanism: ?Patrick Pearse was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Manson and the rebels were not members of a mystical republican cult.? \(p. 105\) Regrettably he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not tell us who said otherwise or, more importantly, why. This is not a monograph, and while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistencies and contradictions may cloud interpretation they serve to illuminate tensions under which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish historians labour. This is a virtue of the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiography remains a blind spot in a methodology which, in empirical mode, is dazzling. Hart?s studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? clinical, quantitative and balanced ? necessarily place him in conflict with existing approaches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualisations of a different order to the ones he chooses to engage. Why this should be so is not clear. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of recent violence ? call it ?troubles?, ?attempted revolution?, ?civil war? or by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designations ? on historical writing is a question the post-1968 generation of historians has not faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squarely. It is imperative for an emerging generation not to follow this approach but instead to reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critically upon influences imposing on the historical imagination. This is, quite obviously, historical process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but past experience \(in Irish contexts\) indicates that it may not be a pleasant one. Hart?s invitation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of Ireland to meet in pursuit of a new revolutionary history should be acted upon. A critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography is not an optional accessory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be noted English has recently revised his position: ?there remains no simple equation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible between the 1921 Treaty and democracy on one side, and anti-treatyite politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to democracy on the other.? Richard English, )] TJ ET BT 337.988 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ernie O?Malley IRA Intellectual)] TJ ET BT 494.960 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\), 84; )] TJ ET BT 116.348 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armed Struggle: a History of the IRA )] TJ ET BT 298.664 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\), 33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.988 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.988 420.435 m 448.976 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(O?Malley)] TJ ET BT 154.676 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.676 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.676 406.179 m 229.664 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(O?Malley)] TJ ET BT 154.676 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 198.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.676 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.676 391.923 m 235.664 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(O?Malley)] TJ ET BT 154.676 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 204.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.676 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.676 377.667 m 235.664 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/POQU/R_0032_3179_164_1005141.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 322.899 m 474.992 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.992 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Ireland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume12/issue1/reviews/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 354.680 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.680 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 265.875 m 240.992 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 262.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 244.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 244.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/416)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 243.369 m 322.316 243.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2075)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/POQU/R_0032_3179_164_1005141.asp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume12/issue1/reviews/?id=113692)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10377)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.9877 420.7495 448.9757 432.6295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6757 406.4935 229.6637 418.3735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6757 392.2375 235.6637 404.1175 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6757 377.9815 235.6637 389.8615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 323.2135 474.9917 335.0935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/POQU/R_0032_3179_164_1005141.asp) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 294.7015 354.6797 306.5815 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume12/issue1/reviews/?id=113692) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 266.1895 240.9917 278.0695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10377) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 243.6835 322.3157 255.5635 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/416) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000005138 00000 n 0000005247 00000 n 0000005357 00000 n 0000005466 00000 n 0000009027 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009304 00000 n 0000017064 00000 n 0000017155 00000 n 0000024408 00000 n 0000024438 00000 n 0000024563 00000 n 0000024599 00000 n 0000024629 00000 n 0000024755 00000 n 0000024791 00000 n 0000024882 00000 n 0000031042 00000 n 0000031072 00000 n 0000031200 00000 n 0000031236 00000 n 0000031266 00000 n 0000031394 00000 n 0000031430 00000 n 0000031495 00000 n 0000036559 00000 n 0000036692 00000 n 0000043315 00000 n 0000043443 00000 n 0000043498 00000 n 0000043626 00000 n 0000043681 00000 n 0000043809 00000 n 0000043864 00000 n 0000043992 00000 n 0000044047 00000 n 0000044174 00000 n 0000044307 00000 n 0000044434 00000 n 0000044558 00000 n 0000044685 00000 n 0000044786 00000 n 0000044914 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45009 %%EOF