%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021101029+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021101029+01'00') /Title (Questioning Slavery) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4315 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Questioning Slavery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Walvin needs no introduction to students of slavery since, over the last thirty years, he has been one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most prolific writers on the history of American slavery among the academic fraternity on both sides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Atlantic. The great majority of Walvin's writings on slavery have focussed on the institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures of slave societies in English-speaking America. His latest book is no exception to this pattern. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also fair to say that, since he co-authored with Michael Craton in the late 1960s a study of Jamaica's Worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Park plantation, Walvin's writings have tended to take a more panoramic view as he has surveyed the growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and evolution of slave systems. Seeking to 'to pick a path through the scholarly thickets' \(p.vii\), his current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book again tends to follow the more recent pattern of his writings. Walvin makes no pretense to quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills. Indeed, at times, he is positively suspicious of quantification since he believes that in some cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates over data can lead historian to become detached from the 'social realities' of the historical events or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations that they are seeking to analyse. Thus in one of his more openly critical passages in )] TJ ET BT 485.960 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Questioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery)] TJ ET BT 70.004 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he reflects on the way that historians have discussed the fertility rate of enslaved women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that is so often historical debate has taken the form of a discussion about data, which is utterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote from the women concerned' and then goes on to remind us that 'a new generation of \(mainly\) female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians' is now seeking 'to redirect our attention back to the slaves' \(p.103\). The lives of the slaves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Walvin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415153560)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Questioning-Slavery-isbn9780415153560)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Richardson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7883 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially their resilience in the face of a brutal institution, and the depths to which white owners and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseers could on occasion sink in their treatment of them, have been and remain consistent themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin's work. As such, his writings on slavery offer an important counterweight to those, myself included, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have tended to invoke economic theory and to marshall large amounts of quantitative evidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing the study of the 'peculiar institution' and the traffic in Africans that sustained it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As co-editor for over a decade of the journal )] TJ ET BT 250.280 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery and Abolition)] TJ ET BT 354.944 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Walvin has witnessed at close quarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the recent research on slavery in the Americas. One of his skills lies in revealing to a non-specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience the directions of current trends in research in the field of slavery. With the modern emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed research monographs and articles in academic journals, works of synthesis have tended to enjoy a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower status within academia. They do, however, provide a very valuable service in introducing students, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate or graduate, to what may be major areas of historical research. )] TJ ET BT 407.900 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Questioning Slavery)] TJ ET BT 505.556 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended primarily as an introductory text, offering its readers not a comprehsensive history of slavery but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review of the directions in which slavery studies have been and are heading, and with the emphasis, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic Walvin fashion, on the human dimensions of the subject, especially the social costs of slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the slave traffic as well as the efforts of slaves to create their own identities. As Walvin admits, trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make sense of 'a generation's scholarship' involves selectivity and 'a degree of artificial ordering' of materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.viii\). His purpose is to confront some of the main questions or problems that have attracted the attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars and to do so in a critical fashion. Seen in these terms, the book may be judged to be a qualified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appropriately, Walvin begins )] TJ ET BT 179.996 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Questioning Slavery)] TJ ET BT 277.652 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by charting the expansion of slave-based plantation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production from the Mediterranean and Atlantic islands to, successively, Brazil, the West Indies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainland North America and by asking the basic question why slavery became so widespread in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas and so fundamental to the development of the Atlantic world between 1500 and 1850. He then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on briefly to explore the expansion of the transatlantic slave trade and its impact on Africa before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning at greater length to those aspects of slave societies in the Americas with which his own work has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become most closely identified, namely, the structure and operation of plantation regimes, the public and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private lives of the slaves, and the rise of abolitionist movements in Europe in the late eighteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth centuries. Although he looks briefly at slavery in Brazil, which had the longest exposure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imports of enslaved labour from Africa and has been the subject of some recent outstanding studies, Walvin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeps his focus firmly directed to the English-speaking islands and mainland North America. In this respect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book stands in contrast to some other, much longer, recent syntheses of the literature on transatlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery, notably that of Robin Blackburn \()] TJ ET BT 236.996 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern 1492-1800)] TJ ET BT 127.004 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Verso, 1997\) which places slavery in English-speaking America in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave systems of other European colonial powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin's answer to the basic question of why slavery migrated from the Mediterranean and the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands to the Americas leans heavily on economic forces. In particular, he emphasises high land to labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ratios in the colonies conquered by the European powers and the relative costs of coerced and free labour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are not new arguments, but it is useful to non-specialists have them presented in such an accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way as Walvin does. It is important to note, however, that, while patterns of resource endowments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour supplies may help to explain the rise of American slavery, they do not explain why those enslaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came overwhelmingly from Africa. Walvin insists that the resort to 'servile African labour' largely reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'changing costs and availability of black and white labour' \(p.16\) and he goes on to underline the point by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming that 'economic convenience, not cultural \(still less racial\) bias edged the English \(and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans\) into using Africans as slaves' \(p.24\). This argument sits uncomfortably, however, with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other other recent studies, where it is claimed that the origins of the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have had as much to do with ideological resistance to enslaving whites among European- and American-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based slave traffickers as with the relative costs of supplying African and other labour to the Americas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(David Eltis, 'Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: an Interpretation', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 170.000 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 98 \(1993\), pp.1299-1323\). If this last argument is correct, it suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European racial attitudes to labour helped to shape the patterns of transatlantic slavery rather than, as Walvin )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others before him have tended to argue, that slavery gave rise to racism, notably during the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nineteenth centuries when planters in the Americas and their allies in Europe sought to legitimise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing enslavement of Africans in the face of growing external pressure to end the institution. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between slavery and racism is likely to remain a controversial issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing the conditions experienced by Africans under slavery, Walvin is at pains to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity of plantation regimes in British America and the variations in demographic outcomes for slaves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in the Americas. In particular, he draws out the contrasts between island and mainland fertility rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves and highlights the importance of crop types and associated labour patterns in determining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproductive capacity of female slaves. He is also anxious to stress that, while they were subject to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrary rule and violence of their owners, slaves were, nevertheless, able to influence some aspects of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives, notably in their domestic quarters and through the cultivation of their garden plots and resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss of customary free time. How slaves rebuilt their lives and reconstituted their identities after the trauma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enslavement in Africa and forced passage to the Americas forms a central part of Walvin's story, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers his readers perhaps some of the most revealing insights into trends in recent research on slavery. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise question or problem that Walvin attempts to address in each of the six chapters that he devotes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave life on the plantations is not always fully articulated. But it is clear from his discussion that enslaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans themselves used every available opportunity to re-negotiate their conditions of work and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, usually quietly and stealthily but sometimes violently, the authority of their owners. In this respect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are reminded that, despite obvious contrasts, there were parallels between employer-employee relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under forced and free labour regimes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African resistance to enslavement, notably in the form of rebellions, has regularly been included among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogue of factors that historians cite to explain the ending of slavery in the nineteenth century. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to abolish the Atlantic slave trade and slavery after 1807 have, of course, been extensively discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by historians, but why the leading and most successful slave-trading nation in 1807 became 'the world's pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminent abolitionist force' during the nineteenth century remains, in Walvin's words, one of the 'more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perplexing questions in the history of slavery' \(p.158\). Walvin is rightly cautious in approaching this issue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but his interpretation of shifts in British attitudes towards the slave trade and slavery seems to owe little, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything, to economic factors. Britain's abolition of its trade in slaves in 1807 was not, he argues, 'simply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question, as many have claimed, of declining slave-based fortunes ... for it is abundantly clear that the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system continued, throughout the last years of the eighteenth century, to bring profit and material well-being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to most of those actively involved' \(p.162\). Nor, he goes on to argue, was it evident that slavery would 'die a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural death' \(p.164\) in the British Caribbean, even after the abolition of the British slave trade in 1807 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of rebelliousness among the slave populations in the British islands in 1816-31. For Walvin, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to the rise of British abolitionism lay not in the economics of slavery but in social change within Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, notably rising demands for reform in general and a growing appreciation of the brutality of a system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that incorporated increasing numbers of Christian slaves. Knowledge of the violence with which slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellions in Barbados in 1816, Demerara in 1823, and Jamaica in 1831 were suppressed was, in Walvin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, 'grist to the abolitionist mill' \(p.165\), but it was the reform of Parliament in 1832 that was, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, the decisive event in ending slavery in the British West Indies after 1833.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin's interpretation to British abolitionism may be the area of )] TJ ET BT 349.484 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Questioning Slavery)] TJ ET BT 447.140 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that evokes the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heated reaction. It will certainly be questioned by those who, like the late Eric Williams, tend to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts in the fortunes of slave-based West Indian economies after the American Revolution in seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain British moves against the slave trade and slavery. As with other issues relating to transatlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery after 1500, debate over the relative importance of economic and non-economic factors in ending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery in British America will continue. But for all students of slavery, the strength of Walvin's approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionism lies in the fact that it places the issue of the enslavement of Africans at the heart of ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates over property rights, labour, and political representation in Britain during the initial stages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation. Slavery was not only central to the development of Britain's first colonial empire, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but concern about enslaved Africans also helped to shape the direction of political and social change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain after 1783. In this respect, Walvin's claim that slavery has moved from 'the margins of scholarly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest' to the centre of 'modern historical scholarship' \(p.vii\) is well merited and should offer some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfaction to those who might wish to emphasise more than Walvin does the closeness of ties between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics of slavery, abolition, and social change in Britain during the early stages of industrialisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/42)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 316.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/329)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 316.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/42) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000522 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000004971 00000 n 0000005080 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000005299 00000 n 0000008860 00000 n 0000008988 00000 n 0000009072 00000 n 0000009137 00000 n 0000017073 00000 n 0000017138 00000 n 0000024891 00000 n 0000024975 00000 n 0000026194 00000 n 0000026322 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26416 %%EOF