%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721123321+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721123321+01'00') /Title (English Society 1688-1832: Ideology, Social Structure and Political Practice During the Ancien Regime) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3873 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Society 1688-1832: Ideology, Social Structure and Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Practice During the Ancien Regime)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of Jonathan Clark's )] TJ ET BT 207.824 351.731 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 282.152 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1985 marked the appearance of a new and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist historiography of the long eighteenth century. For over two centuries Whig historians had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored an interpretation of the long eighteenth century which emphasised England's unique qualities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including its constitutional traditions, parliamentary government, the rule of law, religious toleration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of speech. Clark's revisionist alternative depicted a different model of English society during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long eighteenth century, one which was structured around specific themes which the Whig interpretation had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally either excluded from its historiographical agenda, or relegated to a minor place within it: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('religion and politics, the Church and the social elite of aristocracy and gentry' \(1\). England was presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less as a liberal society than as an )] TJ ET BT 197.984 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 266.300 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, similar in many ways to the absolutist societies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 185.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My aim throughout has been to re-integrate religion into an historical vision which has been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost wholly positivist; to discard economic reductionism, to emphasise the importance of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics in social history, and to argue against the familiar picture of eighteenth century England )] TJ ET BT 64.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the era of bourgeois individualism by showing the persistence of the ancien regime until )] TJ ET BT 64.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1828-32, and the autonomous importance of religion and politics in its final demise \(2\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 November, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. D. Clark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank O'Gorman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6104 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Clark is questioning, therefore, is nothing less than the nature of eighteenth century English society as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the trajectory of English historical development. These issues are of such overwhelming significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they require analysis and detailed consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark's argument proceeds from the initial assumption that the history of England in the long eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was a series of sustained and glorious achievement. How, he asks, should historians explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensational financial and economic advances of the period, the much-lauded establishment of parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and limited monarchy, the repeated military victories against the national enemy, France, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacular expansion of the British empire and, not least, after the Acts of Union of 1707 and 1800, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a united kinqdom? He is at pains to point out that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are clearly dealing with a society which improved its position greatly over two centuries )] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1660, strengthening its political institutions, its economic base, its strategic position, its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial presence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark has no time for the traditional explanations of England's rise to greatness. These include: spurious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of a bourgeois revolution, of a constitutional ideology and an issueless political stability, of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial revolution, of a proletariat without belief or dignity, exploited to finance a bleak new world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessive individualism.\(3\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To discard these old explanations, in Clark's view, offers a number of advantages. First, it liberates us from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anachronistic presentation of eighteenth century England as a preparation for the emergence of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a 'modern' state in the nineteenth. Clark's revisionism, therefore, allows us to present the long eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in its own terms, not as a preparation for what was to come in the nineteenth century. He argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is misleading to incorporate the long eighteenth century within a nineteenth century paradigm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('modernity' \(which downgrades the all-important traditional social and political elements\). After all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Clark, industrialisation had made little impact before the early years of the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while secularism had still to confront the powerful organisation of the Anglican Church. Social relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were still inclined towards deference rather than class enmity.\(4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conceive of eighteenth century England in Clark's revisionist terms arguably offers a further advantage. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lends historiographical unity to a lengthy period \(1660-1832\), which had been in danger of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation and serious misinterpretation. In particular, it brought together within a coherent historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation two very different periods, the superficially tranquil and placid early decades of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, so often presented as 'an unpleasant hangover after the euphoric revolution of the 1640s'\(5\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more dynamic era of reform and industrialisation of the early nineteenth. It did so by presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English society between the Restoration and the Reform Bill as a continuous and mutually-reinforcing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of three main elements: 'it was Anglican, it was aristocratic, and it was monarchical'\(6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark's revisionism offered a yet further, important advantage - it allowed the historian to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common features which England shared with her European neighbours and to avoid the mythology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England's 'exceptionalism', the idea that she pursued a unique and independent path to constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, economic revolution and imperial greatness. In other words, England was an )] TJ ET BT 468.272 175.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, in many ways like those of the European continent. )] TJ ET BT 323.312 160.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 397.640 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 're-emphasises the similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between England before 1832 and other European social systems of the )] TJ ET BT 380.276 146.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 448.592 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(7\). 'Only the concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an ancien regime', argues Clark `offers effective ways of reintegrating the history of England into that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental Europe' \(8\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scope, ambition and originality of Clark's book deserve favourable emphasis. It is not too much to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his work has inspired an enormous degree of debate and controversy and, not least, excitement. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book has become the starting point for research and writing in many fields of British history in the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Jonathan Clark would certainly accept, some elements of his model of eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society had been anticipated by earlier writers. Many historians - not least Namier - had argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century England retained many traditional features, not least the social and political revisionism. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote a lengthy review article for )] TJ ET BT 197.300 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal )] TJ ET BT 310.304 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which included John Cannon's )] TJ ET BT 459.788 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century, )] TJ ET BT 78.680 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Christie's )] TJ ET BT 144.836 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stress and Stability in Late Eighteenth Century Britain )] TJ ET BT 410.852 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and John Gunn's )] TJ ET BT 493.340 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty and Property)] TJ ET BT 135.344 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These books stressed the hierarchical basis of Hanoverian society, the aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of its leadership, the conservatism of its pattern of thought and its adhesion to existing forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, within a framework of traditional institutions and values. None of them would have gone as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Clark in describing England as )] TJ ET BT 230.660 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 298.976 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( society but they would have agreed that traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and patterns of thought maintained their grip on eighteenth century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others would not have done. Social and economic historians were predictably unhappy with the )] TJ ET BT 497.612 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regime)] TJ ET BT 67.340 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( model because it appeared to ignore many of the modernising elements upon which their careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended: industry, capitalism, commerce and the new patterns of consumption.\(9\) Clark, however, replied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that both economic development and rapid social change can occur within traditional societies, dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the monarchy, the church and the aristocracy, as is the case today in Japan and other Asian countries.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To picture an ancien regime in the ways adumbrated in )] TJ ET BT 331.292 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 405.620 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to remind ourselves of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the substantial compatibility of the hegemony of the traditional elite and of the orthodox religion )] TJ ET BT 64.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with broadly-diffused commercial activity and incipient industrial growth.\(10\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this manner, the idea of England as an )] TJ ET BT 233.312 398.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime )] TJ ET BT 304.628 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society becomes marvellously flexible. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates both the old and the new, industry and land, science and religion. Because it offers an historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of activities hitherto presumed to be incompatible, Jonathan Clark's )] TJ ET BT 419.804 370.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 494.132 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingeniously squared a number of historiographical circles. In so doing, he has apparently succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing an overview of England in the long eighteenth century which has not only dislodged the old Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation but has gone far beyond the Tory constitutionalism of Sir Lewis Namier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is probably too early to reach any sort of final judgement on such an ambitious and wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis. Perhaps inevitably, Clark's hypotheses have attracted their share of unfair criticism. Two such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms stand out: the tendency to dismiss Clark's interesting theses as driven by an extravagant right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political stance; and the charge that Clark ignores social change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the first of these, it is a caricature of his learned and considered approach to dismiss )] TJ ET BT 456.596 232.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 530.924 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by little more than an historical reflection of)] TJ ET BT 282.980 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Thatcherite values of the 1980s. The work is a serious)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and scholarly contribution of a very high quality. At the same time, Clark himself intended his book to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repudiation of the academic politics of the 1960s and 1970s.\(11\) Furthermore, there can be no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist historians were not without influence during the 1980s in the debate over the role of History in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the National Curriculum, arguing for a syllabus that dealt principally with high rather than low politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political rather than social history. On the second, it is misleading to argue that Clark is unconcerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with social change.\(12\) It is the extent of social change in the eighteenth century, and its implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and dynastic life, about which he is rightly sceptical. This may represent a narrowing of the scope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political history but it certainly does not represent a total neglect of social issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notwithstanding a very real appreciation of Clark's achievement in reconstructing the historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape of England in the long eighteenth century, it has not been able to escape without suffering serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism from a varied assortment of scholars. On certain crucial issues, it has to be confessed, )] TJ ET BT 492.260 49.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 34.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not satisfied its critics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the reason for this failure is the inexorable accumulation of research. Clark was thoroughly justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in drawing attention to the impressive ability of the old regime to maintain and even to strengthen itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the long eighteenth century, culminating in its success both in conducting and in financing over two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of war with revolutionary and napoleonic France. Research published since the appearance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 108.344 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has revealed that this was achieved less by the monarchy and the church, and the abiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces of patriarchalism and divine right than the bureaucratic and financial innovations that characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century and which were highlighted by John Brewer's )] TJ ET BT 313.124 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sinews of Power: War Money and the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State)] TJ ET BT 58.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1989. It was the willingness of the middling orders both to finance and to staff the new state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy and armed services which explains the steadily rising power of the Hanoverian state not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pillars of the )] TJ ET BT 97.676 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime.)] TJ ET BT 168.992 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although Jonathan Clark finds 'no room for bourgeois modernity'\(13\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian England the revenues of the state depended upon the taxes of the middling orders, the customs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dues of commerce and the rapidly expanding trade of the empire and the wealth of the City of London. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the nature and the growing strength of the Hanoverian regime the commercial and imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions are of crucial significance. It might be added that while England derived enormous strength from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her monarchy and church she derived no little strength, too, from the rising importance of Parliament during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long eighteenth century. The readiness of the propertied classes to regulate their affairs through recourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to parliamentary statute enhanced the legitimacy and the powers of parliament and its accountability to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public.\(14\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, although eighteenth century justifications of monarchy may have owed much to divine right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, it does not follow that 'Gentlemen, the Church of England and the Crown commanded an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social hegemony' \(15\). It may be the case that 'An examination of its self-image, its rationales and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links with religion will allow us to see something also of the establishment's strength' \(16\) but it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow that such dynastic and religious justifications were widely shared. No doubt some contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived of themselves as citizens of an )] TJ ET BT 234.968 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 303.284 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but others employed a cluster of rather different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts: the Freeborn Englishman, the Anglo-Saxon constitution, the freedom of the press, the virtues of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant nation and the legacy of the Glorious Revolution. They do not appear to have conceived of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England as an )] TJ ET BT 104.336 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 172.652 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, preferring to compare her with Sweden and Holland rather than with the hated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic powers of France and Spain. In any case, the concept of an )] TJ ET BT 362.936 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 431.252 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not without its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties. To argue that England was an )] TJ ET BT 237.980 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 306.296 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state like her continental neighbours rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary or a liberal state confronts the problem of definition. What is an )] TJ ET BT 412.616 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 480.932 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state? England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have had many features in common with her European neighbours but there was no European standard. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France differed from Austria, from Prussia, from Russia, from the Scandinavian monarchies. To argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France served as some sort of absolutist model for continental states is seriously misleading. The massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in the powers enjoyed by monarchs and the number of large, important countries in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch was self evidently )] TJ ET BT 168.656 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 183.992 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( absolutist - Britain, Sweden, Poland and Holland - all weaken the force of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancie)] TJ ET BT 77.672 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n regime argument. To assert that England was an )] TJ ET BT 320.960 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 389.276 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state because she had a monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a church and an aristocracy borders on platitude. Most regimes in European history fit that description. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the differences between such regimes which explain their differing patterns of development. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Britain is explained less by her status as a so-called )] TJ ET BT 361.304 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 429.620 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state than by her island )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status, located on the north western periphery of Europe, as a naval rather than a military power. Her system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of common law retained its distinctiveness and its peculiar version of maritime Protestantism its character. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her great victories in the wars of the long eighteenth century ensured that her territories would not be over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(run by France, thus enabling her to achieve economic pre-eminence in Europe and to establish a global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime and imperial supremacy. It is particular, thematic considerations such as these rather than theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her )] TJ ET BT 65.336 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 133.652 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( status which provide explanations of England's development.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7466 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such explanations, however, are not to be found in Clark's book which focuses almost exclusively upon high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, political theory and Anglican ideology. Although Clark has striven to liberate politics from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductionist teleologies, whether Marxist or liberal, he has perhaps fallen back upon an equally reductionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high political definition of politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little or nothing in his book about the links between high and low politics, about the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of popular culture or about the cyclical challenge of reforming movements to the stability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian state. From the pages of )] TJ ET BT 210.980 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 285.308 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it would be difficult to imagine that there was a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political culture at all, still less that a popular political loyalism or a popular political reformism ever existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Confessional regime of the long eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England may in theory have been a Confessional State, that is, a state with a single confession of faith, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith established by the law and to which the majority of the population was expected to conform, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not clear that the English people were docile and deferential to their clerical superiors. Few of them - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably well under 20% - attended church with any regularity, fewer still communicated and indifference, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularism and even paganism were rife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fall of Clark's )] TJ ET BT 124.160 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 192.476 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( came swiftly, between 1828 and 1832. It was not overthrown gradually by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external pressures such as demographic change, industrial revolution, urbanisation or by new social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious organisations. It came about through an act of betrayal from within. The bishops of the Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England failed to defend their church with sufficient vigour and thus enabled the Repeal of the Test and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corporation Acts in 1828 and the passage of Catholic Emancipation in 1829. Not surprisingly after this, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did little to resist the passage of the Reform Act of 1832. There was nothing new about challenges to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confessional State, whether from Civil War sectaries, Restoration Roman Catholics, post-Revolution non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jurors, American Dissenters, Irish Catholics and Painite radicals. As Clark bitterly notes: 'there was nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique about the challenges faced by the regime in the 1820s except their spectacular success' \(17\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thereafter, 'the cultural hegemony of the aristocracy and gentry disintegrated with great rapidity'\(18\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few aspects of Clark's book have encountered greater criticisms than his account of the collapse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 102.332 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Almost every singly historian who has examined the issue has highlighted the substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of continuity between the periods before and after 1828-32. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 417.932 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 486.248 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse because of an act of internal treachery. It contained the seeds of its own steady transformation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of the Hanoverian regime had rested less upon its prescriptive qualities than upon its dynamic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditional features: its ability to absorb and to respond to discussion, dissent and disagreement, its ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate new wealth and new property, its subtle and complex webs of patronage in so many areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national life, its generalised sentiments of reciprocal deference between landed superiors and the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, all underlined by a powerful and, in all probability, a growing patriotism. There was no sudden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of the regime. There was, rather, a continuous series of accommodations. It is, perhaps, inherently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that the staggering achievements of England between 1688 and 1832 could be explained simply by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that she had a monarchy, a church and an aristocracy. Important though these are, we should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forget that the regime derived great strength from its commerce and from the rapid growth of consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods, from the growth of the new bureaucratic structures of the fiscal-military state and, not least, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporation of the middling orders. As Jonathan Clark has conceded, `the residual values of an ancien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime co-exist with and subtly modify apparently quite contradictory values'\(19\). Indeed, the regime was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly successful in devising the means of its own perpetuation, especially through the harnessing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic change. This it undertook continuously both before and after 1828-32.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 108.344 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, provides an engrossing account of some of the formal and official features, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and ecclesiastical, of the Hanoverian regime and a partial explanation of its acceptance and of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longevity. If it fails to provide a global account of the regime it is because Clark has led us to expect too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much. )] TJ ET BT 66.680 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 141.008 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a work of social history, despite the somewhat misleading sub-title. It is, in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, essentially a work of polemical and historiographical innovation. As Clark admits in his Preface;)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4478 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is offered as a breach of the historiographical peace, not as an obituary of its subject: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an attempt to stimulate a new debate, not as an attempt to bring an old debate to an end by a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise and definitive statement. \(20\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No book could achieve as much. If )] TJ ET BT 204.644 717.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 278.972 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not quite convince the reader of the validity of all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its many and varled theses and arguments it nevertheless has served to reawaken interest in many neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of the )] TJ ET BT 105.656 689.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 173.972 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and thus to reposition the debate about the kind of society that England was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the long eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. J.C.D.Clark, )] TJ ET BT 139.016 610.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society 1688-1832. Ideology, Social Structure and Political Practice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(during the Ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 186.332 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(C.U.P. 1985\), p. ix)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. )] TJ ET BT 76.016 545.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 98.348 545.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. Ix-x)] TJ ET BT 64.016 495.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. J.C.D.Clark, 'On Hitting the Buffers: the Historiography of England's Ancien Regime. A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Response', )] TJ ET BT 118.172 481.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 200.168 481.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, no. 117 \(November 1987\) p. 203.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. )] TJ ET BT 76.016 431.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 150.344 431.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. 42-64.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. J.C.D.Clark, )] TJ ET BT 139.016 380.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and Rebellion: State and Society in England in the Seventeenth and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 366.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 165.680 366.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(C.U.P. 1986\), p. 7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 316.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6. )] TJ ET BT 76.016 316.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 150.344 316.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 7.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7. )] TJ ET BT 46.016 278.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 68.348 278.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( P. 6.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8. 'On Hitting the Buffers', p. 202.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9. See, for example, Roy Porter, 'English Society in the Eighteenth Century Revisited', in J. Black, \(ed.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Politics and Society from Walpole to Pitt 1742-89)] TJ ET BT 309.356 211.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\), pp. 29-52; M.J. Daunton, )] TJ ET BT 474.344 211.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Progress and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty: an Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850)] TJ ET BT 341.660 197.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(O.U.P. 1995\); J. Rule, )] TJ ET BT 458.324 197.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albion's People: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society, 1714-1815)] TJ ET BT 166.340 182.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10. 'Buffers', p. 203.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 130.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society )] TJ ET BT 129.344 130.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp.1, 5-6, 8- 14.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12. As is the case with Porter, )] TJ ET BT 180.332 104.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(supra)] TJ ET BT 207.668 104.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( n. 9.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 77.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 126.344 77.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 118.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14. See, for example, P. Langford, )] TJ ET BT 202.316 51.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Life and the Propertied Englishman, 1689-1798)] TJ ET BT 467.312 51.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Clarendon Press, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1765 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 1991\), especially chapters 3 to 6.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 126.344 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 7.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 74.348 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 4.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 717.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 74.348 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. 409, 374-424.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 691.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 74.348 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 411.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 665.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 665.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and Rebellion)] TJ ET BT 174.008 665.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 168-89.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 638.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20. )] TJ ET BT 52.016 638.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society)] TJ ET BT 126.344 638.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. x.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 593.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 575.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 575.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41b)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 574.521 m 322.316 574.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 549.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4405)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 574.8355 322.3157 586.7155 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/41b) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000000707 00000 n 0000004632 00000 n 0000004741 00000 n 0000004851 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000008521 00000 n 0000008649 00000 n 0000008733 00000 n 0000008798 00000 n 0000014955 00000 n 0000015020 00000 n 0000022773 00000 n 0000022838 00000 n 0000030859 00000 n 0000030924 00000 n 0000038443 00000 n 0000038508 00000 n 0000043039 00000 n 0000043123 00000 n 0000044941 00000 n 0000045069 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45164 %%EOF