%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818151522+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818151522+01'00') /Title (Naval Power and British Culture, 1760?1850: Public Trust and Government Ideology) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4234 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Naval Power and British Culture, 1760?1850: Public Trust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Government Ideology)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one of his most irritated moods, Samuel Pepys, sometime naval administrator, recorded in his diary that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he and his office had just had the experience of being judged by investigators who were entirely unaware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of the business of running a department of the navy. Pepys?s experience is rather common. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Distinguished administrators quite used to running their own establishments with avuncular control, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even benign detachment, often find that politics have intervened ? and, before long, their line of office is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminated, or they resign rather than face the new regime and its foreign demands. But one scheme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration gives way to another ? and perhaps another still ? and one wonders if progress is ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced or achieved. The more things change the more they seem the same, and the cult of progress is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often self-serving and hardly liable to do things better with less. I had some experience of this myself, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once in charge of an advisory commission on academic restructuring at a distinguished university; though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the measures proposed as reforms were only advisory, half the faculty or more, who feared most for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctity of their bailiwicks, thought I had become either a grand invigilator or perhaps even a czar. The point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that change agents such as hitherto little known Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham, the writer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on jurisprudence and founder of Benthamism, a new mode of political economy, made a great number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people nervous. The essential political culture of naval administration and practice was changed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of Samuel Bentham?s concepts and strictures, and it is hard to gauge whether these were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(421)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Morriss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(754630315X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Gough)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effected on the grounds of the undeniable wisdom of the reforms that he imagined and proposed, or were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought into existence by the general antique way of doing business under the old system of fees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is Lecturer in the Department of History at the University of Exeter, and a member of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished school of maritime and naval history that is having global reach and influence. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Honourable Editor of the Navy Records Society, he is author of numerous articles in )] TJ ET BT 442.952 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mariner?s Mirror)] TJ ET BT 550.952 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His book )] TJ ET BT 80.684 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Dockyards during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars)] TJ ET BT 415.988 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leicester, 1983\) marks him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out as an historian of great competence. A student of Professor Ian Christie of University College London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is well versed in the politics and nuances of administrative and political history, with an emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The naval administration of these pre-reform days was run on contracts, nepotism and fees. Because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy and the industrial infrastructure that made it prominent both in home waters and distant seas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted the largest segment of the British industry of the times, the naval administration that held it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together was huge ? and the biggest branch of government service. Every aspect of wielding the trident of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neptune had to be accomplished by bureaucrats or those in the private sector who did their bidding. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, too, was wide open to theft and fraud. ?Thefts, perquisites and inaccessible accounts were a potent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture. What else was being lost?? asks Dr Morriss \(p. 105\). A good question. Pierre Trudeau, Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prime minister, when once asked about government corruption, gave the throw-away line that if it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than ten percent then something would have to be done about it. What Samuel Bentham wanted was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism of control, and he wanted to reassert or establish trust in the public sector. An end would have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to lining pockets and to sending contracts to friends. How could a person benefiting from these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nefarious arrangements take notice of any wrongdoing or be conscious of past events? The system in place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked for the moment no matter how inefficiently; Samuel Bentham wanted something for the present and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future. He wanted accountability and thus durability. Undoubtedly, these were noble concepts. And at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time that civil service examinations were about to make their appearance, favouritism and nepotism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(real or imagined\) were to be corrected, even abolished, under new, more transparent means.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bureaucrats benefited from the fee system \(and it is estimated here that about sixty percent of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business was done by bureaucrats on a fee system\). Nowadays such a scheme would seem to be fraudulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and certainly open to bribes. In those days it was the way of the world, and who is to say that it would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more efficient? The public morality however, would not stand it, and Samuel Bentham, who, like his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother, was bound by strong conservative principles, favoured a scheme of individual responsibility, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was meant that every officer of prominence, and all underlings besides, had responsibility for his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desk, his own remit, so to speak. Sir James Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty, in 1832 \(and later\) penned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a memorandum on his 1832 reforms in which he explained that the whole new administration, his pride and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joy, was based on the new principle of individual responsibility. Reading key Admiralty papers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative decisions after the year 1832, we can see how this was effected: officers took responsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their decisions within their own discrete areas of concern. They managed their own desks. Bribes or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incentives ? fees, generically ? were set aside in favour of the dignity and power of the office. In short, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers were being elevated above the monetary inducements that office afforded. This, truly, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable shift in the public culture of the United Kingdom, and the Royal Navy in particular. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the purchase of commissions still existed in the Army, the Navy operated more strictly on patronage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit of personal connection. Merit, more so than money \(or purchase\), was always the basic denominator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in finding a place in the Navy and having further advancement beyond being a Volunteer First Class \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destined for the quarterdeck\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7068 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new ideology of Bentham and its introduction were revolutionary to many, and Dr Morriss classifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as revolutionary even if he does not use the word. He shows the changes implemented and he shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how some of them were checked. That Samuel Bentham?s ideas swept like wildfire through naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration is a telling comment on the political support for change in the years before, during and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waterloo, and we are left wondering if indeed all the credence that had been given to the Melvilles and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middletons of earlier years ? that change is directed from the top where it can be most effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implemented ? is true after all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many who read this will have spent hours reading, say, War Office or Admiralty or Foreign Office files in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The National Archives, and will know that the administrators of the day kept long hours. Like their cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiors, to whom they were answerable, they put in double days, almost, in order to keep ahead of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paperwork. Many found it preferable to do the work themselves, even if the hours seemed interminable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhausting. But they were taking care of their duties, and doing it more responsibly than farming it out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlings. If that system could be made to trickle down, a greater efficiency could be made on a vertical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even lateral, basis. But what Samuel Bentham also proposed was internal audit, or external audit, and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this regard \(he had been named Inspector General\), the investigatory powers of the office brought a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of culture to bureaucracy. Harry Truman, later President of the United States, learned all about US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army contracts when he headed a congressional office examining army contracts. When you think about it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who can know more about a system than an auditor, especially one with a forensic streak? The irony is that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite auditor generals in, say, Canada, or congressional committee heads such as Truman, or inspectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general such as Bentham, new abuses are likely to take hold. Deviance knows no bounds within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. But Dr Morriss is abundantly correct in this well researched book that public trust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ideology shifted dramatically in the time under consideration. So much has been made of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of the English state during the Tudors, and it safe to say that that more accountable measures that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were brought in during the near century commencing in 1750 transformed naval administration and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public administration in a larger sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the hard-to-shake burdens of British naval history, and historiography, has been the perceived \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not wholly correct\) division of naval history from national \(or for that matter imperial\) history. Until Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marder?s )] TJ ET BT 82.328 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow)] TJ ET BT 265.988 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(5 vols., 1961?1971\), naval history tended to be a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branch of history, divorced from the larger currents of history. Some would say that this was because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service?s unique tasks. Other would say that it relates to the essential conservatism of marine cultures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Navy?s officer class in particular. Still others would claim that because the Royal Navy was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant of the state, a branch of government, it ought to be treated as an arm rather than a body proper. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others would say that, before Marder, most naval history was written by persons attached to the Senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service. But what Dr Morris has done is to bring the naval story back into the centre, and to see the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of the times as acted out through naval administration as part of the seismic shift of the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civil administration into the modern world. In all this is a gifted thesis, nicely argued and thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched. The work is based on a full and recent appreciation of the abundant secondary literature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past two decades. It also reflects considerable research in public and private collections. British culture saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shifts in administrative practices that were introduced in consequence of Samuel Bentham?s guiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles. The increased efficiencies of the dockyards and contracts systems had relevance to society more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally. He, like his brother Jeremy, was a futurist. Samuel Bentham produced a scheme that had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unifying influence in naval departments. ?It was a scheme that had the merit of contributing directly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government thinking, engendering greater trust and control both within Britain and its empire? \(p. 265\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 116.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 98.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 98.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/421)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 97.305 m 322.316 97.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 72.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2086)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 97.6195 322.3157 109.4995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/421) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004951 00000 n 0000005060 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000005279 00000 n 0000008840 00000 n 0000008968 00000 n 0000009052 00000 n 0000009117 00000 n 0000015683 00000 n 0000015767 00000 n 0000022888 00000 n 0000023015 00000 n 0000023110 00000 n 0000023175 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23370 %%EOF