%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416224443+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416224443+01'00') /Title (London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People, 1200?1500) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4136 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1200?1500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline M. Barron?s book on London traces the history England?s largest medieval city, including its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental structure, relations with the crown, its economy and guilds and its physical environment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is largely institutional and administrative in focus; the city?s society and political involvements are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced by way of example, but do not occupy the main thrust of the book?s outline. Administrative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional history have fallen out of favour, and that is an unfortunate loss for the historical profession. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barron?s book is a wonderful read, and the epitome of fine historical research and clarity of explanation. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reminder that we have ignored the eloquence that great writing on administrative history can achieve. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. F. T. Tout, she has selected the right examples, added personalities and elucidated a complex history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been difficult to access. Her mastery of primary source materials, both from London and from the Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Record Office, is breathtaking. No one else knows the records of London better than Barron, and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious as one looks at the careful documentation that has gone into building this great study of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By bringing the examination of London up to sixteenth century, Barron completes a discussion of London?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative and judicial structure begun in the introductions to various volumes of London records edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and translated by R. T. Riley, R. R. Sharpe, A. H. Thomas, P. E. Jones, Helena M. Chew, William Kellaway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many others. Until now, historians of London have relied on these learned introductions, and also on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(418)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 September, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Barron)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199257779X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(472pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Hanawalt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two previous monographs: Gwyn A. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 262.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval London. From Commune to Capital)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.000 795.075 m 498.992 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Brooke, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London 800?1216: The Shaping of the City)] TJ ET BT 343.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.016 780.819 m 360.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Barron?s book clearly lays out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole structure, whether for researchers in London history, or for anyone interested in the development of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval city?s practical compromises with political realities and with traditions of law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barron begins with the symbiotic relationship of the city to the crown. The city could not exist without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licence and charter of the crown. London derived its right to govern itself from royal grant and that right was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly endangered; the crown could revoke the charter at any time. In the baronial wars of the thirteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the chronicler and eyewitness Arnald fitz-Thedmar recounted the shaky ground on which London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood in supporting the rebels against Henry III. Again in the reign of Richard II London ran afoul of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national politics. These are but two instances of royal displeasure. However, London paid heavily for these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lapses in loyalty with large gifts. As a type of propitiation, Londoners also offered the kings and queens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pageants and parades celebrating coronations, weddings, victories and reconciliations between the crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the city. The crown also relied on London for political support, as in the insurrection against Edward II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, probably more importantly, for financial levies. Some demands for money were routine, but many were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made under the threat of the removal of the city?s charter. Londoners paid to keep their freedoms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The city needed the royal approval as much as kings needed London?s wealth and power. London needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve its self-government and the freedom to elect its sheriffs and mayors. The mayor took his oath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office before the king or his representative and, for the most part, elections remained free. The king also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed the city to manage urban property, goods and chattels, and debts in its own courts, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of royal justice was not independent, and the king reserved the right to visit his justice on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them through an eyre, which he did in 1321. That eyre was a special judicial review of the way that London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts and officials were handling cases that related to royal justice. To keep royal intervention at bay, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city was careful to maintain order within its boundaries. For instance, in 1384, when John Constantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to cause a riot, city officials immediately tried and executed him, getting royal permission to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so after the fact. But London also needed help with the regulation of foreign traders. The crown relied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily on them for loans and gifts, but if foreigners exercised too many financial rights, they would put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local merchants out of business. So the city had to seek compromise with the crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London maintained an infrastructure of walls, bridges, ports, adequate food and water supply, inns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eating places, markets and stalls and standard weights and measures. All these matters needed regulation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that meant that the city had to oversee hostellers, food and drink vendors, porters who carried goods, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keepers of the weights and measures, and so on. London also had to provide courts for the redress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances and collection of debt. Initially the sheriffs and mayor held a piepowder court, as was typical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval towns and fairs, which dealt with these matters. By the late thirteenth century, however, royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes empowered the sheriffs and mayors to register bonds and keep rolls of debts, even giving the debtor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a copy. The sheriff?s court seems to have handled larger debts \(50 percent of their business involved debts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 or more\) and been more attractive to foreign merchants. The mayor?s court attracted more business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller debts and gained greater prestige in the fourteenth century. Like other cities, London taxed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens and charged its clientele for various services, but relied on civic generosity for some of its amenities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus some of the larger, covered markets for the sale of cloth were individual gifts.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.9997 795.3895 498.9917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.0157 781.1335 360.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was not only a large commercial city, but also a manufacturing centre. The sixteenth century shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that three-fifths of its population were involved in some sort of craft or occupation \(butchers, bakers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brewers\) that resulted in goods for consumption or for manufacture and sale. A valuable table in chapter 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists the variety of occupations in London compared with other English cites. While the information is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic, it is a valuable indication of the diversity of trades. London catered to a consumer society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing fine gold and silver objects, cutlery and swords, leather goods, tableware and, later, fine furniture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also provided professional services such as scriveners and surgeons. London was also the centre for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distributive trade to outlying areas of England. Fortunately, from the time of Henry I, London citizens were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free of paying taxes and tolls as they traded through the countryside. By the fifteenth century, much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s trade was with England; products made in the city, as well as imports such as wines, fine cloths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and furs, were carried by London traders into the countryside.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have helped the reader to have some comparisons to the economies of other medieval cities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, for instance, was not the great weaving centre that Ghent was during the same period; although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were weavers, London was not famous for its cloth. On the other hand, London was more of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative centre than was Ghent. Much of its profits in hostelries, victualling trades, and even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer trade in luxuries grew out of its administrative associations. In overseas trade, citizens managed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retain control over the export of raw wool despite competition from foreigners. Compared to the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, London?s merchants came to dominate the export of cloth by the fifteenth century. But England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always faced competition from foreign traders, particularly the Hanse, who enjoyed royal protection. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commercial rivalries led to the outbreak of violence against foreigners on several occasions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most valuable part of the book is part 3, which covers the functioning of the city courts, government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy of London. Barron traces the evolution of city courts from the folkmoot to the husting court. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her discussion of the administration of wards and the court of aldermen shows the origin of neighbourhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. The chapter on the annually elected officials is one of the most interesting because it shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the offices of mayor and sheriff, noting that during the fourteenth century prestige was lost by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sheriffs and gained by the mayors. Among the new information presented in this chapter is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the mayor?s equity court in the fifteenth century. As the political and social position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mayor improved, and as his court gained in influence, the office went to the older, most prestigious men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city, and the office of sheriff was bestowed upon younger men and seen as a stepping stone to higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office. One has the sense that London?s mayor and aldermen were constantly busy with duties involving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping the peace and resolving disputes. In addition, they bore the brunt of ceremonial responsibilities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of paying the demands of the crown. It is not surprising, therefore, that by the fifteenth century, mayors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to serve only one term, and aldermen were seeking respite from an expensive and time consuming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the city involved in so many aspects of urban social control and regulation, it is not surprising that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic bureaucracy arose. The recorder?s office emerged in parallel with the legal profession. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected and a member of the aldermanry, the officer did receive pay for his work of running the husting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court. His responsibilities also often included arbitration. The chamberlain was the other major city officer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selected by the mayor, his duties included the city finances, the court of orphans and a number of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential matters. John Carpenter, who compiled the )] TJ ET BT 287.648 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Albus)] TJ ET BT 343.988 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and William Dunthorne, who put together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Dunthorne)] TJ ET BT 132.680 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1474, both held this office. The chamberlain had access to the various city records, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it was from these that he assembled his books. In addition to these important officers, the city had other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid civil servants.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5310 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While London had no merchant guild, the powerful guilds and companies of London came to play an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing role in municipal politics and in staffing the offices of alderman, mayor and sheriff. Barron traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of the guilds from their earliest appearance as craft guilds to livery companies. While she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses their rivalries, she spends less time on the way in which these interacted with London politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, she traces their rise to power and their declining influence in the sixteenth century when other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies, such as the East India Company, replaced them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final part of the book concerns the practice of civic government. Here Barron examines population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health provisions, sections of the city, walls and building, housing and other matters pertaining to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical environment. She accepts an estimation of London?s population at 100,000 or higher, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improbable given the sample from which it is drawn, the physical size of London and the amount of open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space there. Again, a comparison with European figures would help the reader place this information in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better context; London could not have been larger than Ghent, for instance. Indeed, continental observers felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that London was a bit of a backwater. The chapter on welfare provisions includes the court of orphans, care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the poor, hospitals and alms houses. Some of these institutions were city operated, others were run by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious groups, some were private endowments and others belonged to guilds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The research is largely based on Barron?s painstaking search through the archives of London. It is a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by primary source research and it is a most impressive accomplishment. At times, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of a secondary, supporting literature is disappointing. One has the sense that the secondary works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited are those in Barron?s library and not the product of research on recent contributions to London?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. The sections on economics and on welfare would have benefited from the inclusion of this literature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some comparative materials would have made the book more significant as an engagement with European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban history. But that criticism aside, Barron?s book is a great contribution to our understanding of London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to medieval urban history in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwyn A. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 161.012 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval London. From Commune to Capital )] TJ ET BT 384.008 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1963\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.000 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.000 379.923 m 472.988 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Brooke assisted by Gillian Keir, )] TJ ET BT 281.000 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London 800?1216: the Shaping of a City)] TJ ET BT 477.008 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.000 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.000 365.667 m 554.996 365.667 l S BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 351.411 m 78.008 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 296.643 m 240.992 296.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 293.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 275.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 275.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/418)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 274.137 m 322.316 274.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2079)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10414)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9997 380.2375 472.9877 392.1175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9997 365.9815 554.9957 377.8615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 351.7255 78.0077 363.6055 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 296.9575 240.9917 308.8375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10414) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 274.4515 322.3157 286.3315 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/418) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000008727 00000 n 0000008855 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000015529 00000 n 0000015559 00000 n 0000015687 00000 n 0000015723 00000 n 0000015753 00000 n 0000015881 00000 n 0000015917 00000 n 0000015982 00000 n 0000022525 00000 n 0000022637 00000 n 0000028000 00000 n 0000028128 00000 n 0000028183 00000 n 0000028311 00000 n 0000028366 00000 n 0000028492 00000 n 0000028547 00000 n 0000028674 00000 n 0000028775 00000 n 0000028903 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28998 %%EOF