%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141218183315+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141218183315+00'00') /Title (What is History?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3933 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Hallett Carr's contribution to the study of Soviet history is widely regarded as highly distinguished. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all probability very few would argue against this assessment of his multi-volume history of Soviet Russia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the majority of historians he pretty much got the story straight. However, for several years there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreement about his contribution to the analytical philosophy of history. His ideas were outlined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 115.352 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( first published in 1961. For many today )] TJ ET BT 311.684 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 393.020 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most influential book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history thinking published in Britain this century. For many years, however, the methodologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundationalist wing of the history profession regarded the book as espousing a dangerous relativism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has now all changed. Arguably the central ideas in the book constitute today's mainstream thinking on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historical practice. Most British commentators, if not that many in America, acknowledge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and influence of the book. \(l \) In this review I want to establish why it is )] TJ ET BT 444.956 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 526.292 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupies a central place in British thinking about the relationship between the historian and the past. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude that the important message of )] TJ ET BT 225.320 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 306.656 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - fundamentally misconceived though I believe it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be - lies in its rejection of an opportunity to re-think historical practice. This failure has been most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant in rationalising the epistemologically conservative historical thinking that pervades among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Hallett Carr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alun Munslow)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7774 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tosh, in the most recent edition of his own widely read methodological primer )] TJ ET BT 440.312 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes Carr's book as "still unsurpassed as a stimulating and provocative statement by a radically inclined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar" \(Tosh 1991: 234\). Keith Jenkins, much less inclined to view Carr as a radical scholar, never-the-less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms the consequential nature of )] TJ ET BT 212.312 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 293.648 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggesting that, along with Geoffrey Elton's )] TJ ET BT 511.124 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practice of History )] TJ ET BT 129.008 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both texts are still popularly seen as "'essential introductions' to the 'history question"' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Jenkins 1995: 1-2\). Jenkins concludes both Carr and Elton "have long set the agenda for much if not all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crucially important preliminary thinking about the question of what is history" \(Jenkins 1995: 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, according to Tosh and Jenkins, we remain, in Britain at least, in a lively dialogue with )] TJ ET BT 468.980 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 550.316 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why should this be? The reason is, as most British historians know, to be found in the position Carr took on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of historical knowledge. A position that brought him into a long conflict with, among others, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor historian and senior Ambassador at the Court of 'Proper' Objectivist History Geoffrey Elton. Again I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn to John Tosh for his comment that "The controversy between Carr and Elton is the best starting-point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the debate about the standing of historical knowledge" \(Tosh 1991: 236\). Until Jenkins' recent re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appraisal of Carr's philosophy of history, Carr had been misconstrued almost universally among British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians as standing for a very distinctive relativist, if not indeed a sceptical conception of the functioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Explaining Carr's 'radicalism' the philosopher of history Michael Stanford has claimed Carr "insisted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian cannot divorce himself from the outlook and interests of his age \(sic.\)" \(Stanford 1994: 86\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford quotes Carr's own claim that the historian "is part of history" with a particular "angle of vision over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past" \(Stanford 1994: 86\). As Stanford points out, Carr's "first answer...to the question 'What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History?"' is that it is a continuous "process of interaction between the historian and his facts, an unending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue between the present and the past". While this was not a fresh insight with Carr, it still carved him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out for a number of years as someone with a novel stance. However, over time, the effect of his argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which generated such initial notoriety\) was to increasingly balance the excesses of the hard core empiricists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History? )] TJ ET BT 131.348 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr propelled British historiography toward a new equilibrium - one that pivoted on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new epistemological certitude.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The claim to epistemological radicalism on behalf of Carr does not seem to me especially convincing. Why? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My doubts about the message in )] TJ ET BT 192.008 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 273.344 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the product of my present intellectual situatedness as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian \(a writer about the past\). Today, with our greater awareness of the frailties and failures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representationalism, referentialism, and inductive inference, more and more history writing is based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that we can know nothing genuinely truthful about the reality of the past. It would be tempting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but wholly incorrect, to say that history's pendulum has swung far more to the notion of history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction or fabrication of the historian. Rather, what has happened, is that our contemporary conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of existence have created a much deeper uncertainty about the nature of knowledge-creation and its \(mis-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\)uses in the humanities. It is not about swings in intellectual fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It follows, a growing number of historians believe that we don't 'discover' \(the truthful?' 'actual?' 'real?' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('certain?'\) patterns in apparently contingent events because, instead, we unavoidably impose our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies of significance on them \(this is what we believe/want to see/read in the past\). I do not think many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians today are naive realists. Few accept there must be given meaning in the evidence. While we may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all agree at the event-level that something happened at a particular time and place in the past, its significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(its meaning as we narrate it\) is provided by the historian. Meaning is not immanent in the event itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the challenge to the distinction of fact and fiction as we configure our historical narratives, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further acknowledgments of the cognitive power of rhetoric, style and trope \(metaphors are arguments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations\) provide not only a formal challenge to traditional empiricism, but forces us to acknowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that as historians we are making moral choices as we describe past reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does all this add up to a more fundamental criticism of historical knowing than Carr imagined in )] TJ ET BT 502.304 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History?)] TJ ET BT 76.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? I think so. If this catalogue is what historical relativism means today, I believe it provides a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger agenda for the contemporary historian than Carr's \(apparently radical at the time\) acceptance that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian is in a dialogue with the facts, or that sources only become evidence when used by the historian. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins has pointed out at some length, Carr ultimately accepts the epistemological model of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation as the definitive mode for generating historical understanding and meaning \(Jenkins 1995: 1-6, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(43-63\). This fundamentally devalues the currency of what he has to say, as it does of all reconstructionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empiricists who follow his lead. This judgment is not, of course, widely shared by them. For illustration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather misunderstanding the nature of "semiotics - the postmodern?" as he querulously describes it, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim of the historian of Latin America Alan Knight that Carr remains significant today precisely because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his warning a generation ago to historians to "interrogate documents and to display a due scepticism as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regards their writer's motives" \(Knight 1997: 747\). To maintain, as Knight does, that Carr is thus in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way pre-empting the postmodern challenge to historical knowing is unhelpful to those who would seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to establish Carr's contribution in )] TJ ET BT 222.176 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?.)] TJ ET BT 306.512 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It would be an act of substantial historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination to proclaim Carr as a precursor of post-modernist history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr is also not forgotten by political philosopher and critic of post-modernist history Alex Callinicos, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deploys him somewhat differently. In his defence of theory in interpretation \(Marxist constructionism in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case\), Callinicos begins with the contribution of a variety of so called relativist historians of which Carr is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one \(others include Croce, Collingwood, Becker and Beard\). Acknowledging the "discursive character of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical facts" \(Callinicos 1995: 76\) Callinicos quotes Carr's opinion \(following Collingwood\) that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts of history never come to us pure, but are always refracted through the mind of the historian. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callinicos this insight signals the problem of the subjectivity of the historian, but doesn't diminish the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirically derived evidence in the process of historical study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course Carr tried to fix the status of evidence with his own objections to what he understood to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logic of Collingwood's sceptical position. Collingwood's logic could, claims Carr, lead to the dangerous idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is no certainty or intrinsicality in historical meaning - there are only \(what I would call\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of historians - a situation which Carr refers to as "total scepticism" - a situation where history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends up as "something spun out of the human brain" suggesting there can be no "objective historical truth" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Carr 1961: 26\). Carr's objectivist anchor is dropped here. He explicitly rejected Nietzsche's notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(historical?\) truth is effectively defined by fitness for purpose, and the basis for Carr's opinion was his belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the power of empiricism to deliver the truth, whether it fits or not \(Carr 1961: 27\). Historians ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve the evidence, not vice versa. This guiding precept thus excludes the possibility that "one interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is as good as another" even when we cannot \(as we cannot in writing history\) guarantee 'objective or truthful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr wished to reinforce the notion that he was a radical. As he said in the preface to the 1987 Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edition of )] TJ ET BT 85.352 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 166.688 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( "...in recent years I have increasingly come to see myself, and to be seen, as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual dissident' \(Carr 1987: 6\). But his contribution really lies in the manner in which he failed to be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemological radical. In the precise manner of his return to the Cartesian and foundationalist fold lies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of )] TJ ET BT 104.000 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 185.336 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book's distinction resides in its exploration and rapid rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemological scepticism - what I call post-empiricism. From the first chapter Carr accepts relativism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would an unacceptable price to pay for imposing the historian on the past beyond his narrow definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue. Dialogue even cast as interrogation is all very well and good, but an intervention that cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately become objective is quite another matter. After all, Carr argues, it is quite possible to draw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing line between the two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While confirming the ever present interaction between the historian and the events she is describing, Carr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ultimately unwilling to admit that the written history produced by this interaction could possibly be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictive enterprise - historians if they do it properly, \(their inference isn't faulty and/or they don't choose to lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the evidence\) will probably get the story straight. This argument still appeals to many historians today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for whom the final defence against the relativism of deconstructionism lies in the technical and forensic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the sources through the process of their authentication and verification, comparison and colligation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain, most realist-inspired and empiricist historians thus happily accept the logical rationalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr's position - that of the provisional nature of historical interpretation. This translates \(inevitably and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally it is argued\) as historical revisionism \(re-visionism?\). The provisionality of historical interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a perfectly normal and natural historian's state-of-affairs that depends on discovering new evidence \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisiting old evidence for that matter\), treating it to fresh modes analysis and conceptualisation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly re-contextualising it. For illustration, in my working career \(since the early 1970s\) the omission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women in history has been 'rectified', and now has moved through several historiographical layers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach its present highly sophisticated level of debate about the possibility for a feminist epistemology\(ies\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, new evidence and new theories can always offer new interpretations, but revisionist vistas still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspond to the real story of the past because they correspond to the found facts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, with each revision \(narrative version?\) it is presumed by some that we know better or see more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly the nature of the past. So, we are for ever inching our way closer to its truth? Arthur Marwick makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the claim that by standing on "...the powerful shoulders of our illustrious predecessors" we are able both to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance "the quality" and "the 'truthfulness' of history" \(Marwick 1970: 21\). Standing on the shoulders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other historians is, perhaps, a precarious position not only literally but also in terms of the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. No matter how extensive the revisionary interpretation, the empiricist argument maintains that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical facts remain, and thus we cannot destroy the knowability of past reality even as we re-emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or re-configure our descriptions. Marxists and Liberals alike sustain this particular )] TJ ET BT 431.948 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(non sequitur )] TJ ET BT 495.284 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means they can agree on the facts, legitimately reach divergent interpretations and, it follows, be objective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The truth of the past actually exists for them only in their own versions. For both, however, the walls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empiricism remain unbreached. The \(empiricist-inspired\) Carr-endorsed epistemological theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge argues that the past is knowable via the evidence, and remains so even as it is constituted into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narrative. This is because the 'good' historian is midwife to the facts, and they remain sovereign. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They dictate the historian's narrative structure, her form of argumentation, and ultimately determine her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Carr, as much as for those who will not tarry even for the briefest of moments with the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemological scepticism, Hayden White's argument that the historical narrative is \(a story\) as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented as found, is inadmissible because without the existence of a determinate meaning in the evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts cannot emerge as aspects of the truth. Most historians today, and l think it is reasonable to argue Carr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also endorses this view in )] TJ ET BT 160.340 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?, )] TJ ET BT 247.676 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept Louis Mink's judgment that "if alternative emplotments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are based only on preference for one poetic trope rather than another, then no way remains for comparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one narrative structure with another in respect of their truth claims as narratives" \(Vann 1993: 1\). But Carr's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwillingness to accept the ultimate logic of, in this instance, the narrative impositionalism of the historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his failure to recognise the representational collapse of history writing, even as he acknowledges that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("the use of language forbids him to be neutral" \(Carr 1961: 25\), has helped blind many among the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of British historians to the problematic epistemological nature of the historical enterprise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take the vexed issue of facts. Carr's answer to the question "What is a historical fact?" is to argue, )] TJ ET BT 508.868 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwood \(Collingwood 1994: 245\) that facts arise through "...an )] TJ ET BT 365.564 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 402.572 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decision of the historian" \(Carr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961: 11\). It is how the historian then arranges the facts as derived from the evidence, and influenced by her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the context, that constitutes historical meaning. For Carr a fact is like sack, it will not stand up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until you put 'something' in it. The 'something' is a question addressed to the evidence. As Carr insists, "The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts speak only when the historian calls on them: it is he who decides to which facts to give the floor, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what order or context" \(Carr 1961: 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is easy to see why Elton and others like Arthur Marwick misconstrue the \(Collingwood-\) Carr position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Carr says such things because, if pushed a little further allows historians to run the risk of subjectivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their intervention in the reconstruction of the past. Carr, of course, denies that risk through his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectivist bottom line. There is clear daylight between this position and that occupied by Hayden White. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that while historical events may be taken as given, what Carr calls historical facts are derived )] TJ ET BT 495.260 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 525.272 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of narrative construction. They are not accurate representations of the story immanent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and which have been brought forth \(set free?\) as a result of the toil, travail, and exertion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forensic and juridical historian.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7165 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1960's Carr's arguments have moved to a central place in British thinking and now constitute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant paradigm for moderate reconstructionist historians. This is because, as Keith Jenkins has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated, Carr pulls back from the relativism which his own logic, as well as that of Collingwood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushes him. In the end Carr realises how close to the postempiricist wind he is running, so he rejects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwood's insistence on the empathic and constitutive historian, replacing her with another who, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting the model of a dialogue between past events and future trends, still believes a sort of objectivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be achieved. This then is not the crude Eltonian position. It is a claim to objectivity because it is position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leavened by a certain minimum self-reflexivity. This is a conception of the role of the historian affirmed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most influential recent American commentators Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt and Margaret Jacob who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim there can be no postmodern history by repeating \(almost exactly\) Carr's fastidious empiricist position. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr received only one oblique reference in their book )] TJ ET BT 297.608 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telling the Truth About History)] TJ ET BT 449.624 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which may help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why they re-packed Carr's position as practical realism \(Appleby, Hunt and Jacob 1994: 237, 241-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(309 )] TJ ET BT 55.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(passim)] TJ ET BT 88.352 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Is it that his position is so central to the intellectual culture of mainstream history that it wasn't )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even necessary to reference him? In the early 1990's the historian Andrew Norman endorsed the Carr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream position more directly by arguing writing history necessitates historians engaging directly with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence "A good historian will interact dialogically with the historical record" \(Norman 1991: 132\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Facts in history are thus constituted )] TJ ET BT 207.344 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(out of)] TJ ET BT 235.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the evidence when the historian selects sources contextually in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to interpret and explain that to which they refer, rather than )] TJ ET BT 349.604 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 358.940 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the narrative )] TJ ET BT 425.252 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(about)] TJ ET BT 452.588 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which they describe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is because Carr remains at the end of the day a convinced objectivist despite \(or because of?\) his dalliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with relativism - that his legacy in )] TJ ET BT 201.008 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 282.344 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is still so potent among British historians. His objectivist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal in )] TJ ET BT 80.672 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 162.008 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is potent because it is not of the naive variety. We know the Carr historian cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand outside history, cannot be non-ideological, cannot be disinterested, or be unconnected to her material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because she is dispassionate. But she is telling us what actually happened because she can overcome those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacles. She knows that the significance )] TJ ET BT 238.988 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of)] TJ ET BT 248.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the evidence is not found solely )] TJ ET BT 406.640 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 418.976 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence. The historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he said, "does not deal in absolutes of this kind" \(Carr 1961: 120\). There can be no transcendental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective measures of truth. However, while accepting the "facts of history cannot be purely objective, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they become facts of history only in virtue of the significance attached to them by the historian" \(Carr 1961: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(120\), Carr was forced by his naked objectivist desire to underplay the problems of historical form and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situatedness of the historian. he did this by arguing that )] TJ ET BT 302.336 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 317.000 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( standard for objectivity in history was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian's "sense of the direction in history" by which he meant the historian selected facts based not on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal bias, but on the historian's ability to choose "the right facts, or, in other words, that he applies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right standard of significance" \(Carr 1961: 123\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr's philosophical sleight-of-hand produced the objective historian who "has a capacity to rise above the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited vision of his own situation in society and history" and also possesses the capacity to "project his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision into the future in such a way as to give him a m-ore profound and more lasting insight into the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than can be attained by those historians whose outlook is entirely bounded by their own immediate situation" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Carr 1961: 123\). The objective historian is also the historian who "penetrates most deeply" into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reciprocal process of fact and value, who understands that facts and values are not necessarily opposites with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in values emerging from differences of historical fact, and vice versa. This objective historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also recognises the limitations of historical theory. As Carr says a compass "is a valuable and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indispensable guide. But it is not a chart of the route" \(Carr 1961: 116\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social theory historians \(constructionists\) understand past events through a variety of methods statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and/or econometric, and/or by devising deductive covering laws, and/or by making anthropological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological deductive-inductive generalisations. For hard-core reconstructionist-empiricists on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, the evidence proffers the truth )] TJ ET BT 210.968 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only through)] TJ ET BT 272.636 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the forensic study of its detail without question-begging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. These two views are compromised by Carr's insistence that the objective historian reads and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interprets the evidence at the same time and cannot avoid some form of prior conceptualisation - what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chooses simply \(or deliberately loosely?\) to call "writing" \(Carr 1961: 28\). By this I think he means the rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement between context and source which will be influenced by the structures and patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(theories/models/concepts of class, race, gender, and so forth\) found, or discovered, in the evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Carr the evidence suggests certain appropriate explanatory models of human behaviour to the objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian which will then allow for ever more truthful historical explanation. This sleight-of-hand still has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain appeal for a good number of historians today. The American historian James D. Winn accepts this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr model of the objective historian when he says that deconstructionist historians "...tend to flog extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead horses" as they accuse other historians of believing history is knowable, that words reflect reality, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their un-reflexive colleagues still insist on seeing the facts of history objectively. Few historians today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks to Carr, work from these principles in pursuit of, as Winn says "...the illusory Holy Grail of objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth" but strive only to ground "...an inevitably subjective interpretation on the best collection of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts we can gather" \(Winn 1993: 867-68\). At the end of the day, this position is not very much different to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hard line reconstructionist-empiricist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Carr is doing then in )] TJ ET BT 164.672 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 246.008 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is setting up the parameters of )] TJ ET BT 396.320 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 410.984 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( historical method - conceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ground of empiricism as a process of questions suggested to the historian by the evidence, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers from the evidence midwifed by the application to the evidence of testable theory as judged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate. The appropriate social theory is a presumption or series of connected presumptions, of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in the past acted intentionally and related to their social contexts. For most objective historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr variety, his thinking provides a more sympathetic definition of history than the positivist one it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced, simply because it is more conducive to the empirical historical method, and one which appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a reasoned and legitimate riposte to the deconstructive turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For such historians Carr also deals most satisfactorily with the tricky problem of why they choose to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and write history. The motivation behind the work of the historian is found in the questions they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask of the evidence, and it is not, automatically to be associated with any naked ideological self-indulgence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any worries of deconstructionists about either ideology, or inductive inference, or failures of narrative form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has little validity so long as historians do not preconceive patterns of interpretation and order facts to fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those preconceptions. Carr would, I think, eagerly challenge the argument that historians are incapable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing down \(reasonably\) truthful narrative representations of the past. The position that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninterpreted source would not be a particularly significant argument for Carr because historians always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare their interpretations with the evidence they have about the subject of their inquiry. This process it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed will then generate the \(most likely and therefore the most accurate\) interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, when we write history \(according to the Carr model\) our motivation is disinterestedly to re-tell the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of the past with forms of explanation already in our minds created for us through our prior research in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archive. 'Naturally' we are not slaves to one theory of social action or philosophy of history - unless we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall from objectivist grace to write history as an act of faith \(presumably very few of us do this? Do you do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this?\). Instead we maintain our models are generally no more than 'concepts' which aid our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence indeed, which grow out of the evidence. We insist our interpretations are independent of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-serving theory or master narrative imposed or forced on the evidence. It is the 'common sense' wish of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian to establish the veracity and accuracy of the evidence, and then put it all into an interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine focus by employing some organising concepts as we write it. We do it like this to discover the truth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, Carr's legacy, therefore, shades the distinction between reconstructionism and constructionism )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by arguing we historians do not go about our task in two separate ways with research in the sources for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts, and then offering an interpretation using concepts or models of explanation. Rather the historian sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off, as Carr says "...on a few of what I take to be the capital sources" and then "inevitably gets the itch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write". This I take to mean to compose an interpretation and "...thereafter, reading and writing go on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously" \(Carr 1961; 28\). For Carr this suggests the "...untenable theory of history as an objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compilation of facts...and an equally untenable theory of history as the subjective product of the mind of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian..." is much less of a problem than any hard-nosed reconstructionists might fear. It is in fact the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which human beings operate in everyday life, a "...reflection of the nature of man" as Carr suggests. \(Carr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961: 29\). Historians, like Everywoman and Everyman work on the evidence and infer its most likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning - unlike non-historians we are blessed with the intellectual capacity to overcome the gravitational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pull of our earthly tethers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ide fixe)] TJ ET BT 95.996 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of mainstream British historians today is to accept history as this inferential and interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process that can achieve truth through objectivism. Getting the story straight \(from the evidence\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unresolved paradox in this is the dubious legacy of )] TJ ET BT 280.988 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?.)] TJ ET BT 365.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I assume a good number of historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommend Carr to their students as the starting point of methodological and philosophical sophistication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a security vouchsafed by the symmetry between factualism, objectivism and the dialogic historian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While I am unconvinced by its message, I think this is why )] TJ ET BT 320.996 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 402.332 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains, for the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians, a comforting bulwark against post-constructive and post-empirical history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(References:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appleby, Joyce, Hunt, Lynn, and Jacob, Margaret \(1994\) )] TJ ET BT 311.624 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telling the Truth About History,)] TJ ET BT 466.640 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( W.W. Norton and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Co., London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callinicos, Alex \(1995\) )] TJ ET BT 150.008 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theories and Narratives: Reflections on the Philosophy of History,)] TJ ET BT 471.668 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr, E.H. \(1961\) )] TJ ET BT 121.328 408.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 202.664 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Penguin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(------------ \(1987\) )] TJ ET BT 119.960 382.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 201.296 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Second Edition\) London, Penguin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collingwood R.G. \(1994\) )] TJ ET BT 160.352 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of History)] TJ ET BT 254.012 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(First published 1946\) Oxford, Oxford University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iggers, Georg, G. \(1997\) )] TJ ET BT 155.648 329.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postmodern Challenge,)] TJ ET BT 147.344 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hanover, NH, Wesleyan University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins, Keith \(1995\) )] TJ ET BT 140.672 289.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On 'What is History?',)] TJ ET BT 247.808 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Routledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(----------- \(1997\) )] TJ ET BT 115.964 263.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postmodern History Reader,)] TJ ET BT 253.616 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Routledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, Alan \(1997\) "Latin America" in Bentley, Michael \(ed.\) )] TJ ET BT 340.424 236.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion to Historiography,)] TJ ET BT 488.768 236.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marwick, Arthur, \(1970\) )] TJ ET BT 156.320 196.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of History,)] TJ ET BT 264.992 196.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Macmillan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munslow, Alun \(1997\) )] TJ ET BT 147.344 170.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deconstructing History,)] TJ ET BT 263.336 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, Routledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(------------- \(1997\) "Authority and Reality in the Representation of the Past" )] TJ ET BT 400.064 143.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History: The Journal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Theory and Practice,)] TJ ET BT 148.004 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer, pp. 75-87.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman, Andrew \(1991\) "Telling it Like it Was: Historical Narratives on Their Own Terms", )] TJ ET BT 485.732 103.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory )] TJ ET BT 71.012 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vol. 30, pp. 119-135.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Novick Peter \(1988\) )] TJ ET BT 134.996 62.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That Noble Dream: The 'Objectivity Question' and the American Historical Profession,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4451 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford, Michael \(1994\) )] TJ ET BT 158.660 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to the Study of History,)] TJ ET BT 338.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oxford, Basil Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stromberg, Roland N. \(1994, Sixth Edition\) )] TJ ET BT 247.688 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Intellectual History Since 1789 )] TJ ET BT 450.668 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englewood Cliffs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N.J., Prentice Hall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tosh, John \(1991\) )] TJ ET BT 124.676 703.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of History )] TJ ET BT 235.352 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, Longman.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vann, Richard T. \(1987\) "Louis Mink's Linguistic Turn," )] TJ ET BT 312.284 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory )] TJ ET BT 409.280 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 1-14)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winn, James A. \(1993\) "An Old Historian Looks at the New Historicism," )] TJ ET BT 394.772 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comparative Studies in Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and History,)] TJ ET BT 94.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vol. 35 No. 4, pp. 859-870.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr's )] TJ ET BT 65.168 610.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 146.504 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is referenced relatively little in United States' works on historiography. Unlike G.R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton, Carr is not referenced in George G. Iggers \(1997\) )] TJ ET BT 306.608 596.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge,)] TJ ET BT 280.664 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hanover, NH, Wesleyan University Press, or Roland N. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stromberg \(1994, Sixth Edition\) )] TJ ET BT 192.356 567.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Intellectual History Since 1789 )] TJ ET BT 395.336 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall, nor Peter Novick \(1988\) )] TJ ET BT 180.656 553.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That Noble Dream: The 'Objectivity Ouestion' and the American Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Profession,)] TJ ET BT 88.352 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. As I note later Carr receives only one brief reference in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joyce Appleby, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob \(1994\) )] TJ ET BT 302.624 524.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telling the Truth About History,)] TJ ET BT 457.640 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( W.W. Norton and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Co., London. Carr has also disappeared from the postmodernist reckoning. He is not referenced nor indexed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Keith Jenkins \(1997\) )] TJ ET BT 150.008 496.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postmodern History Reader)] TJ ET BT 284.660 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, Routledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Free Library)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/What+is+History+Now%3f\(Reviews\)\(Book+Review\)-a0115966504)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 387.699 m 513.680 387.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 516.680 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 384.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 366.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 366.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 365.193 m 321.644 365.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4403)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.thefreelibrary.com/What+is+History+Now%3f\(Reviews\)\(Book+Review\)-a0115966504)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 388.0135 513.6797 399.8935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/What+is+History+Now?\(Reviews\)\(Book+Review\)-a0115966504) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 365.5075 321.6437 377.3875 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41a) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004614 00000 n 0000004723 00000 n 0000004833 00000 n 0000004942 00000 n 0000008503 00000 n 0000008631 00000 n 0000008715 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000016607 00000 n 0000016672 00000 n 0000024356 00000 n 0000024421 00000 n 0000032219 00000 n 0000032284 00000 n 0000039502 00000 n 0000039567 00000 n 0000047075 00000 n 0000047140 00000 n 0000053793 00000 n 0000053884 00000 n 0000058388 00000 n 0000058515 00000 n 0000058655 00000 n 0000058783 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 58878 %%EOF