%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722113518+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722113518+01'00') /Title (The Birth of the Modern World 1780?1914. Global Connections and Comparisons) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4022 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World 1780?1914. Global Connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Comparisons)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cover of C. A. Bayly's new book is stunning. A handsome black man stands poised, next to the bust of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European philosopher. Blazoned across the corner of the cover is 'A Masterpiece', the judgement of Niall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson, current favourite historian of the US media, on Bayly's book. The reproduction is of part of Anne-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis \(not Louise as is stated on the back cover; the artist was a man\) Girodet's painting of Citoyen Belley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibited in Paris in 1798. In Bayly's brief note on it, the painting is described as the most splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visualisation of the 'universalising intention of the revolution' \(p. 375\). But how universalising was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean Baptiste Belley was one of the three representatives of the French colonies elected in San Domingue in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1793. Taken from his native Senegalese island to the Caribbean and enslaved, he had fought with Toussaint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L'Ouverture and then joined the French revolutionary army. He spoke in the debate in the Convention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1794, when a unanimous decision was taken to abolish slavery, and returned to San Domingue after losing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his seat in 1797. He is lost from the historical records in the subsequent struggles of Haitians against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleonic army, which was attempting to reinstate slavery. Girodet represented Belley at a critical moment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the revolutionary debates over race and citizenship. Who should represent the French colonies? Could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans be citizens? Were they equal to white men? The emancipated slave is constructed as a powerful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Bayly)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(631236163X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(568pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8169 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking figure. He is elegantly dressed, wearing the tricouleurs of the Revolution in his silk cummerbund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the decoration of his hat, his tight breeches showing off his masculinity, the whiteness of his eyes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising the blackness of his skin. He is leaning against the marble plinth of the bust of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedist Abb Raynal, who had died in 1796, perhaps the most radical metropolitan French critic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery and of colonial policy of the )] TJ ET BT 210.320 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 278.636 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Here, argues Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff in an essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Girodet, the artist has 'united two very different citizens of the French nation in a Janus-faced double )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 74.504 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 74.504 709.539 m 88.496 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.496 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet, as she goes on to analyse, there is no equality between these two figures, though, I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest, much ambivalence. Girodet was a strong supporter of emancipation and distanced himself from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalism of many abolitionist representations of black men and women with their kneeling supplicants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking help from their white mothers and fathers. Belley is granted a full-body portrait. Yet what is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking about the image is the corporeality of his black body, his sensual energy, the exhibition of his virility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his fingers pointing to his bulging phallus, the idealisation of sexualised black masculinity and its link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the idea of the 'noble savage'. Raynal, in contrast, is the philosophical head, the triumph of reason and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit over matter. Belley may be an emancipated man in European dress, yet his ineradicable vitality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimates the European rule of reason. But what is mind and reason without body, sexuality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotionality? This double portrait, one might suggest, tells us much about modernity, a modernity structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through particular images of masculinity and racial difference. But is it the modernity that figures in Bayly's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 183.680 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a wonderfully ambitious book that effectively demonstrates the global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the modern world and the need to decentre national histories and think big. It is a 'thematic history' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating how 'historical trends and sequences of events, which have been treated separately in regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or national histories, can be brought together' \(p. 1\). Bayly's emphasis is on the interdependencies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnectedness of political and social changes across the world in a period well before contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation. It is in part a culmination of his own work over a long period ? using his rich and detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of Indian and South Asian history as he did previously in )] TJ ET BT 366.656 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Meridian)] TJ ET BT 455.648 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as a basis from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to reflect on national, imperial and global concerns. It is an intervention in the current debates over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation, for he shares the insistence of A. G. Hopkins and others that the contemporary version of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not the first; theorists must be more careful to specify the particularities of phases of globalisation given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its long history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.028 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.028 383.907 m 123.020 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.020 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also an attempt to put a particular reading of connection and interdependence at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the making of the modern world, thereby unseating E. J. Hobsbawm's magisterial four volumes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 170.996 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Revolution)] TJ ET BT 277.988 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 283.988 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industry and Empire)] TJ ET BT 383.312 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 389.312 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Capital)] TJ ET BT 480.320 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 503.648 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 69.344 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with its drama of the unfolding logic of capitalism and exploitation, and providing a new account for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these post-Marxist times. In the process it cocks many a snook at post-colonial theorists with their 'polemic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their 'jargon' and the particular sets of antagonisms and dynamics that they stress ? racialised difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?and is proud of its sceptical stance towards theory, keen to avoid 'pretentious words'. This is a book that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the words of the series editor, R. I. Moore, describes the birth of the modern world:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([n]ot as something which some people or some regions did to others less favored or deserving, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but as a series of transformations in which most of the people of the world participated, and to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which most of them contributed, not simply as the objects or victims of the successes of others, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but actively, independently and creatively \(p. xxi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis here is not on the antagonistic binaries of classes or of empires, but on processes of interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and connection. Marxist historians and post-colonial critics, in Bayly's re-telling, have got it wrong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly starts from the position that all local, regional and national histories are also global histories. He sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernand Braudel as having pioneered global history in the 1950s and 1960s. \(This was Marx's model long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, however, and, as Bayly himself notes, Marx posited a connection between inside and outside Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as early as the 1850s. 'The next uprising of the people of Europe', he wrote in an article on China and Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1853, 'and their next movement for republican freedom and economy of government, may depend more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably on what is now passing in the Celestial Empire ? the very opposite of Europe ? than on any other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 74.5037 709.8535 88.4957 721.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.0277 384.2215 123.0197 396.1015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political cause that now exists'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.164 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.164 795.075 m 197.156 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.156 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Arjun Appadurai's reflections on the paradoxical relation between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and the global, feeding off and cannibalising each other, provide one of Bayly's starting points. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, he argues, saw the rise of global uniformities in the state, religion, political ideologies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the forms of economic life, visible not only in great institutions but in bodily practices, such as dress or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consumption of food. His focus is on decreasing the distance between 'the West' and 'the rest', insisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that industrialisation, urbanisation, nationalism and the development of the state all took place across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globe, albeit with local specificities. But similarities and connections could also heighten a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference and antagonism, and it is holding on to both uniformities and specificities that he sees as crucial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His narrative is that the multi-centred world of 1780 gradually became a world dominated by the West. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914, however, that dominance was beginning to be challenged by the rise of Japan and the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra-European nationalisms. His history aims to show the contradictory tendencies at work,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to chart the interdependence of world events, while allowing for the brute fact of Western )] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination. At the same time it has to show how, over large parts of the world, this European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination was only partial and temporary \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly refuses both Marxist theories of causation and the impact of the cultural turn with its evacuation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grand narratives and its turn to micro-histories. His book does not address what he calls 'deep causation', but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues for a complex understanding of the interactions between political organisation and ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activities. Historical development was determined by a variety of forces and he puts particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the role of the state and the significance of warfare. Modernity was a process, Bayly argues, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a period that began at the end of the eighteenth century and has continued up to the present day. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of what constitutes ?the modern? focuses on the rise of a nation state that demands a centralisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power and loyalty to ethnic solidarity, alongside a massive expansion of global commercial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual links, industrialisation and urbanisation. He also claims that 'an essential part of being modern is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking you are modern. Modernity is an aspiration to be "up with the times"' \(p.10\), but he pays little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the extensive literature of the last decade that focuses on questions of identity and subjectivity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how were \(and are\) modern people made?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is hugely ambitious and difficult \(indeed impossible\) to reduce to a brief account. Here I can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify some key themes and raise some questions. It is structured in four parts. Part 1, 'The end of the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regime', focuses on the worldwide shift to political and cultural uniformity and the emergence of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic patterns. It sees the rise of European dominance as having its origins both inside and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside Europe. The 'archaic globalisation' of the eighteenth century ? the networks created by geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion \(not just European\) ? opened the way for new patterns. A long-term shift, 'the great domestication' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a move from nomadism to intensive agrarian exploitation ? took place alongside a number of 'industrious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions' \(in the terminology of Jan de Vries\), some industrial, others not, all associated with consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand. The economic and social context of the changes in north-western Europe, from its hinterland of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources to its colonial expansion to its use of enslaved labour, however, gave Europeans a dynamic edge. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed the subjugation of other people?s industrious revolutions and the development of European nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states with effective war machines, fierce rivalries and active public spheres ? European exceptionalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly's picture of piecemeal and contradictory development, he insists, diminishes the distance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the rest of the world. 'World history becomes more comprehensible', he rightly argues, 'when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandon the picture of China and its satellites as being caught in intellectual stasis' and recognise the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done by scholars to demonstrate eighteenth-century Japan's adaptability \(p. 79\). But that adaptability, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might add, is to a modernity defined by nation states, urbanisation and industrialisation. It is the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Chinese, alongside Europeans and North Americans, who become the key historical actors in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2, 'The modern world in genesis', sees the period between 1815?1865 as one of flux and hiatus. The new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of state, economy and ideology were not yet consolidated and the mid century saw a crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy. Rebellions in China, South Asia, Europe and North America were all global in their origins and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.1637 795.3895 197.1557 807.2695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences, and must be understood as interconnected. One key common feature was rural protest, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly argues that recent historiography has displaced traditional Marxist accounts of the growth of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness with a focus on rural discontents. Rebellion in one arena drew on thinking from other parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world and, in turn, sent ripples across the globe. Nana Sahib, responsible for the 'Cawnpore Massacre' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1857, the iconic act of treachery for the British in the 'Indian Mutiny', was taught to read English and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his British tutors and fondly hoped that the US or France would intervene in support of him. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans who fought in India in 1857?8 were active in the suppression of 'natives' in New Zealand and South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa. Meanwhile, Bayly argues, industrialisation was a slower and more patchy process than used to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, and manifested itself in different but related ways, rural and urban, across the globe. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalisms of different kinds emerged in Asia, Africa and the Americas as well as Europe, drawing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous legends, histories and sensibilities, 'rather than being a malign imposition of the West' \(p. 199\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Racial theory, the intensification of which was closely connected to the resolution of the mid-century crises, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also a global phenomenon, again with its national variants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part 3, 'State and society in the age of imperialism', Bayly traces the development of a more cohesive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, a process most marked between 1850 and 1870. Nation states began to aim to make exclusive claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on their subjects' loyalties, their new powers rooted in rapid economic development, new armaments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national rivalries. Yet this power must not be exaggerated, Bayly warns. James Scott and those influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Foucault's theories of governmentality are taken to task, along with Bernard Cohn and 'new imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians', for giving too much credence to the authority of the state and placing too much reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official records. The power of the state has assumed mythic proportions, argues Bayly, just as the myth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class consciousness did in the 1960s. While recognising that states were more powerful in 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in 1870, and that the nation state was assumed to be the key actor on the world stage, he highlights their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hybrid forms across the world and the limitations on the exercise of their authority. Meanwhile key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies, such as liberalism, socialism, and indeed science, when examined in a global context, can be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be empowered by 'ideas derived from indigenous rationalistic and ethical traditions' \(p. 285\). Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas were re-worked rather than simply adopted as, for example, nationalist and anti-colonial leaders mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements from western radicalism with a defence of their ancient communities and forms of honour. Perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly's most innovative argument in this section is that the nineteenth century saw religious revivals on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global scale. These 'empires of religion', he maintains, whether Islamic, Christian, Hindu or Buddhist, can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with nation states in their attention to centralised authority, expansion of bureaucracies, harnessing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of print media and scale of building. The modern world he is describing was certainly not secular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book, 'Change, decay and crisis' looks briefly at the reconstitution of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies during the long nineteenth century ? the reconfiguring of women's subordination, of forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfree labour, of elite, landholding and monarchical power and privilege. Alongside this went the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of native peoples and the ecological depredations that marked the expansion of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialisms and forms of government. In the conclusion he returns to the ?big themes' of the book ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the multi-centric nature of change in world history, the rise of western domination and challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to that domination. By the )] TJ ET BT 162.692 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fin de sicle)] TJ ET BT 220.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he notes with a bow to Lenin, there was indeed a great economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial acceleration, rooted in the uneven nature of capitalist development. 1890?1914 was indeed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucible of modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to learn from this book and much to admire. Bayly's knowledge of global history is enviable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His wide range of reading, his grasp of Chinese, Japanese, Iranian and Ottoman histories, alongside the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely known histories of Europe and North America, is impressive. His insistence that 'all historians are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world historians now', whether they know it or not \(and, one might add, whether they practice it or not!\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we do not need to reinvent world history, but, instead, to decentre it, is most welcome \(p. 469\). Also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome is his commitment to an understanding of the syncretic and hybrid forms produced by the constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traffic of peoples and things. But given this interest in cross-currents and hybridity, why is Bayly so anxious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to separate himself from, and polemicise against, the body of work discussing these issues that has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced by scholars influenced by postcolonial theory in the last decades? What might be described as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial turn?, the recognition of the centrality of colonialism, empires and racial difference to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 5129 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of ?the West? as well as ?the rest?, has been enormously influential across disciplines in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities and the social sciences in the last decades. Perhaps we should struggle to put global history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial history in the same frame. Bayly scorns the literature on the nature of subaltern speech. But is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that speech so straightforward? Postcolonial scholars have taught us how to read and listen differently, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hear voices that once were not heard. In his conclusion Bayly suggests that the discovery of history as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential mode of explanation for all phenomena, natural and human, was the most revolutionary change of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth century \(p. 294\). He has a point ? but then might it not be appropriate to inquire into those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of history and critically evaluate those categories? And this is some of the work that postcolonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics and historians have opened up ? from Michel-Rolphe Trouillot on Haiti and the 'unthinkable' nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolution of the enslaved to Dipesh Chakrabarty's attempts to provincialise Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.788 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.788 666.771 m 470.780 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff, 'Male Alterity in the French Revolution - Two Paintings by Anne-Louis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girodet at the Salon of 1798', in eds. Ida Blom, Karen Hagemann and Catherine Hall, )] TJ ET BT 477.776 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gendered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nations. Nationalisms and Gender Order in the Long Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 417.356 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2000\), p. 91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.004 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.004 572.739 m 553.664 572.739 l S BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 90.344 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See particularly )] TJ ET BT 142.664 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Globalization in World History)] TJ ET BT 293.012 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. G. Hopkins \(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.660 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.660 544.227 m 521.648 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx, 'Revolution in China and in Europe' in K. Marx and F. Engels, )] TJ ET BT 422.972 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 499.316 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 515.715 m 149.000 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel-Rolph Trouillot, )] TJ ET BT 183.020 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silencing the Past. Power and the Production of History)] TJ ET BT 454.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dipesh Chakrabarty, )] TJ ET BT 166.328 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provincializing Europe. Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.004 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.004 472.947 m 204.992 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cercles)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cercles.com/review/r30/baylyl.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 418.179 m 262.328 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.328 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 414.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 397.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 397.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/420)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 395.673 m 322.316 395.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 370.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2083)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.cercles.com/review/r30/baylyl.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.7877 667.0855 470.7797 678.9655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.0037 573.0535 553.6637 584.9335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 558.7975 90.3437 570.6775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6597 544.5415 521.6477 556.4215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 516.0295 148.9997 527.9095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.0037 473.2615 204.9917 485.1415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 418.4935 262.3277 430.3735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cercles.com/review/r30/baylyl.html) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 395.9875 322.3157 407.8675 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/420) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000004741 00000 n 0000004850 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005069 00000 n 0000008630 00000 n 0000008758 00000 n 0000008842 00000 n 0000008933 00000 n 0000017155 00000 n 0000017185 00000 n 0000017311 00000 n 0000017347 00000 n 0000017377 00000 n 0000017505 00000 n 0000017541 00000 n 0000017625 00000 n 0000024993 00000 n 0000025023 00000 n 0000025151 00000 n 0000025187 00000 n 0000025252 00000 n 0000032908 00000 n 0000033041 00000 n 0000038223 00000 n 0000038253 00000 n 0000038381 00000 n 0000038417 00000 n 0000038545 00000 n 0000038600 00000 n 0000038726 00000 n 0000038781 00000 n 0000038909 00000 n 0000038964 00000 n 0000039091 00000 n 0000039146 00000 n 0000039274 00000 n 0000039329 00000 n 0000039456 00000 n 0000039553 00000 n 0000039681 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39776 %%EOF