%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421052447+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421052447+01'00') /Title (The Militant Suffrage Movement. Citizenship and Resistance in Britain 1860?1930) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4415 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Militant Suffrage Movement. Citizenship and Resistance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain 1860?1930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura E. Nym Mayhall begins her book by re-telling the familiar story of the arrest in 1909 of Marion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallace Dunlop, a member of the Women?s Social and Political Union \(WSPU\), which led to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment and notoriety as the ?first hunger striker?. In doing so, she focuses on the action that led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrest. Dunlop stencilled the following words from the Bill of Rights \(1689\) on a wall near the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons: ?It is the right of the subject to petition the King, and all commitments and prosecutions for such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitioning are illegal.? Mayhall suggests that Dunlop?s act connects the Edwardian suffrage movement to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long tradition of radical protest, and that militants used the language of constitutionalism to support their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case for active citizenship. Her book aims to ?shed light on the rationale? at the centre of Dunlop?s protest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by ?exploring suffrage militancy as a political idea and a range of practices? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffragette militancy has been the subject of extensive review and reinterpretation in recent years. Sandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holton, in )] TJ ET BT 85.688 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suffrage Days)] TJ ET BT 154.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has already argued that a group of suffragists in the nineteenth century worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a radical tradition, and that their theory and practice were part of the origins of Edwardian militancy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She has questioned the tendency to draw a rigid distinction between ?constitutionalists? and ?militants?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has noted how definitions of what constituted a militant activity changed over time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.984 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.984 67.473 m 448.976 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 448.976 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Krista Cowman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, militancy could take numerous forms and, even at the height of the WSPU campaign, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(417)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura E. Nym Mayhall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195159934X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(231pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June Hannam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.9837 67.7875 448.9757 79.6675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7912 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could choose from a range of different activities and were not obliged to engage in the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.672 780.819 m 91.664 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both Hilda Kean and Mayhall herself, in an earlier study, claim that this diversity became lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the dominant narrative, established in suffragette autobiographies of the inter-war years, equated suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militancy with imprisonment and hunger striking.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.684 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.684 752.307 m 286.676 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To what extent, therefore, does Mayhall?s book provide a new perspective on this well worked theme? It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first full-length study to look in depth at the nature of militancy itself and to place it within a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context. The book?s main concern is to view militancy as a crucial part of suffragette engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with theories of citizenship and democracy. It is argued that suffrage campaigners viewed their citizenship as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an active process and saw resistance to state power, expressed through militancy, as a key component of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?engaged citizenship? \(p. 11\). The author is careful not to equate militancy just with the WSPU. Instead, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts throughout to look at a range of militant groups and at the diverse forms and meanings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions in which they were involved. She suggests that the ?multiple representations of resistance created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuum along which individuals and organisations articulated their understandings of the female citizen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the state? \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters review recent literature and explore the origins of militancy. Drawing on the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collini, Rendall and Holton, who have re-interpreted both liberalism and suffragism in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, Mayhall notes how women?s suffrage was part of a more general debate about citizenship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.232 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.232 542.979 m 525.224 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.224 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s and 90s there was a new emphasis on the distinctive contribution that women could make to politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while at the same time improving themselves through their participation in public life. Many women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted by progressivism, in which radicals and socialists were eager to expand the practice of citizenship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to include resistance and rebellion and to re-assert the moral dimension of politics. These issues were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debated further during the South African War, the focus of chapter two, in which questions were raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about when and where resistance to ?constitutional? authority might be justified and necessary. The war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated discussion about the nature of citizenship, but suffragists reacted in different ways. Josephine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler and Millicent Fawcett thought women should have a role in politics because they would seek to save )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black South Africans from the Boers; this drew on a gendered model of service. Others, who were pro-Boer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that if the government were willing to go to war over the question of political rights for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uitlanders, then women had the right to resist a government that did not acknowledge them as citizens. Dora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montefiore, a middle-class socialist propagandist and suffrage campaigner, resisted paying her taxes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore raised questions about the obligations women had to a state that governed without their consent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whether women should be governed by laws that they did not formulate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next four chapters contain the most original sections of the book. Mayhall examines the language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of suffrage militancy through selected themes and subjects. In chapter 3, ?Staging exclusion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1906?9?, she looks at how different groups, in particular the WSPU, the Women?s Freedom League \(WFL\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Women?s Tax Resistance League, staged protests about their exclusion from political rights. In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to justify their resistance to an illegitimate government they emphasised that their protest drew on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional principles. In October 1908, for instance, WFL members chained themselves to a metal screen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Ladies? Gallery of the House of Commons and shouted ?Votes for Women!? when a bill was being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, thereby disrupting male political discourse. The Grille was full of constitutional symbolism since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it represented a twentieth-century exclusion of women, reminding politicians that, until the late eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, women could sit anywhere in the House of Commons. Suffragettes? use of spectacle and imagery to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convey their message is well documented, but Mayhall suggests that it was not just the exhibition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s bodies in public that created an impact, but the fact that they drew on ?radical narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance? to make their case \(p. 51\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, ?Resistance on trial, 1906?12?, looks at a less familiar form of protest ? the use made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragettes of legal appeals which were heard in the courtroom. They tried to use judge-made law to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumvent the government?s unwillingness to introduce women?s suffrage, for example, the case of Nairn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus Scottish universities \(1908\). When decisions did not go their way, they challenged the authority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judiciary, and then later used the courtroom as a space to articulate and publicise their demands. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodiment of the citizen as white, male and middle-class was also increasingly challenged. In chapter 5 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6717 781.1335 91.6637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.6837 752.6215 286.6757 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.2317 543.2935 525.2237 555.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayhall looks at the ways in which suffrage militants gave a ?physical dimension to their political agency? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 84\), not through the familiar areas of hunger striking and forcible feeding, but through the idioms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(femininity and freedom. She argues that a ?feminine embodiment of citizenship? took two forms ? Joan of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arc and Florence Nightingale ? while freedom was explored through its opposite, slavery, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s sexual slavery to men. In both cases there were tensions between militants over how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood the concepts of femininity and freedom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The differences between militants became more acute in the period 1910?1914 when a minority introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Mayhall describes as ?forms of terrorism?. This led other militants to seek ways in which they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resist the state without the use of violence. Mayhall provides a subtle discussion of the critiques of violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapter 6, ?The ethics of resistance, 1910?1914?, and notes how disagreements about the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militancy led to the proliferation of suffrage groups. At the same time individuals did co-operate across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational boundaries, for example, in free speech campaigns. Mayhall concludes that although militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance was contested in this period, it remained an important part of how suffragettes viewed women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and ensured that the campaign retained its vitality up to the outbreak of war. Faced with a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context women, had to re-think what their citizenship meant, and in chapter 7, ?At war with and for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?, it is argued that all militants viewed their role as one of service. Nevertheless, their understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service was not the same. The Pankhurst-led WSPU sought to support the state through engaging in anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifist, anti-German and anti-Bolshevik propaganda, whereas others sought to mitigate the effects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war on women and children. There is also interesting material on some women?s determination to carry on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working for suffrage and their continuing use of resistance, for example, the refusal to pay taxes and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protests over the erosion of civil rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By looking in some detail at the language and meaning of militancy and the various forms that it took, Laura )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nym Mayhall draws out the subtle differences between organisations and individuals. She shows that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences were not simply the result of personality clashes or party political perspectives, but were rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in conceptions of active citizenship and the forms that resistance to the state should take. Thus, she argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the WFL used the courtroom to expose women?s unequal status under the law, to challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of legal decisions and to argue that women should not be subject to laws that were man-made. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The WSPU disagreed with this approach. They insisted that all protests should be political and should aim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only at opposing the government. When the leaders of the WSPU were tried at the Old Bailey in 1912 for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy to incite violence, they used their trial as a platform to make a case for women?s right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and to criticise government hypocrisy for excluding them. They were able to present themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a wide public audience as rational political actors, and to deny that their actions were criminal in nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other differences identified by Mayhall are perhaps less convincing. For example, she asserts that after 1911 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some WSPU members wanted to make life difficult for the government and to remove obstacles to women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaining the vote, rather than trying to convince politicians that women should be enfranchised. The WFL on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand saw citizenship as women?s service to the nation, with freedom being the ability to act, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore they both demanded and performed citizenship at the same time. Yet this appears to slide over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very complex attitudes that suffrage campaigners held towards the meaning of women?s citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service to the state. How, for example, did the constitutionalists of the NUWSS view women?s service, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was this different from that held by the militants? At some points there is a questioning of the demarcation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often still drawn between constitutionalists and militants, but at others, Mayhall suggests that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational terms they saw themselves as distinct. It is also unclear as to whether, within the militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp, the crucial differences were between organisations or between individuals. Given, for example, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a minority of WSPU members engaged in arson, window smashing and slashing of paintings after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1911, what were the views of the rest, and why did they remain in the Union rather than joining one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other militant groups?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis of the book on the rhetoric and arguments of the militant suffrage movement, and its links to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more general political debates about citizenship in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide important new insights and different ways of looking at the meaning of militant theory and practice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, there is a missing dimension here in terms of engagement with everyday political )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. In chapter 2, for example, the focus is on the way in which the Boer War helped to redefine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship, but little is said about the impact of other political developments, such as the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement of working-class women from Lancashire in the suffrage campaign. Moreover, the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation of suffragettes from socialist politics is seen as a rhetorical one rather than as stemming from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts over specific issues and demands. A number of questions need to be asked: how did militants who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also involved in mixed-sex politics, in particular socialists and Labour Party activists, view women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and the politics of resistance? To what extent did competing loyalties to gender, class and party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut across, or conflict with, attitudes towards militancy and organisational affiliations? How far did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of militant groups before the war stem from differences over violence or from broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements about the nature of citizenship and democracy?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range of questions being raised demonstrates that Mayhall?s approach to militancy is a stimulating one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that challenges preconceived ideas and encourages the reader to engage in debate. This is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in the conclusion, ?Fetishizing militancy, 1918?1930?, which looks at the way in which the militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage movement was viewed from the vantage point of the 1920s and 30s. Mayhall argues that emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed on service during the war as the main reason why women were enfranchised and the militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was viewed as ?irrational?. The militants? focus on ?citizenship as engagement with the state? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was lost. This was crucial at a time when, in the 1920s, the importance of the vote itself was being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned. There are some tantalising statements here about how citizenship might be configured in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new environment, which should provide themes for further research and discussion. Anyone embarking on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a task can use, as a starting point, the excellent references and bibliography provided in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. S. Holton, )] TJ ET BT 128.696 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suffrage Days. Stories from the Women?s Suffrage Movement)] TJ ET BT 425.996 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.988 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.988 446.691 m 517.976 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Cowman, ??The stone throwing has been forced upon us?: the function of militancy within the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool WSPU, 1906?1914?, )] TJ ET BT 218.336 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire)] TJ ET BT 527.672 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 145 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\), 171?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 403.923 m 194.324 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Kean, ??Searching for the past in present defeat?: the construction of historical and political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity in British feminism in the 1920s and 30s?, )] TJ ET BT 310.028 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History Review)] TJ ET BT 433.340 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3.1 \(1994\), 57-80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.328 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.328 375.411 m 553.988 375.411 l S BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 361.155 m 90.344 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Collini, )] TJ ET BT 116.036 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Moralists: Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain, 1850?1930)] TJ ET BT 497.396 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\); J. Rendall \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 177.668 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Equal or Different: Women?s Politics, 1800?1914)] TJ ET BT 419.660 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.308 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.308 332.643 m 552.296 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 288.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 271.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 271.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/417)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 269.625 m 322.316 269.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2077)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.9877 447.0055 517.9757 458.8855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 404.2375 194.3237 416.1175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.3277 375.7255 553.9877 387.6055 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 361.4695 90.3437 373.3495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.3077 332.9575 552.2957 344.8375 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 269.9395 322.3157 281.8195 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/417) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005138 00000 n 0000005247 00000 n 0000005357 00000 n 0000005466 00000 n 0000009027 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009268 00000 n 0000009394 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000009528 00000 n 0000017493 00000 n 0000017523 00000 n 0000017649 00000 n 0000017685 00000 n 0000017715 00000 n 0000017843 00000 n 0000017879 00000 n 0000017909 00000 n 0000018037 00000 n 0000018073 00000 n 0000018138 00000 n 0000025582 00000 n 0000025701 00000 n 0000031907 00000 n 0000032035 00000 n 0000032090 00000 n 0000032218 00000 n 0000032273 00000 n 0000032401 00000 n 0000032456 00000 n 0000032582 00000 n 0000032637 00000 n 0000032765 00000 n 0000032820 00000 n 0000032948 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33043 %%EOF